IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 55,  Number 9, Sept 2008           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page

                 Special Section Papers

55.9.1    "Table of Contents," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. C1-3177, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

55.9.2    "IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. C2-C2, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

55.9.3    J. J. Rodrguez-Andina, J. Y. Hung, "Guest Editorial," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3178-3179, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

55.9.4    F. J. Diaz, F. J. Azcondo, R. Casanueva, C. Branas, R. Zane, "Digital Control of a Low-Frequency Square-Wave Electronic Ballast With Resonant Ignition," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3180-3191, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a two-stage low-frequency square-wave (LFSW) electronic ballast with digital control. The first stage of the ballast is a power factor correction (PFC) stage, and the second is a full-bridge (FB) converter used for both lamp ignition and LFSW drive. As a novelty for LFSW ballasts, ignition is achieved without an additional igniter circuit by operating the FB during start-up as a high-frequency resonant inverter. After ignition, the converter operates as an LFSW inverter to avoid exciting acoustic resonances by controlling the FB as a buck converter and regulating alternately positive or negative current to the lamp. Lamp power is regulated by adjusting the average current supplied by the PFC stage. Another contribution of this paper is to utilize digital control as a simple solution to achieve multimode control, including resonant lamp ignition, LFSW transitions, and lamp current and power regulation.

55.9.5    A. V. Fernandes, V. F. Cardoso, J. G. Rocha, J. Cabral, G. Minas, "Smart-Optical Detector CMOS Array for Biochemical Parameters Analysis in Physiological Fluids," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3192-3200, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the implementation of a smart-optical detector array for detection and concentration measurement of biochemical parameters in physiological fluids. Its application is in the low-cost microchip size analytical laboratories that use colorimetric detection, by optical absorption, as the analytical technique. The microlaboratory structure is composed of a microplate cuvette array containing the physiological fluids into analysis and an optical detector array underneath, which quantifies the light absorbed by those fluids. The detectors, together with their analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion, are designed and fabricated using a standard CMOS process. The on-chip A/D conversion is performed, simultaneously, using a 1-b first-order sigma–delta converter for each optical detector. The output signal of the device is a bit stream containing information about the absorbed light, which allows simple microcontroller interfacing. The proposed architecture has the main advantage of performing the simultaneous measurement of the light absorbed by the fluids, which avoids the errors that can be introduced due to light fluctuations in uncontrolled environments. In addition, the architecture allows on-chip calibration during each measurement. This means that the device can be reliably used in environments with noncalibrated light sources, e.g., in a doctor's office. The A/D conversion design described here represents significant improvements when compared with the existing designs. Moreover, the microlaboratory application holds great promise, by both improving benefits (quality of health services provided) and reducing costs (of physiological fluid analysis services).

55.9.6    M. S. Perdigao, J. M. Alonso, M. A. Dalla Costa, E. S. Saraiva, "Comparative Analysis and Experiments of Resonant Tanks for Magnetically Controlled Electronic Ballasts," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3201-3211, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a comparative analysis and experiments of resonant tanks for magnetically controlled electronic ballasts, focusing on their behavior and performance when driving hot cathode fluorescent lamps. Four different resonant tanks are analyzed: LC, LCC, capacitive impedance inverter, and CLL. The analysis is performed using a 36-W fluorescent lamp, which has been previously tested and modeled experimentally. The lamp model is used to derive the dimming characteristics of the different resonant tanks when using the resonant inductance as a control parameter. Analysis and experiments showed that instabilities appear when the lamp power is decreased below a minimum value, which effectively limits the dimming range of the ballast. Nevertheless, the proposed control method can be used to control lamp power in an adequate range provided that the resonant tank should be selected and designed properly.

55.9.7    F. Defay, A.-M. Llor, M. Fadel, "A Predictive Control With Flying Capacitor Balancing of a Multicell Active Power Filter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3212-3220, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Unlike traditional inverters, multicell inverters have the following advantages: lower switching frequency, high number of output levels, and less voltage constraints on the insulated-gate bipolar transistors. Significant performances are provided with this structure which is constituted with flying capacitors. This paper deals with a predictive and direct control applied to the multicell inverter for an original application of this converter: a three-phase active filter. To take advantage of the capabilities of the multicell converter in terms of redundant control states, a voltage control method of flying capacitor is added, based on the use of a switching table. Flying capacitor voltages are kept on a fixed interval, and precise voltage sensors are not necessary. The association of predictive control and voltage balancing increases considerably the bandwidth of the active filter.

55.9.8    A. Simon-Muela, S. Petibon, C. Alonso, J.-L. Chaptal, "Practical Implementation of a High-Frequency Current-Sense Technique for VRM," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3221-3230, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To track the inductor current in high-frequency dc/dc converters is not effortless, particularly when high output currents and low output voltages are demanded by the load. This paper proposes a simple technique to obtain a good accuracy in the inductor current measurement in voltage regulator module (VRM) applications. The main idea is to obtain an equivalent voltage image which can be used for the high-frequency pulsewidth modulation controller to generate the converter control law. This strategy of measurement is generic, and it has been previously validated by simulations. Afterward, some experimental results are obtained by using several prototypes of dc/dc converters delivering a very low output voltage and owning several loads from 10-mA to 100-A currents. This wide range covers the power requirements of portable and embedded VRM applications. Moreover, this sense technique has also been validated in a digital high-frequency current-mode-controlled dc/dc converter.

55.9.9    E. de Jodar, J. A. Villarejo, F. Soto, J. S. Muro, "Effect of the Output Impedance in Multiphase Active Clamp Buck Converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3231-3238, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Passive current sharing in multiphase converters, where resistive losses are not dominant, is a quite complex goal. In this paper, an averaged model of an active clamp buck converter was obtained. It has been checked that this topology presents high output impedance. This property is used like a lossless passive equalization. The principle of operation, theoretical analysis, simulation, and experimental results are presented, taken from a three-stage laboratory prototype.

55.9.10    J. I. Leon, R. Portillo, S. Vazquez, J. J. Padilla, L. G. Franquelo, J. M. Carrasco, "Simple Unified Approach to Develop a Time-Domain Modulation Strategy for Single-Phase Multilevel Converters," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3239-3248, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Single-phase power converters are widely used in power applications as photovoltaics and fuel-cell power conditioners. In addition, multilevel converters are a well-known solution in order to achieve high-quality output waveforms in power systems. In this paper, a time-domain duty-cycle computation technique for single-phase multilevel converters named 1DM is presented. The proposed technique is based on geometrical calculations with outstanding simplicity and generality. The proposed modulation technique can be easily applied to any multilevel converter topology carrying out the necessary calculations. The most common multilevel converter topologies have been studied in this paper as examples to introduce the proposed modulation strategy. Any other multilevel converter topology could be studied, and the corresponding 1DM could be easily developed. In addition, the well-known optimized voltage balance strategy for voltage capacitor control using the redundant switching states of the system is applied working with the proposed 1DM method, showing that both techniques are compatible. Experimental and simulation results for several single-phase multilevel converters are shown to validate the proposed modulation technique.

55.9.11    J. Colomer-Farrarons, P. Miribel-Catala, A. Saiz-Vela, M. Puig-Vidal, J. Samitier, "Power-Conditioning Circuitry for a Self-Powered System Based on Micro PZT Generators in a 0.13-$muhbox{m}$ Low-Voltage Low-Power Technology," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3249-3257, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The concept and design of a power-conditioning circuit for an autonomous low-power System-in-Package (SiP) is presented in this paper. The SiP's main power source is based on the use of micropiezoelectric generators. The electrical model of the power source, which has been obtained based on experimental measurements and implemented on Cadence Analog Artist's Spectre simulation environment, is explained. The model has been used to simulate the power source with the power-conditioning electronics over the entire design process. Finally, the simulated and experimental results of the developed integrated power circuits, which are formed by a rectifier and a low-power bandgap reference voltage source to define the threshold voltage for the closed-loop regulation process, are also shown. These circuits have been designed using a commercial 0.13-$muhbox{m}$ technology from ST Microelectronics through the Multi-Projects Circuits (CMP) Techniques of Informatics and Microelectronics for Integrated Systems Architecture (TIMA) service.

55.9.12    M. M. Hernando, A. Fernandez, M. Arias, M. Rodriguez, Y. Alvarez, F. Las-Heras, "EMI Radiated Noise Measurement System Using the Source Reconstruction Technique," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3258-3265, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One of the requirements that electronics circuits must satisfy comprises conducted and irradiated noise specifications. Whereas conducted noise is well covered in the literature, radiated noise is not. Radiated noise regulations impose limits on the noise measured 3 or 10 m away from electronic equipment. These measurements are usually made in anechoic rooms, which are very expensive. Moreover, the measurement procedure is not a “plug-and-play” feature, but requires a strict measuring protocol. Once the electronic circuit has been tested, the designer remains ignorant of the source of the problem should the regulation not be met. Hence, the procedure to make an electronic circuit comply with regulations is usually one of trial-and-error, in which the experience of the designer is essential. A new radiated noise measurement technique is proposed in this paper with a twofold objective: to simplify the measurement procedure and to obtain more information about noise sources. The main idea is to scan the electric/magnetic field at two arbitrary although known distances. From these measurements, the source reconstruction technique enables the identification of the noise sources in the surface of the circuit and the field estimation at any distance and the assessment of compliance with regulations. Moreover, if regulations are not met, the effect of modifying the noise source can be tested in order to ascertain how the circuit should be modified to comply with regulations.

55.9.13    Q. Shen, T. N. Chang, L. Yu, "Control and Implementation of a Real-Time Liquid Spotting System for Microarray Applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3266-3272, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the control and implementation of a real-time spotting system. It is intended for high-density high-yield microarray fabrication to facilitate diagnostic and research effort in genomics and proteomics. The method is based on a self-sensing fully automated aspiring/dispensing pin. System performance is evaluated by several batch runs with deionized water solutions of 0.3% fluorescent Cy-3 dye, which has similar physical properties to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probe materials. Experimental results show that this system is capable of fast and robust DNA/protein microarray fabrication in high volume while keeping spot size as small as 60 $muhbox{m}$ consistently. Based on the laser scanned images and experimental data of the spotted microarrays, it is also verified that this system can recognize and prevent the formation of abnormal spots.

55.9.14    D. Mazzei, F. Vozzi, A. Cisternino, G. Vozzi, A. Ahluwalia, "A High-Throughput Bioreactor System for Simulating Physiological Environments," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3273-3280, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The optimization of in vitro cell culture for tissue engineering, pharmacological, or metabolic studies requires a large number of experiments to be performed under varying conditions. In this paper, we describe a high-throughput bioreactor system that allows the conduction of parallel experiments in a simulated in vivo-like environment. Our bioreactors consist of tissue-, organ-, or system-specific culture chambers and a mixing device controlled by an embedded system that regulates the insertion of gas in the culture medium in order to control pH and pressure. Each culture chamber and mixing device possesses an autonomous control system that is able to ensure an optimal environment for cells. A computer communicates with the embedded system to acquire data and set up experimental variables. With this apparatus, we can perform a high-throughput experiment controlling several bioreactors working in parallel. In this paper, we discuss the architecture and design of the system, and the results of some experiments which simulate physiological and pathological conditions are presented.

55.9.15    F. J. Berenguer, F. M. Monasterio-Huelin, "Zappa, a Quasi-Passive Biped Walking Robot With a Tail: Modeling, Behavior, and Kinematic Estimation Using Accelerometers," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3281-3289, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we describe a biped mechanism model, as well as the biped robot Zappa based on it, that is able to walk using only one actuator that moves its tail. The model has 13 joints and 3 parallel link mechanisms that reduce the passive degrees of freedom to three. We present the behavior of this system when we vary the main parameters that define its gait, and the tail follows a chirp function. It represents an initial methodology for selecting an appropriate set of robot parameters. On the other hand, we present the biped robot Zappa and how we can estimate the kinematics during walking by means of using only three-axis accelerometers. This information allows the attainment of real phase diagrams and, in a future work, the estimation of the zero moment point from the positions and accelerations of the links of the robot.

55.9.16    T. Slama, A. Trevisani, D. Aubry, R. Oboe, F. Kratz, "Experimental Analysis of an Internet-Based Bilateral Teleoperation System With Motion and Force Scaling Using a Model Predictive Controller," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3290-3299, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of a bilateral generalized predictive controller for scaled teleoperation systems subject to slave force feedback, variable transmission-time delays, and packet losses. The originality of the approach proposed mainly lies in its capacity to take into account explicitly the slave force feedback in the predictive algorithm. Experimental results show the system stability with the proposed approach using a frequency-domain technique. Several configurations of scaling factors have been used; it is shown that the stability conditions strongly depend of the external environment. Another experimental result verify the robust performances of the approach in terms of tracking behavior with both strong variations of time delays and packet losses in the communication network. For the experimentations, the communication network is the Internet using user-datagram protocol, while the slave robot is a 6-DOF anthropomorphic robot with a force sensor.

55.9.17    C. Gerada, K. J. Bradley, "Integrated PM Machine Design for an Aircraft EMA," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3300-3306, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper looks at the requirements and challenges of designing a permanent-magnet (PM) motor for a directly driven electromechanical actuator for aerospace applications. Having a directly driven system, the intermediate gearbox is eliminated, bringing advantages in terms of lower component count and reduced jamming probability. The design of a low-speed high pole number PM motor will be investigated as a potential solution. The main goals of the design are a high level of actuator integration in order to minimize weight and volume, fault tolerance, and high reliability. The design will be tailored to the requirements of a typical midspoiler actuation system for a large civil aircraft.

55.9.18    F. Gil-Castineira, F. J. Gonzalez-Castano, L. Franck, "Extending Vehicular CAN Fieldbuses With Delay-Tolerant Networks," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3307-3314, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose and evaluate the possibility of extending vehicular controller-area network (CAN) fieldbuses with delay-tolerant networks (DTNs) based on the multihop car2car (C2C)—or vehicle2vehicle—paradigm. Previous research has focused on single-hop wireless communications, which are inadequate in many real-life scenarios . We demonstrate that efficient network layers, such as DTNs, are necessary to overcome those limitations. As a proof of concept, we present a working prototype of a system that extends the standard diagnostics interface of a CAN bus.

55.9.19    J. F. da Rocha, M. B. dos Santos, J. M. Dores Costa, F. A. Lima, "Level Shifters and DCVSL for a Low-Voltage CMOS 4.2-V Buck Converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3315-3323, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, high-voltage (HV)-tolerant level shifters with combinational functionality are proposed based on differential cascode voltage switch logic (DCVSL). These level shifters are tolerant to supply voltages higher than the process limit for individual CMOS transistors. The proposed HV DCVSL level shifters are particularly useful when it is mandatory to constrain the output using a logic function during out of the normal mode periods (power-up, power-down, reset, etc.). These HV-tolerant logic circuits were used in the power block of a buck converter designed in a standard 3.3-V 0.13-$muhbox{m}$ CMOS process, powered by an input voltage range from 2.7 to 4.2 V. Simulation and experimental results of the buck are analyzed, and the topology is evaluated.

55.9.20    L. Ren, L. Wang, J. K. Mills, D. Sun, "Vision-Based 2-D Automatic Micrograsping Using Coarse-to-Fine Grasping Strategy," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3324-3331, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a visual-servo-control approach and a two-stage grasping strategy and, then, develop control software to perform micrograsping tasks, i.e., to control a passive microgripper to automatically grasp a micropart, in a 2-D plane with high accuracy. In the proposed control scheme, we employ closed-loop control with the use of two position feedback signals: relative positions of the micropart with respect to the microgripper measured by the vision-control system and absolute displacements of the micropart measured by linear encoders. To improve the grasping efficiency and success rate, a two-stage grasping strategy is employed: 1) the bonded microgripper is controlled to directly reach a specific position adjacent to the mating edge of a designated micropart with the same $y$ coordinate, by matching the patterns of the microgripper and the micropart only once, and 2) finely align the micropart with the microgripper along the $x$ and $y$ translation axes of the microassembly robot in the horizontal plane by employing the proposed visual servo control, until the micropart is completely grasped. Experiments conducted with a 6-DOF microassembly robot demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed control approach and grasping strategy.

55.9.21    A. Sabanovic, M. Elitas, K. Ohnishi, "Sliding Modes in Constrained Systems Control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3332-3339, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a sliding-mode-based design framework for fully actuated mechanical multibody system is discussed. The framework is based on the possibility to represent complex motion as a collection of tasks and to find effective mapping of the system coordinates that allows decoupling task and constraint control so one is able to enforce concurrently, or in certain time succession, the task and the constraints. The approach seems naturally encompassing the control of motion systems in interaction, and it allows application to bilateral control, multilateral control, etc. Such an approach leads to a more natural interpretation of the system tasks, simpler controller design, and easier establishment of the systems hierarchy. It allows a unified mathematical treatment of task control in the presence of constraints required to be satisfied by the system coordinates. In order to show the applicability of the proposed techniques, simulation and experimental results for high-precision systems in microsystem assembly tasks and bilateral control systems are presented.

55.9.22    J. L. Russi, J. R. Pinheiro, H. L. Hey, "Analysis and Synthesis of Novel Hybrid Integrated Soft-Switching Cells for Power Converter Systems With Two Switching Poles," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3340-3351, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology for developing integrated auxiliary soft-switching cells for power converter systems with two or more switching poles. The integrated cells obtained are a combination of cells from the same soft-switching technique or even of cells from different techniques, giving rise to hybrid cells. The resulting cells have fewer components, are lighter, and have a smaller volume than the conventional ones. Experimental results from a 1-kW power converter with two switching poles are presented to demonstrate the proposed methodology.

55.9.23    A. Gensior, J. Weber, J. Rudolph, H. Guldner, "Algebraic Parameter Identification and Asymptotic Estimation of the Load of a Boost Converter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3352-3360, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A comparison between an algebraic parameter identification algorithm for the load of a boost converter and classical asymptotic observers for the same purpose is provided. Two asymptotic observers are presented, and an algebraic identification algorithm is derived. For the latter, two implementations in the software for a digital signal processor are discussed, and experimental results are given which highlight the properties of both approaches.

55.9.24    J. L. Russi, M. L. S. Martins, H. L. Hey, "Coupled-Filter-Inductor Soft-Switching Techniques: Principles and Topologies," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3361-3373, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Pulsewidth-modulation inverters and rectifiers are required in widespread applications such as energy-storage power plants, telecommunication systems, and electric-vehicle propulsion systems. Some of the stringent requirements of these applications can be achieved by high switching frequency. On the other hand, the use of high switching frequency may degrade the overall system efficiency, which can be alleviated by the utilization of soft-switching techniques. In this paper, a generic soft-switching diagram that can generate topologies for turn-on snubber, zero-voltage transition, zero-current–zero-voltage transition inverters with coupled filter inductor is proposed. This approach facilitates the understanding of these techniques by both newcomers and senior engineers, making the advantages and disadvantages of each soft-switching technique much clearer.

55.9.25    J. D. Hewlett, B. M. Wilamowski, G. Dundar, "Optimization Using a Modified Second-Order Approach With Evolutionary Enhancement," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3374-3380, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An optimization algorithm is presented which effectively combines the desirable characteristics of both gradient descent and evolutionary computation into a single robust algorithm. The method uses a population-based gradient approximation which allows it to recognize surface behavior on both large and small scales. By adjusting the population radius between iterations, the algorithm is able to escape local minima by shifting its focus onto global trends rather than local behavior. The algorithm is compared experimentally with existing methods over a set of relevant test cases, and each method is ranked on the basis of both reliability and rate of convergence. For each case, the algorithm is shown to outperform other methods in terms of both measures of performance, truly making it the best of both worlds.

Multiphase Systems

55.9.26    J. A. Sayago, T. Bruckner, S. Bernet, "How to Select the System Voltage of MV Drives—A Comparison of Semiconductor Expenses," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3381-3390, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The application of a particular medium-voltage converter in a certain application depends on numerous criteria. However, in completely new installations, the choice of the system voltage is very often uninhibited of external constraints. Then, the voltage level shall be selected to enable the most efficient power conversion at the lowest cost. This paper is dedicated to help in finding the best voltage level for three-level neutral-point-clamped voltage source converters (3L-NPC VSCs) with respect to the power semiconductor devices. Three insulated-gate-bipolar-transistor-based 3L-NPC VSCs of different voltage levels (2.3, 3.3, and 4.16 kV) are investigated and compared regarding their maximum output power, semiconductor efficiency, and semiconductor cost per MVA output power. The effects of thermal cycling, the loss distribution within the converter, and switching frequencies from 300 to 1050 Hz are considered in the evaluation.

Renewable Energy Systems

55.9.27    M. A. Alahmad, H. L. Hess, "Evaluation and Analysis of a New Solid-State Rechargeable Microscale Lithium Battery," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3391-3401, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Battery characteristics and behavior under a wide range of tests are an integral part in the development of specific properties and performance for a newly developed battery. The results are used to classify the battery working conditions and to set the parameters of its power management system and control algorithm to incorporate innovative features to manage and improve the battery's life cycle and operation. This paper will present experimental evaluation and analysis of results conducted on a new solid-state rechargeable microscale lithium batteries (microbatteries) developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory for aerospace applications. Analysis includes overcharge, undercharge, faulty conditions, and application of several charge and discharge methods during normal mode of operation. To take advantage of the voltage and capacity yield, the microbatteries are analyzed individually while connected in parallel, series, or parallel–series configurations. The results are used to develop a dynamic battery power management system. A description of the system and the results obtained from a prototype circuit, designed to validate its operation, will also be discussed.

Robotics and Mechatronics

55.9.28    C.-S. Chen, "Dynamic Structure Neural-Fuzzy Networks for Robust Adaptive Control of Robot Manipulators," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3402-3414, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel dynamic structure neural-fuzzy network (DSNFN) via a robust adaptive sliding-mode approach to address trajectory-tracking control of an $n$-link robot manipulator. In the DSNFN, a five-layer neural-fuzzy network (NFN) is used to model complex processes and compensate for structured and unstructured uncertainties. However, it is difficult to find a suitable-sized NFN to achieve the required approximation error. To deal with the mentioned problem, the number of rule nodes in the DSNFN can be either increased or decreased over time based on the tracking errors, and the adaptation laws in the sense of a projection algorithm are derived for tuning all parameters of the parameterized NFN. Using DSNFN, good tracking performance could be achieved in the system. Furthermore, the trained network avoids the problems of overfitting and underfitting. The global stability and the robustness of the overall control scheme are guaranteed, and the tracking errors converge to the required precision by the Lyapunov synthesis approach. Experiments performed on a two-link robot manipulator demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme.

Drive Control

55.9.29    C.-T. Pan, E. Fang, "A Phase-Locked-Loop-Assisted Internal Model Adjustable-Speed Controller for BLDC Motors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3415-3425, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a phase-locked-loop (PLL)-assisted internal model (IM) adjustable-speed controller for brushless dc (BLDC) motors is proposed. Major contributions include proposing a new adjustable-speed module structure of PLL controllers for BLDC motor drives and integrating an IM control strategy and a novel complete motor current sensing scheme. By employing the proposed PLL-assisted IM control method, the controller can be made more robust and accurate. In addition, due to properly integrating the motor current sensing scheme with the pulsewidth modulation control, the hardware implementation of the BLDC motor drive can be made rather compact and enable further integration into chips to reduce the cost and enhance the current regulation performance. Finally, a prototype of the proposed controller is also constructed and applied to an industrial blower to verify the feasibility of the proposed control. Experimental results show that both accurate steady state and fast transient speed responses can be achieved. Moreover, compared with the conventional induction motor drives for industrial blowers, the proposed PMBLDC drives can achieve much higher efficiency with less volume and weight.

Signal Processing and Control

55.9.30    G. Cai, B. M. Chen, K. Peng, M. Dong, T. H. Lee, "Modeling and Control of the Yaw Channel of a UAV Helicopter," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3426-3434, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present in this paper the modeling and flight-control-system design for the yaw channel of an unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV) helicopter using a newly developed composite nonlinear feedback (CNF)-control technique. The CNF-control method has been proven to be capable of yielding a fast transient response with no or very minimal overshoot in tracking a specific target. From the actual flight tests on our UAV helicopter, it has been found that the commonly used yaw dynamical model for the UAV helicopter proposed in the literature is very rough and inaccurate, which might cause the helicopter to shake severely in certain flight conditions. This motivates us to first obtain a more accurate model for the yaw channel of our UAV helicopter. The CNF-control method is then utilized to design an efficient control law, which gives excellent overall performance. In particular, our design has achieved a Level 1 performance according to the standards set for military rotorcraft. The results are verified through actual flight tests.

55.9.31    E. Canuto, F. Musso, J. Ospina, "Embedded Model Control: Submicroradian Horizontality of the Nanobalance Thrust-Stand," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3435-3446, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Pendulum tilt, with respect to local gravity, is affected by the tilt and lateral acceleration of the supporting structure. A differential pendulum, such as the Nanobalance thrust-stand, would be immune only in the ideal case of perfectly balanced pendulums. In the actual case, the equivalent tilt must be zeroed in the measuring bandwidth by an active control system. This paper outlines requirements, technology, modeling, and robust control strategies to ensure instrument horizontality, achieving submicroradian accuracy in a frequency band from 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz. Control strategies, including the coordination of slow and fast motors, have been designed and implemented following the embedded model control methodology. The results of commissioning tests are given and discussed, pointing out the limits of the available technology.

55.9.32    S. H. Ling, H. H. C. Iu, F. H. F. Leung, K. Y. Chan, "Improved Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimized Wavelet Neural Network for Modeling the Development of Fluid Dispensing for Electronic Packaging," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3447-3460, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based wavelet neural network (WNN) for Modeling the development of Fluid Dispensing for Electronic Packaging (MFD-EP) is presented in this paper. In modeling the fluid dispensing process, it is important to understand the process behavior as well as determine the optimum operating conditions of the process for a high-yield, low-cost, and robust operation. Modeling the fluid dispensing process is a complex nonlinear problem. This kind of problem is suitable to be solved by applying a neural network. Among the different kinds of neural networks, the WNN is a good choice to solve the problem. In the proposed WNN, the translation parameters are variables depending on the network inputs. Due to the variable translation parameters, the network becomes an adaptive one that provides better performance and increased learning ability than conventional WNNs. An improved hybrid PSO is applied to train the parameters of the proposed WNN. The proposed hybrid PSO incorporates a wavelet-theory-based mutation operation. It applies the wavelet theory to enhance the PSO in more effectively exploring the solution space to reach a better solution. A case study of MFD-EP is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

55.9.33    R.-E. Precup, S. Preitl, J. K. Tar, M. L. Tomescu, M. Takacs, P. Korondi, P. Baranyi, "Fuzzy Control System Performance Enhancement by Iterative Learning Control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3461-3475, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper suggests low-cost fuzzy control solutions that ensure the improvement of control system (CS) performance indices by merging the benefits of fuzzy control and iterative learning control (ILC). The solutions are expressed in terms of three fuzzy CS (FCS) structures that employ ILC algorithms and a unified design method focused on Takagi–Sugeno proportional–integral fuzzy controllers (PI-FCs). The PI-FCs are dedicated to a class of servo systems with linear/linearized controlled plants characterized by second-order dynamics and integral type. The invariant set theorem by Krasovskii and LaSalle with quadratic Lyapunov function candidates is applied to guarantee the convergence of the ILC algorithms and enable proper setting of the PI-FC parameters. The linear PI controller parameters tuned by the extended symmetrical optimum method are mapped onto the PI-FC ones by the modal equivalence principle. Real-time experimental results for a dc-based servo speed CS are included.

55.9.34    D. Trevisan, P. Mattavelli, P. Tenti, "Digital Control of Single-Inductor Multiple-Output Step-Down DC–DC Converters in CCM," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3476-3483, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the application of digital control for non-isolated single-inductor multiple-output step-down dc–dc converters operating in continuous-conduction mode. The accurate and independent control of each output requires a sophisticated digital control architecture so as to minimize the cross-regulation problem. The adopted control includes a separate regulation for common-mode and differential-mode output voltages. Due to the differential-mode control loop dependence on the load current, a variable-gain functional block has been investigated; this provision keeps the differential-mode loop gain constant under different load conditions. Moreover, a nonlinear evaluation of the common-mode voltage has been investigated in order to improve the system dynamic response to asymmetrical load changes. Even if aimed at an integrated solution, experimental verifications have been performed using discrete components, implementing the digital control in a field-programmable gate array. Simulation results on a three-output converter and experimental results on dual-output converter ( $V_{rm in} = 2.5 div 5 hbox{V}$, $V_{o1} = V_{o2} = 0.9 div 1.5 hbox{V}$, and $I_{o1} = I_{o2} = 0 div 0.6 hbox{A}$) confirm the proposed analysis.

Emerging Technology

55.9.35    J. Mazumdar, R. G. Harley, "Recurrent Neural Networks Trained With Backpropagation Through Time Algorithm to Estimate Nonlinear Load Harmonic Currents," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3484-3491, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Generation of harmonics and the existence of waveform pollution in power system networks are important problems facing the power utilities. The determination of harmonic currents injected into a power network by a nonlinear load is complicated when the supply voltage waveform to the load is distorted by other loads and not a pure sinusoid. This paper proposes a neural network solution to this problem. A recurrent neural network trained with the backpropagation through time training algorithm is used to find a way of distinguishing between the so-called load harmonics and supply harmonics, without disconnecting the load from the network. The advantage of this method is that only waveforms of voltages and currents have to be measured. This method is applicable for both single and three phase loads and could be fabricated into a commercial instrument that could be installed in substations of large customer loads, or used as a hand-held clip on instrument. This paper is particularly useful in determining whether the utility or the customer side has a higher contribution to harmonic pollution in a network. Hence, this method would be helpful in settling utility-customer disputes over who is responsible for harmonic pollution.

55.9.36    "Call for papers-currents trends in industrial electronics education," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3492-3492, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

55.9.37    "Call for papers-Advances in Electrical Machines Monitoring and Diagnosis-part2," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3493-3493, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

55.9.38    "Call for papers-Wireless Technology: Models, Designs and Applications," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3494-3494, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

55.9.39    "Call for papers-Hardwire-in-the-loop simulation of electric drives," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3495-3495, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

55.9.40    "Call for papers-Fuels cells power processing and control," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 3496-3496, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

55.9.41    "IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Information," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. C3-C3, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

55.9.42    "IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics information for authors," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. C4-C4, Sept 2008.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available