IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 1, Jan 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.1.1    R.R. Moghaddam, F. Magnussen, C. Sadarangani, "Theoretical and Experimental Reevaluation of Synchronous Reluctance Machine ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 6 - 13 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper theoretically introduces and develops a new operation diagram (OPD) and parameter estimator for the synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM). The OPD demonstrates the behavior of the machine's main performance parameters, such as torque, current, voltage, frequency, flux, power factor (PF), and current angle, all in one graph. This diagram can easily be used to describe different control strategies, possible operating conditions, both below- and above-rated speeds, etc. The saturation effect is also discussed with this diagram by finite-element-method calculations. A prototype high-performance SynRM is designed for experimental studies, and then, both machines' [corresponding induction machine (IM)] performances at similar loading and operation conditions are tested, measured, and compared to demonstrate the potential of SynRM. The laboratory measurements (on a standard 15-kW Eff1 IM and its counterpart SynRM) show that SynRM has higher efficiency, torque density, and inverter rating and lower rotor temperature and PF in comparison to IM at the same winding-temperature-rise condition. The measurements show that the torque capability of SynRM closely follows that of IM.

57.1.2    B. Cranganu-Cretu, A. Kertesz, J. Smajic, "Coupled Electromagnetic–Thermal Effects of Stray Flux: Software Solution for Industrial Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 14 - 21 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a Visual Basic software solution, aimed at driving a complex finite-element-method-based electromagnetic-thermal solver to allow for a range of virtual experiments for accurate simulations of numerically demanding stray-magnetic-flux problems in power devices. The development allows for both engineering experiments (by a nonexpert numerical user) and for numerical experiments to determine the best setup of a simulation attempt.

57.1.3    A.S. Abdel-Khalik, M.I. Masoud, B.W. Williams, A.L. Mohamadein, M.M. Ahmed, "Steady-State Performance and Stability Analysis of Mixed Pole Machines With Electromechanical Torque and Rotor Electric Power to a Shaft-Mounted Electrical Load ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 22 - 34 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the steady-state model, performance, and stability analysis of a mixed pole machine with a new operational mode which provides a rotor torque and an n -phase rotor electrical output power to a shaft-mounted rotating electrical load. The machine operated under this mode can be used in applications that require contactless power, such as in robotics, or applications that require independent control of both rotor torque and rotor electric power, such as for contactless rotational antennas and turret systems. The performance assessment includes electromagnetic torque, electrical efficiency, mechanical efficiency, and total efficiency based on both simulation and experimentation. The effect of electrical loading and stator voltage on both rotor torque and rotor electric power is also considered. The machine steady-state stability is introduced by plotting the machine operating characteristics that determine all stable operating regions of the machine under the proposed mode of operation.

57.1.4    A. Tessarolo, S. Castellan, R. Menis, G. Ferrari, "On the Modeling of Commutation Transients in Split-Phase Synchronous Motors Supplied by Multiple Load-Commutated Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 35 - 43 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Split-phase synchronous motors equipped with multiple-stator three-phase windings, each supplied by a load-commutated inverter, play an important role in today's very high power electrical-drive applications. A criticality of these systems is the possibility that commutations occur in different motor windings simultaneously. The resulting electromagnetic transient depends on the magnetic coupling of motor phases among them and with rotor circuits. In this paper, a model to describe this phenomenon is presented along with some dedicated tests, conducted on various split-phase configurations, to assess the model validity.

57.1.5    K. Kurihara, T. Kubota, M. Hori, "Steady-State and Transient Performance Analysis for a Single-Phase Capacitor-Run Permanent-Magnet Motor With Skewed Rotor Slots ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 44 - 51 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a numerical analysis method to accurately predict the steady-state and transient performance of a single-phase capacitor-run permanent-magnet motor with skewed rotor slots. Two-dimensional time-stepping finite-element analysis has been used to successfully predict the steady-state and dynamic transient performance of the prototype motor by using a multislice model. The agreement between computed and measured results of the prototype motor validates the proposed analysis method. The maximum efficiency and minimum torque ripple versus the value of capacitance have been determined from the results of the steady-state synchronous performance analysis. The run-up response corresponding to skew pitch has been obtained from the results of the starting performance analysis.

57.1.6    P. Karutz, T. Nussbaumer, W. Gruber, J.W. Kolar, "Acceleration-Performance Optimization for Motors With Large Air Gaps ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 52 - 60 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an optimization-procedure yielding for minimal acceleration times for different speed ranges using the example of a magnetically levitated slice motor with a large air gap. The optimization is based on a set of analytical equations together with selected 3-D finite element method simulations with the aim to optimize both the stator geometry and the number of drive turns. It is shown that the use of 3-D instead of 2-D simulation tools is obligatory for motors with large air gaps for achieving sufficient simulation accuracy. The relevant equations for the optimization are derived, and the accuracy of the proposed method is verified by measurements on a prototype system.

57.1.7    K. Yamazaki, H. Ishigami, "Rotor-Shape Optimization of Interior-Permanent-Magnet Motors to Reduce Harmonic Iron Losses ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 61 - 69 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we develop novel rotor designs of interior-permanent-magnet motors in order to reduce harmonic iron losses at high rotational speeds under field-weakening control. First, an optimization method, combined with an adaptive finite-element method, is applied to automatically determine the shapes of the magnets and rotor core. The optimized motor is manufactured to confirm the validity of the calculation. It is clarified that the iron loss of the optimized motor is reduced to nearly half of that of the conventional motor, without a significant decrease in maximum torque. Next, the contribution of each part of the rotor to the iron-loss reduction is analyzed by the experimental design method. Finally, several designs of the rotors are proposed from the viewpoints of manufacturing cost and performance.

57.1.8    J. Kolehmainen, "Optimal Dovetail Permanent Magnet Rotor Solutions for Various Pole Numbers ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 70 - 77 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A buried magnet rotor structure, which is supported only by permanent magnets, is proposed for medium-speed permanent magnet machines. Many design aspects of the dovetail-shaped rotor structure have been found. Various machine solutions, with pole numbers 6 to 14, are studied with electromagnetic and structural finite element simulations. A simple model is created for making comparison with the different pole numbers easier. Main dimensions of the machine are kept the same. Optimal solutions for various pole numbers are searched and discussed. It is shown that for lower pole numbers, the structure is electrically better, while for higher pole numbers, the structure is mechanically stronger against centrifugal forces. In addition, the optimal electromagnetic structures for each pole number are shown to be similar to the optimal mechanical structures. Electrically and mechanically critical areas are also shown to be almost the same. The optimized results are also compared to three manufactured prototypes. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of the construction and the design method.

57.1.9    M. Aydin, S. Huang, T.A. Lipo, "Design, Analysis, and Control of a Hybrid Field-Controlled Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Motor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 78 - 87 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design, analysis, control, and experimental evaluation of an innovative field-controlled axial-flux surface-mounted permanent-magnet machine. Topology and design equations, as well as an optimized design study, are attained. The machine is investigated in detail using finite-element analysis, and a prototype machine is built. In order to evaluate the new axial flux machine topology, an experimental system setup is devised and discussed. The experimental results of the prototype machine and a comparison between the analysis and test results are also presented.

57.1.10    M. Andriollo, M. De Bortoli, G. Martinelli, A. Morini, A. Tortella, "Design Improvement of a Single-Phase Brushless Permanent Magnet Motor for Small Fan Appliances ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 88 - 95 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an adaptation of a shaded pole motor operating as a single-phase brushless PM motor is studied. After properly designing the rotor PM ring to avoid demagnetization problems, a nonlinear mathematical model for performance assessment and design improvement is proposed. The calculation of the model parameters is carried out by 2-D FEM analyses suitably corrected to also take into account 3-D effects, mainly due to different stator and rotor lengths. The procedure implemented in a numerical code makes it possible to investigate significant design aspects and determine the mechanical characteristic related to motor configurations adopted for small fan appliances.

57.1.11    Mei-Yung Chen, Hsuan-Han Huang, Shao-Kang Hung, "A New Design of a Submicropositioner Utilizing Electromagnetic Actuators and Flexure Mechanism ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 96 - 106 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel XY-dimensional submicropositioner, including mechanism, control, and analysis, is successfully presented. The design of the submicropositioner utilizes a monolithic parallel flexure mechanism with built-in electromagnetic actuators and optical sensors to achieve the object of 3-DOF precise motion. From the provided experimental results, there are several main goals that have been achieved in this paper: (1) to integrate the electromagnetic actuator and the parallel flexure mechanism for planar positioning system; (2) to establish the mathematical modeling; (3) to develop an advanced adaptive sliding-mode controller; and (4) to perform extensive experiments to test the realistic performance.

57.1.12    A.M. EL-Refaie, "Fractional-Slot Concentrated-Windings Synchronous Permanent Magnet Machines: Opportunities and Challenges ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 107 - 121 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fractional-slot concentrated-winding (FSCW) synchronous permanent magnet (PM) machines have been gaining interest over the last few years. This is mainly due to the several advantages that this type of windings provides. These include high-power density, high efficiency, short end turns, high slot fill factor particularly when coupled with segmented stator structures, low cogging torque, flux-weakening capability, and fault tolerance. This paper is going to provide a thorough analysis of FSCW synchronous PM machines in terms of opportunities and challenges. This paper will cover the theory and design of FSCW synchronous PM machines, achieving high-power density, flux-weakening capability, comparison of single- versus double-layer windings, fault-tolerance rotor losses, parasitic effects, comparison of interior versus surface PM machines, and various types of machines. This paper will also provide a summary of the commercial applications that involve FSCW synchronous PM machines.

57.1.13    R.H. Moncada, J.A. Tapia, T.M. Jahns, "Analysis of Negative-Saliency Permanent-Magnet Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 122 - 127 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a negative-saliency permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous machine analysis is presented. This particular saliency feature is achieved by replacing a portion of the magnet material by a soft iron piece over the rotor pole. In this manner, the d-axis inductance is increased, whereas the q-axis inductance is almost not affected, leading to the condition that Ld is higher than Lq (negative saliency) corresponding to the inverse condition of typical PM machines. An expression for the optimum pole configuration is derived. It is shown that, with appropriate control of the stator current based on the machine's saliency, the unfavorable effects of magnet reduction on torque production can be compensated. It is also shown that the machine saliency affects the location of the operating points when it operates under vector control. Finally, the theoretical analysis is validated with experimental results obtained from a prototype axial-flux PM machine that exhibits negative saliency.

57.1.14    F. Caricchi, F. Maradei, G. De Donato, F.G. Capponi, "Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Generator for Induction Heating Gensets ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 128 - 137 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a single-phase slotless axial-flux permanent-magnet synchronous machine for induction heating gensets. A full-scale prototype of the machine (110 kVA, 400 Hz, 690 A) has been designed and subsequently analyzed through finite element analysis (FEA). Induced current distributions in the permanent magnets and in the rotors have also been calculated through FEA, showing that the resulting losses are kept at bay due to the low armature reaction. An effective way of achieving regulation of the power transferred to the load has been analytically derived. The prototype has also been built, and experimental tests confirm the aforesaid analyses.

57.1.15    K.I. Laskaris, A.G. Kladas, "Internal Permanent Magnet Motor Design for Electric Vehicle Drive ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 138 - 145 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Power compaction and high efficiency are two key advantages of permanent magnet motors. This paper proposes an enhanced internal permanent magnet motor that delivers high torque, power compaction, and exceptionally high efficiency in the same operation area. The advantage of the proposed scheme is the magnetic flux accumulation in the air gap, which allows much higher values of magnetic flux density, compared to a surface permanent magnet motor of the same size. The original contribution of this paper resides on the adopted motor configuration, enabling to efficiently utilize the energy stored in the permanent magnet and to provide total loss minimization at the most frequently used speed range.

57.1.16    R. Moulin, J. Leveque, L. Durantay, B. Douine, D. Netter, A. Rezzoug, "Superconducting Multistack Inductor for Synchronous Motors Using the Diamagnetism Property of Bulk Material ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 146 - 153 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An original superconducting synchronous motor topology is presented. The inductor combines both bulk materials and wires to create an alternating magnetic field in the air gap of the motor. A prototype that uses NbTi superconducting wires and YBCO bulks has successfully been designed and constructed. Test results are presented. In the second part of this paper, the possibility of higher power motor is discussed. To do so, the active length needs to be increased. In this paper, a multistack structure is proposed, and computation results show the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

57.1.17    G. Traxler-Samek, T. Lugand, A. Schwery, "Additional Losses in the Damper Winding of Large Hydrogenerators at Open-Circuit and Load Conditions ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 154 - 160 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Large salient-pole synchronous machines are typically equipped with a damper winding. At steady-state conditions, parasitic voltages are induced in the damper bars which lead to a current flow with associated power losses. This paper describes an analytical algorithm for the calculation of currents and corresponding losses in the damper winding. The presented method is based on an equivalent network of the damper winding containing all the bars of a repetitive section of the machine. The inductances are calculated with an air-gap permeance model. Contrary to similar existing approaches, the induced damper-bar voltages are computed using a numerical integration. This allows more precise results when it comes to higher harmonics. In order to validate the analytical computation, the results are compared with the results of 2-D transient finite-element studies and with a conventional analytical method based on the d-and q -axis equivalent circuits of the machine.

57.1.18    Z. Gmyrek, A. Boglietti, A. Cavagnino, "Estimation of Iron Losses in Induction Motors: Calculation Method, Results, and Analysis ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 161 - 171 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper intends to develop a more accurate approach for determining the no-load iron losses in pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter fed induction motors. The proposed method is validated by means of a prototype motor with a plastic rotor cage. The iron losses have been computed by the time-stepping finite element method, both with sinusoidal and PWM supply. The iron losses have then been estimated by adding up the contribution generated by orthogonal components of the flux density, as if the iron losses generated by these components were independent phenomena. The rotational hysteresis losses, as well as excess ones, have been calculated applying a correction factor based on experimental data. These factors are a function of the peak flux density and ellipticity of the B vector loci. Experimental validations are provided for several frequency and magnetic saturation values. In addition, this paper demonstrates the necessity to consider the harmonics initial phase in order to increase the accuracy in the iron loss prediction.

57.1.19    G. Traxler-Samek, R. Zickermann, A. Schwery, "Cooling Airflow, Losses, and Temperatures in Large Air-Cooled Synchronous Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 172 - 180 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: At steady-state operation, power losses cause a heating of rotating electrical machines. In air-cooled machines, these losses are evacuated by a forced cooling airflow through the active parts. When designing and optimizing such a machine, the design engineer must be able to get a full picture of the power losses, the cooling airflow, and the temperatures inside the active parts (e.g., core laminations, windings) and the periphery (e.g., winding overhangs). The aim of the designer is to fulfill the customer's requirements regarding the guaranteed temperatures. This paper presents a computation method, where the power loss, airflow, and temperature calculations for the world's largest air-cooled hydrogenerators are coupled in an iterative process. The new contribution of this paper is a calculation software developed by the authors. It includes a state-of-the-art loss computation, an automated airflow network, and a set of linked thermal networks. These computations result in a complete overview of the temperature gradients and allow fine tuning of the cooling airflow and, consequently, optimization of ventilation losses.

57.1.20    K. Hafiz, G. Nanda, N.C. Kar, "Performance Analysis of Aluminum- and Copper-Rotor Induction Generators Considering Skin and Thermal Effects ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 181 - 192 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recent progress in wind-power generation has led to the use of grid-connected and self-excited induction generators (SEIGs). Aluminum has been the common conductor material for squirrel-cage induction machines for a long time, largely because of low cost and ease of manufacturing. Recent developments in materials engineering have brought forth copper-rotor induction machines with promising results. In these machines, skin effect as well as temperature effect on the machine equivalent-circuit parameters during operation are expected to play an important role in the evaluation of induction-machine performance. In this paper, a qualitative performance analysis of aluminum- and copper-rotor SEIGs considering the skin and thermal effects has been presented theoretically and experimentally.

57.1.21    T.D. Kefalas, A.G. Kladas, "Harmonic Impact on Distribution Transformer No-Load Loss ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 193 - 200 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The losses in European Union distribution transformers are estimated at about 33 TW ??h/year, whereas reactive power and harmonic losses add a further 5 TW ??h/year. The reduction of distribution transformer no-load loss is particularly important as the ratio of no-load to load losses is nearly three. In this paper, the no-load operation of wound-core transformers under sinusoidal and distorted supply-voltage conditions is investigated. For that purpose, a 2-D nonlinear transient finite-element analysis taking into account hysteresis has been developed. The hysteresis model is based on a modified Jiles-Atherton representation, and the proposed analysis is compared to experimental data.

57.1.22    R. Wrobel, N. McNeill, P.H. Mellor, "Performance Analysis and Thermal Modeling of a High-Energy-Density Prebiased Inductor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 201 - 208 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for analyzing the thermal performance of compact planar wound components. A high-energy-density prebiased choke is used to demonstrate and validate the proposed approach. Loss predictions from electromagnetic finite-element analyses are coupled to an equivalent lumped-circuit thermal model and used to determine the operating thermal envelope for the wound component. Results from the proposed method are directly compared with test measurements taken from the prototype choke and are shown to be in good agreement. A sensitivity analysis indicates that copper loss is the dominant component in such devices and that AC resistance effects are more prominent than core loss.

57.1.23    S.H. Kia, H. Henao, G. Capolino, "Torsional Vibration Assessment Using Induction Machine Electromagnetic Torque Estimation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 209 - 219 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Mechanical anomalies such as load troubles, great torque dynamic variations, and torsional oscillations result in the shaft fatigue of electrical machine and other mechanical parts such as bearings and gearboxes. Particularly, the torsional vibration may attain a significant level at resonant frequencies which damage or cause additional lifetime consumption of mechanical parts. In this way, this paper proposes a noninvasive technique through the electromagnetic torque estimation of driving induction machine as a mean of mechanical torsional stresses monitoring. The lubrication loss is considered as a gear failure to demonstrate its influence on the vibration and on the electromagnetic estimated torque signatures. Then, it is shown that the information in the electromagnetic torque can be decomposed into high- and low-frequency bandwidths which are associated to induction machine and gearbox mechanical-related frequencies, respectively. A setup based on a 5.5-kW three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor connected to a 4-kW wound-rotor induction generator via a one-stage gearbox has been used to validate the proposed method in both stationary and nonstationary conditions.

57.1.24    A. Borisavljevic, H. Polinder, J.A. Ferreira, "On the Speed Limits of Permanent-Magnet Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 220 - 227 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Permanent-magnet (PM) machines are considered the most suitable machine type for very high speed applications. Still, due to the growing demand for the ever higher rotational speeds, PM machines are approaching their limits. The focus of this paper is the different factors that lie behind the inherent speed limitations of PM machines. The limits-thermal, elastic, and rotor dynamical-are defined, classified, and correlated to basic machine parameters.

57.1.25    A. Ruiz-Gonzalez, M.J. Meco-Gutierrez, F. Perez-Hidalgo, F. Vargas-Merino, J.R. Heredia-Larrubia, "Reducing Acoustic Noise Radiated by Inverter-Fed Induction Motors Controlled by a New PWM Strategy ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 228 - 236 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new application of a control strategy to reduce the acoustic noise caused by pulsewidth-modulation (PWM)-controlled induction machine drives. The proposed strategy is based on a frequency modulation of the triangular carrier through a sinusoidal signal. It is used to decrease the acoustic noise and to achieve a reduction in the total harmonic distortion. The main advantage of the proposed method is that only one control parameter is necessary to modify the electrical spectrum, and so, mechanical natural frequencies are avoided while the number of pulses per period remains unchanged. The results obtained in laboratory tests are presented and compared to other acoustic measurements using different PWM strategies.

57.1.26    R. Romary, S. Jelassi, J.F. Brudny, "Stator-Interlaminar-Fault Detection Using an External-Flux-Density Sensor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 237 - 243 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the results of a research work devoted to the detection of short circuits between stator laminations of an electrical machine using external magnetic field. The theoretical developments lead one to display the influence of various phenomena on this magnetic field in a wide frequency range. It is shown that surface currents due to burrs at the external surface of the machine have an important contribution compared to the increase of eddy currents in the short-circuit volume. Finally, experimental measurements confirm this theory, and an online method of detection for large generators is proposed.

57.1.27    L. Frosini, E. Bassi, "Stator Current and Motor Efficiency as Indicators for Different Types of Bearing Faults in Induction Motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 244 - 251 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach to use stator current and efficiency of induction motors as indicators of rolling-bearing faults. After a presentation of the state of the art about condition monitoring of vibration and motor current for the diagnostics of bearings, this paper illustrates the experimental results on four different types of bearing defects: crack in the outer race, hole in the outer race, deformation of the seal, and corrosion. The first and third faults have not been previously considered in the literature, with the latter being analyzed in other research works, even if obtained in a different way. Another novelty introduced by this paper is the analysis of the decrease in efficiency of the motor with a double purpose: as alarm of incipient faults and as evaluation of the extent of energy waste resulting from the lasting of the fault condition before the breakdown of the machine.

57.1.28    D. Morinigo-Sotelo, L.A. Garcia-Escudero, O. Duque-Perez, M. Perez-Alonso, "Practical Aspects of Mixed-Eccentricity Detection in PWM Voltage-Source-Inverter-Fed Induction Motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 252 - 262 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of an ongoing investigation relating to the detection of static and dynamic eccentricity in cage induction motors fed by a pulsewidth-modulation frequency converter using line-current spectral analysis. Two different motors fed by different supply sources (utility voltage and two different voltage converters at different assigned frequencies) were tested. A statistical analysis of the results obtained was carried out. These results allow us to present practical conclusions relating to the detection of mixed eccentricity.

57.1.29    Wenxian Yang, P.J. Tavner, C.J. Crabtree, M. Wilkinson, "Cost-Effective Condition Monitoring for Wind Turbines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 263 - 271 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Cost-effective wind turbine (WT) condition monitoring assumes more importance as turbine sizes increase and they are placed in more remote locations, for example, offshore. Conventional condition monitoring techniques, such as vibration, lubrication oil, and generator current signal analysis, require the deployment of a variety of sensors and computationally intensive analysis techniques. This paper describes a WT condition monitoring technique that uses the generator output power and rotational speed to derive a fault detection signal. The detection algorithm uses a continuous-wavelet-transform-based adaptive filter to track the energy in the prescribed time-varying fault-related frequency bands in the power signal. The central frequency of the filter is controlled by the generator speed, and the filter bandwidth is adapted to the speed fluctuation. Using this technique, fault features can be extracted, with low calculation times, from direct- or indirect-drive fixed- or variable-speed WTs. The proposed technique has been validated experimentally on a WT drive train test rig. A synchronous or induction generator was successively installed on the test rig, and both mechanical and electrical fault like perturbations were successfully detected when applied to the test rig.

57.1.30    J. Pyrhonen, J. Nerg, P. Kurronen, U. Lauber, "High-Speed High-Output Solid-Rotor Induction-Motor Technology for Gas Compression ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 272 - 280 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the suitability of solid-rotor induction-motor technology for a natural-gas-compression application with a high power output. To this end, a new solid-rotor design for an 8-MW 6.6-kV 12 000-min-1 motor without any copper parts in the rotor was developed, and the motor performance was tested. In this paper, solid-rotor material selection, rotor slitting, and the end effects of the purely solid rotor are discussed. A frequency-dependent end-effect correction factor is introduced, and a method for the rotor-end-leakage correction is presented. The performance of the proposed end-effect correction factor is verified by comparing the calculated torque and power factor with the measured values.

57.1.31    G. Mogenier, R. Dufour, G. Ferraris-Besso, L. Durantay, N. Barras, "Identification of Lamination Stack Properties: Application to High-Speed Induction Motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 281 - 287 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to predict the lateral rotordynamics of a high-speed induction motor, an optimization procedure is used for identifying the dynamic behavior of the magnetic core made of a lamination stack, tie rods, and short-circuit rods. Modal parameters predicted by a finite-element model based on beam elements and measured on induction motors are included in modal error functions contained in a functional. The minimization of this functional by using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm permits extracting the equivalent constitutive properties of the lamination stack for several rotors of different sizes. Finally, the size effect on the constitutive properties identified is discussed.

57.1.32    M. Centner, U. Schafer, "Optimized Design of High-Speed Induction Motors in Respect of the Electrical Steel Grade ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 288 - 295 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design of highly efficient high-speed induction motors with optimally exploited magnetic materials. First, new combined numerical-analytical design methods are presented and validated, which closely relate to the classical way of machine design but allow the designer to precisely account for material properties. Second, it is shown how two optimized 20-kW 30 000-r/min induction machines have been realized, i.e., one incorporating cobalt-iron alloy, and the other one using siliconized steel. Finally, the influence of the electrical steel grade on their performance is evaluated on the basis of electrical, thermal, vibrational, and noise measurements.

57.1.33    P.-D. Pfister, Y. Perriard, "Very-High-Speed Slotless Permanent-Magnet Motors: Analytical Modeling, Optimization, Design, and Torque Measurement Methods ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 296 - 303 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a very-high-speed (VHS) slotless permanent-magnet motor design procedure using an analytical model. The model is used to design the optimal prototype (target: 200 kr/min, 2 kW). The multiphysics analytical model allows a quick optimization process. The presented model includes the magnetic fields, the mechanical stresses in the rotor, the electromagnetic power losses, the windage power losses, and the power losses in the bearings. VHS machines need a new torque measurement method. This paper presents the developed method. It also presents a ball bearing friction torque measurement method designed particularly for VHS machines. Remarkably, the method allowed us to design a prototype which operates beyond the target of speed and power. The results given by the model are compared with the measurements of the prototype.

57.1.34    J. Corda, S.M. Jamil, "Experimental Determination of Equivalent-Circuit Parameters of a Tubular Switched Reluctance Machine With Solid-Steel Magnetic Core ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 304 - 310 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The model-based analysis of a switched reluctance machine, which has significant losses in the iron core, requires the machine to be represented by parameters that account for nonlinearities caused by both the magnetic saturation and the iron losses. This paper describes the methodology for determining the parameters of the equivalent electric circuit that includes the representation of iron losses. The parameters are derived from measurements performed under static conditions. The methodology is verified by comparing the dynamically measured results for the pull-out force against the results predicted by the model that is based on the equivalent circuit.

57.1.35    J.G. Amoros, P. Andrada, "Sensitivity Analysis of Geometrical Parameters on a Double-Sided Linear Switched Reluctance Motor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 311 - 319 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a detailed sensitivity analysis of the effect of several geometrical parameters on the performance of a double-sided linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM). The analysis was conducted in two dimensions using finite-element method and takes into account only one part of the LSRM. This paper first investigates the powerful influence of stator- and translator-pole widths on force profiles. It then shows how these performance parameters are influenced by stator-pole length, translator-pole length, stack length, yoke length, and air gap. Experimental results confirm that the 2-D finite-element sensitivity analysis proposed in this paper may prove to be a useful tool for optimizing the geometry of a double-sided LSRM.

57.1.36    I.-C. Vese, F. Marignetti, M.M. Radulescu, "Multiphysics Approach to Numerical Modeling of a Permanent-Magnet Tubular Linear Motor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 320 - 326 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a multiphysics modeling through finite-element (FE) coupled electromagnetic and thermal field analysis of a permanent-magnet tubular linear motor (PMTLM). Two-dimensional axial-symmetric FE steady-state and transient solutions are first obtained for the magnetic-flux-density distribution, cogging force, thrust, and losses of the PMTLM prototype. The FE magnetic field results are then used for the 3-D FE thermal simulation to get the PMTLM temperature distribution. This paper proves that the multiphysics numerical field analysis is a viable tool for the design and performance optimization of PMTLMs. The accuracy of the proposed study has been assessed through prior analytical and experimental results. Regarding the design aspects, some peculiarities in the thermal behavior of PMTLMs are emphasized. Generally, thermal models being not ready to develop, experimental and analytical solutions remain a preferred choice.

57.1.37    Jiabin Wang, D. Howe, Zhengyu Lin, "Design Optimization of Short-Stroke Single-Phase Tubular Permanent-Magnet Motor for Refrigeration Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 327 - 334 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a design methodology to achieve optimal performance for a short-stroke single-phase tubular permanent-magnet motor which drives a reciprocating vapor compressor. The steady-state characteristic of the direct-drive linear-motor compressor system is analyzed, an analytical formula for predicting iron loss is presented, and a motor-design procedure which takes into account the effect of compressor loads under nominal operating condition is formulated. It is shown that the motor efficiency can be optimized with respect to two leading dimensional ratios. Experimental results validate the proposed design methodology.

57.1.38    R. Appunn, B. Schmulling, K. Hameyer, "Electromagnetic Guiding of Vertical Transportation Vehicles: Experimental Evaluation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 335 - 343 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the design of an electromagnetic elevator guiding system. One challenge of this design is the overdetermination of the mechanical system due to its high number of adjustment variables. Force decoupling, transformation from local to global quantities, and simulation results of the entire system are presented. In contrast to former works, a new elevator test bench for the evaluation of the simulation results is introduced. Measurement results validate the design process of both the electromagnetic actuators and feedback control.

57.1.39    Zhigang Sun, Jiabin Wang, G.W. Jewell, D. Howe, "Enhanced Optimal Torque Control of Fault-Tolerant PM Machine Under Flux-Weakening Operation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 344 - 353 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes an enhanced optimal-torque-control strategy for fault-tolerant permanent-magnet (PM) machines under flux-weakening operations. By adjusting the degree of flux weakening according to estimated instantaneous-torque-control errors, the torque-control performance of the machine can be improved when operating above its base speed under either open- or short-circuit fault condition. Extensive simulations under both healthy and fault conditions have been undertaken in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Experimental results have also been given based on the testing of a prototype five-phase fault-tolerant PM machine.

57.1.40    M.A. Fnaiech, F. Betin, G.-A. Capolino, F. Fnaiech, "Fuzzy Logic and Sliding-Mode Controls Applied to Six-Phase Induction Machine With Open Phases ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 354 - 364 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The faulted mode of a six-phase induction machine (6PIM) denotes that the motor is working with one or more missing phases. This situation leads to torque oscillations and poor tracking behavior. Therefore, the design of a suitable robust control is a challenging task. In this way, this paper presents the application of fuzzy logic and sliding mode controls in order to obtain a high-accuracy positioning of a 6PIM rotor in both healthy and faulted modes. The two control strategies are completely different from a theoretical point of view, but the final objectives are to remove the drawbacks of the specific fault on interest. The experimental results are obtained on a dedicated setup based on a 6PIM coupled with a variable mechanical load and for which up to three phases can be removed.

57.1.41    M.A. Vogelsberger, S. Grubic, T.G. Habetler, T.M. Wolbank, "Using PWM-Induced Transient Excitation and Advanced Signal Processing for Zero-Speed Sensorless Control of AC Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 365 - 374 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The sensorless control of induction machines, particularly for operation at low speed, has received significant attention in recent years. To realize a field-oriented control of AC machines that is able to work at zero speed, the most commonly used methods are either sensor-based models or transient-signal-excitation methods. The major disadvantage of present signal-injection methods is that they are intrusive to pulsewidth modulation (PWM). An additional switching sequence has to be embedded in the control that will cause a torque and current ripple. In order to overcome these problems, a new flux-estimation algorithm that uses the phase current derivative to extract the flux-position information is presented. In contrast to previously introduced methods, this new approach operates without additional transient excitation of the machine and requires only fundamental-wave excitation using standard PWM or slightly modified PWM. Furthermore, only the current response in the two active states of PWM is used. This makes it possible to use sensorless control for the whole speed range including overmodulation and removes the distortion and parasitic influence of the zero switching states during the estimation of the flux. Experimental results are presented to validate the applicability of the presented approach.

57.1.42    H. Abootorabi Zarchi, J. Soltani, G. Arab Markadeh, "Adaptive Input–Output Feedback-Linearization-Based Torque Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motor Without Mechanical Sensor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 375 - 384 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a well-known adaptive input-output feedback-linearization (AIOFL) technique is used for speed and torque-tracking control of synchronous reluctance motor drive. This controller is capable of estimating motor two-axis inductances (Ld, Lq) simultaneously. The overall stability of the proposed control and the persistency of excitation condition are proved based on Lyapunov theory. In addition, the maximum rate of change of torque control scheme is applied to generate the motor d- and q-axis reference currents which are needed for AIOFL controllers. Another contribution of this paper is to estimate the rotor speed and position. For low-speed estimation, we have to eliminate the current and voltage sensors' dc offsets, detect the stator resistance, and take into account the voltage drop of the inverter power switches. We solve these problems by using a simple technique for eliminating the voltage sensors and a simple method for online estimation of the stator resistance and modeling the voltage drop of the inverter power switches. It is worthwhile to mention that the current sensors' dc offsets, seen on the measured currents, are negligible. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.

57.1.43    N. Salvatore, A. Caponio, F. Neri, S. Stasi, G.L. Cascella, "Optimization of Delayed-State Kalman-Filter-Based Algorithm via Differential Evolution for Sensorless Control of Induction Motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 385 - 394 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes the employment of the differential evolution (DE) to offline optimize the covariance matrices of a new reduced delayed-state Kalman-filter (DSKF)-based algorithm which estimates the stator-flux linkage components, in the stationary reference frame, to realize sensorless control of induction motors (IMs). The DSKF-based algorithm uses the derivatives of the stator-flux components as mathematical model and the stator-voltage equations as observation model so that only a vector of four variables has to be offline optimized. Numerical results, carried out using a low-speed training test, show that the proposed DE-based approach is very promising and clearly outperforms a classical local search and three popular metaheuristics in terms of quality of the final solution for the problem considered in this paper. A novel simple stator-flux-oriented sliding mode (SFO-SM) control scheme is online used in conjunction with the optimized DSKF-based algorithm to improve the robustness of the sensorless IM drive at low speed. The SFO-SM control scheme has closed loops of torque and stator-flux linkage without proportional-plus-integral controllers so that a minimum number of gains has to be tuned.

57.1.44    G. Foo, M.F. Rahman, "Sensorless Direct Torque and Flux-Controlled IPM Synchronous Motor Drive at Very Low Speed Without Signal Injection ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 395 - 403 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel speed-sensorless direct torque and flux control scheme for an interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor drive. The drive uses a new stator flux observer based on the extended rotor flux concept. Due to the simultaneous implementation of stationary and rotating reference frames, the proposed observer does not require any speed adaptation and is inherently sensorless. Unlike speed adaptive observers, the proposed observer is immune to speed estimation errors; thus, its performance at very low speed is improved significantly. A novel stator resistance estimator is incorporated into the sensorless drive to compensate the effects of stator resistance variation. The global asymptotic stabilities of both the flux observer and stator resistance estimator are guaranteed by the Lyapunov stability analysis. Simulation and experimental results at very low speeds, including 0 and 5 r/min, confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

57.1.45    J. Beerten, J. Verveckken, J. Driesen, "Predictive Direct Torque Control for Flux and Torque Ripple Reduction ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 404 - 412 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a prediction scheme is presented to diminish both the torque and flux ripples in a direct torque control (DTC) induction motor drive. In a discrete implementation of the classical DTC scheme, the time delay associated with data processing results in additional torque and flux ripples. This part of the ripples can amount to a significant fraction of the overall ripple if the hysteresis bands are comparable to the maximum torque and flux variations in one sampling interval. This paper presents a prediction scheme with low computational complexity and low parameter sensitivity, both comparable to the standard DTC scheme. The prediction scheme can easily be extended to compensate for multiple time delays when the sampling frequency is raised but the computation time remains unchanged. Experimental results show the diminishing effect of the prediction scheme on the torque and flux ripples.

57.1.46    H.W. de Kock, A.J. Rix, M.J. Kamper, "Optimal Torque Control of Synchronous Machines Based on Finite-Element Analysis ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 413 - 419 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Synchronous machines that are optimally designed using finite-element (FE) software, and control of such machines using powerful digital signal processors (DSPs), are commonplace today. With field-orientated control, the maximum-torque-per-ampere control strategy for unsaturated voltage conditions (below the base speed) is well known; the field-weakening strategy, however, could be rather complicated. In this paper, a straightforward torque control strategy for the entire speed range is proposed and demonstrated. Practical implementation of the method is very simple since the calculations are done offline in an automated process and are therefore removed from the load of the DSP. The process relies on machine-specific data from FE analysis and therefore includes nonlinear effects such as saturation and cross coupling. Simulation and practical results for a permanent-magnet and a reluctance synchronous machine show that the torque is controlled effectively in the entire speed range using this generic method.

57.1.47    Wei-Sheng Huang, Chun-Wei Liu, Pau-Lo Hsu, Syh-Shiuh Yeh, "Precision Control and Compensation of Servomotors and Machine Tools via the Disturbance Observer ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 420 - 429 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The computerized numerical control machine tool is a highly integrated mechatronic system in manufacturing processes. However, uncertainties degrade its motion accuracy. These include modeling errors, parameter variation, friction, and measurement errors that are present in either linear or nonlinear nature. In this paper, a state-space disturbance observer was successfully applied to servomotors to estimate and compensate for the uncertainties of parameter variation and current measurement problems, in the velocity and current loops, respectively. Furthermore, an autotuning procedure was developed accordingly to identify the varied parameters of the motor. Furthermore, by implementing the present servomotor systems in high-precision machine tools, the nonlinear friction compensation was adopted to reduce the slip-stick effect in contouring motion. Experimental results indicate that the roundness error has been significantly reduced from 13.3 to 2.0 ??m by applying the proposed approaches.

57.1.48    T.L. Vandoorn, F.M. De Belie, T.J. Vyncke, J.A. Melkebeek, P. Lataire, "Generation of Multisinusoidal Test Signals for the Identification of Synchronous-Machine Parameters by Using a Voltage-Source Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 430 - 439 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the standstill frequency-response (SSFR) test, accurate electrical-machine models can be identified. However, it can be a time-consuming method, particularly in case the machine has to be identified at low frequencies. To shorten the required time for identification, in this paper, the response on a broadband signal is measured, resulting in a multisine SSFR test. To generate the broadband signal, a high-power linear amplifier can be applied as a waveform generator. As this signal generator is not commonly available in the field, the application of a voltage-source inverter (VSI) is discussed. The multisine SSFR test with a VSI allows swift evaluation of the influence of frequency, saturation, and cross saturation on the q-and d-axis parameters with a signal generator that is often already available to control the machine. Extensive measurements are performed on several permanent-magnet synchronous machines and the method can be extended to synchronous machines with rotor-field winding. By applying a switching converter instead of a linear amplifier, it can be expected that the identification results are affected by the switching actions. Therefore, multisine SSFR tests with either a VSI or a high-power linear amplifier as well as conventional tests as described in the IEEE standard are performed, and the results are compared.

57.1.49    M. Tursini, E. Chiricozzi, R. Petrella, "Feedforward Flux-Weakening Control of Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors Accounting for Resistive Voltage Drop ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 440 - 448 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the flux-weakening control of surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous motors, taking into account the influence of the resistive voltage drop in the stator windings, whose effect is usually neglected in similar studies. First, the motor equations exploiting the optimal torque-speed limits in the flux-weakening region are evaluated and discussed. Then, the influence of the resistive voltage drop is pointed out, highlighting its effect on the setup of the flux-weakening strategy. Hence, a simplified approach to flux-weakening motor control is presented, useful for the practical implementation in microcontrolled drives. Finally, experimental results are shown, using a position tracking application as a test case.

57.1.50    M. Guerreiro, D. Foito, A. Cordeiro, "A Speed Controller for a Two-Winding Induction Motor Based on Diametrical Inversion ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 449 - 456 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The objective is to control the speed of a single- or two-phase induction motor using diametrical inversion (DI) of the stator voltages. DI is a particular reversal of the sequence phases characterized by replacement of the voltage phasor by another that is diametrically opposed to it and rotating in the opposite direction. Every DI is provoked by a change in the sign of the simplest switching function (speed error) of a sliding mode. These changes cause jumps of 180?? of the stator voltage phasor and successive discontinuities of its angular velocity. The main and auxiliary windings are always connected, the speed-error sign decides the rotating field direction, and so, the actual rotor velocity can be reduced (braked) or increased (accelerated). The motor is fed by a rectifier associated with a three-phase inverter. The common point of the windings is connected to the inverter's middle leg, which is switched at high frequency with a duty cycle of 50%. The core of the drive command is a 16-b dsPIC device, which receives the speed-error sign and generates the appropriate pulsewidth modulated signals to the three-phase inverter. Matlab/Simulink simulation and experimental results showed a good performance of the speed controller based on the DI.

57.1.51    B.C. Mecrow, J.W. Bennett, A.G. Jack, D.J. Atkinson, A.J. Freeman, "Drive Topologies for Solar-Powered Aircraft ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 457 - 464 , Jan 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Solar-powered aircraft require electric drives for the main propulsion system. It is critical that these drives provide both very high efficiency and low mass. This paper discusses the relative merits of different machine topologies based upon maximizing efficiency, taking into account power-electronic losses, motor losses, mass, and size penalties. Laminated machines are usually limited in their efficiency at light load because of their iron losses. This paper shows how, by combining a high pole number with an ultralow loss lamination material, these machines can be more efficient than other more complex arrangements which have been adopted by others. A demonstrator machine has been built and predicted efficiencies have been validated by test. It has then been used to propel a solar plane to over 60000 feet and extend the aircraft flight-endurance world record from 30 to 84 h.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 2, Feb 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.2.1    S. Nishikata, F. Tatsuta, "A New Interconnecting Method for Wind Turbine/Generators in a Wind Farm and Basic Performances of the Integrated System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 468 - 475 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new interconnecting method for a cluster of wind turbine/generators is proposed, and some examples of the basic characteristics of the integrated system are shown. This method can be achieved with a wind turbine generating system using a shaft generator system. A group of wind turbine/generators can be interconnected easily with the proposed method, and high reliability and electric output power with high quality are also expected. Moreover, since this method enables transmission of the generated power through a long-distance dc transmission line, the optimum site for wind turbines can be selected so as to acquire the maximum wind energy.

57.2.2    M. Molinas, J.A. Suul, T. Undeland, "Extending the Life of Gear Box in Wind Generators by Smoothing Transient Torque With STATCOM ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 476 - 484 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Gearboxes for wind turbines must ensure high reliability over a period of 20 years, withstanding cumulative and transient loads. One main challenge to this is represented by electromagnetic torque transients caused by grid faults and disturbances, which will result in significant stresses and fatigue of the gearbox. Possibilities for limiting the torque transients in fixed-speed wind generators have not been previously reported. This paper presents a technique by which the transient torques during recovery after a grid fault can be smoothed in a wind farm with induction generators directly connected to the grid. A model-based control technique using the quasi-stationary equivalent circuit of the system is suggested for controlling the torque with a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). The basis of the approach consists of controlling the induction generator terminal voltage by the injection/absorption of reactive current using the STATCOM. By controlling the terminal voltage as a function of the generator speed during the recovery process, the electromagnetic torque of the generator is indirectly controlled, in order to reduce the drive train mechanical stresses caused by the characteristics of the induction machine when decelerating through the maximum torque region. The control concept is shown by time-domain simulations, where the smoothing effect of the proposed technique on a wind turbine is seen during the recovery after a three-phase-to-ground-fault condition. The influence of the shaft stiffness in a multimass drive train model is discussed, and the performance of the control concept in the case of parallel connection of several turbines is investigated to discuss the applicability in a wind farm.

57.2.3    R. Takahashi, H. Kinoshita, T. Murata, J. Tamura, M. Sugimasa, A. Komura, M. Futami, "Output Power Smoothing and Hydrogen Production by Using Variable Speed Wind Generators ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a combination system of wind energy conversion and hydrogen production. Hydrogen is expected as an alternative energy source in the future, and this is the best way to produce it from renewable energy like wind energy. On the other hand, the output of a wind generator, in general, fluctuates greatly due to wind speed variations, and thus the output fluctuations can have a serious influence on the power system operation. In the proposed system, a variable speed wind generator is adopted, and an electrolyzer is installed in parallel with it for hydrogen production. Output power from the wind generator is smoothed and supplied to the power system as well as to the electrolyzer based on the cooperative control method. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated by simulation analyses, in which simulations are performed by using PSCAD/EMTDC.

57.2.4    Seul-Ki Kim, Jin-Hong Jeon, Jong-Bo Ahn, Byongjun Lee, Sae-Hyuk Kwon, "Frequency-Shift Acceleration Control for Anti-Islanding of a Distributed-Generation Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 494 - 504 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes frequency-shift acceleration control for anti-islanding of an inverter-based distributed generator. The proposed control is based on frequency positive feedback in the synchronous dq frame. Overall, the scheme of the proposed control is described. The design methodology of the frequency-shift acceleration gain is presented based on small-signal stability and step input response. The proposed control is intended for zero nondetection zone, noncompromised power quality, and easy implementation without additional devices required. Simulation and experimental results verify that the proposed anti-islanding scheme and the gain design approach are effective and useful in real applications.

57.2.5    M. Nymand, M.A.E. Andersen, "High-Efficiency Isolated Boost DC–DC Converter for High-Power Low-Voltage Fuel-Cell Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 505 - 514 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new design approach achieving very high conversion efficiency in low-voltage high-power isolated boost dc-dc converters is presented. The transformer eddy-current and proximity effects are analyzed, demonstrating that an extensive interleaving of primary and secondary windings is needed to avoid high winding losses. The analysis of transformer leakage inductance reveals that extremely low leakage inductance can be achieved, allowing stored energy to be dissipated. Power MOSFETs fully rated for repetitive avalanches allow primary-side voltage clamp circuits to be eliminated. The oversizing of the primary-switch voltage rating can thus be avoided, significantly reducing switch-conduction losses. Finally, silicon carbide rectifying diodes allow fast diode turn-off, further reducing losses. Detailed test results from a 1.5-kW full-bridge boost dc-dc converter verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate very high conversion efficiency. The efficiency at minimum input voltage and maximum power is 96.8%. The maximum efficiency of the proposed converter is 98%.

57.2.6    Sang-Hoon Park, Gil-Ro Cha, Yong-Chae Jung, Chung-Yuen Won, "Design and Application for PV Generation System Using a Soft-Switching Boost Converter With SARC ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 515 - 522 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion for a photovoltaic (PV) system, a soft-switching boost converter using a simple auxiliary resonant circuit, which is composed of an auxiliary switch, a diode, a resonant inductor, and a resonant capacitor, is adopted in this paper. The conventional boost converter decreases the efficiency because of hard switching, which generates losses when the switches are turned on/off. During this interval, all switches in the adopted circuit perform zero-current switching by the resonant inductor at turn-on, and zero-voltage switching by the resonant capacitor at turn-off. This switching pattern can reduce the switching losses, voltage and current stress of the switching device. Moreover, it is very easy to control. In this paper, we have analyzed the operational principles of the adopted soft-switching boost converter, and it is designed for PV generation system. Simulation and experimental results are presented to confirm the theoretical analysis.

57.2.7    C. Heising, R. Bartelt, M. Oettmeier, V. Staudt, A. Steimel, "Analysis of Single-Phase 50-kW 16.7-Hz PI-Controlled Four-Quadrant Line-Side Converter Under Different Grid Characteristics ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 523 - 531 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Four-quadrant line-side converters supplying pulsewidth-modulation (PWM)-inverter-fed induction machines are a standard application in ac railway traction vehicles. In the scope of an extensive project aiming at an advanced overall control scheme for traction vehicles taking, among others, grid interaction and stability into account, the steady-state and transient operations of a single-phase 50-kW 16.7-Hz four-quadrant line-side converter is analyzed in detail. The converter is fed either by an inverter or via a slip-ring induction generator with dc excitation, operating as railway-grid rotary-converter representation. In this paper, the structure of the 50-kW test bench, representing a railway grid and a traction vehicle, the applied simulation concept, and the personal-computer-based real-time control hardware used are introduced. Measurement results for sinusoidal as well as highly disturbed line voltage verify the proper operation of the line-side converter, whose proportional-integral control scheme is described in detail. Two different loads are used: switched resistor and motor PWM inverter.

57.2.8    Zixin Li, Yaohua Li, Ping Wang, Haibin Zhu, Congwei Liu, Fanqiang Gao, "Single-Loop Digital Control of High-Power 400-Hz Ground Power Unit for Airplanes ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 532 - 543 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the influence of one-sample delay for sampling and computation in digital control on the bandwidth of the inner current loop of a 400-Hz ground power unit (GPU) is analyzed first. The results show that it is difficult and even impossible for high-power 400-Hz GPUs to maintain low total harmonic distortion content in the output voltage with the conventional proportional-integral-based double-loop control. To improve the performance, resonant controllers with parallel structure which are widely used in active power filters are applied to the single-loop control of the 400-Hz GPU. The parameter design criterion for the parallel resonant controllers is discussed in the discrete time domain. Meanwhile, adoption of proportional gain in the single-loop control is investigated. The results show that it can improve the performance little and may cause instability problems. Comparisons between different control methods for the 400-Hz GPU are also made, and the single-loop control method in this paper seems to be the most suitable one in terms of simplicity and performance. Experiments on a 16-b fixed-point DSP-controlled 90-kVA 400-Hz GPU prototype show satisfactory results of the single-loop method feeding linear/nonlinear and balanced/unbalanced loads.

57.2.9    R. Muszynski, J. Deskur, "Damping of Torsional Vibrations in High-Dynamic Industrial Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 544 - 552 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Theoretical, design, and experimental aspects of the control of the drive with an elastic coupling are considered in this paper. Control structures suitable for application in industrial high-dynamic drives are developed. In such drives, the first resonance frequency can be higher than a hundred hertz, and the next frequency can be a thousand hertz or higher. The solution is oriented to industrial plants, whose computation ability is lower and signal delay is greater than in laboratory plants based on DSP. The authors discuss the problem and show methods of suppressing torsion vibrations in speed-control systems with only one sensor, i.e., a motor position encoder. The presented solution is based on an adequately designed PID controller.

57.2.10    T. Orlowska-Kowalska, M. Dybkowski, K. Szabat, "Adaptive Sliding-Mode Neuro-Fuzzy Control of the Two-Mass Induction Motor Drive Without Mechanical Sensors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 553 - 564 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the concept of a model reference adaptive control of a sensorless induction motor (IM) drive with elastic joint is proposed. An adaptive speed controller uses fuzzy neural network equipped with an additional option for online tuning of its chosen parameters. A sliding-mode neuro-fuzzy controller is used as the speed controller, whose connective weights are trained online according to the error between the estimated motor speed and the speed given by the reference model. The speed of the vector-controlled IM is estimated using the MRASCC rotor speed and a flux estimator. Such a control structure is proposed to damp torsional vibrations in a two-mass system in an effective way. It is shown that torsional oscillations can be successfully suppressed in the proposed control structure, using only one basic feedback from the motor speed given by the proposed speed estimator. Simulation results are verified by experimental tests over a wide range of motor speed and drive parameter changes.

57.2.11    J. Guzinski, H. Abu-Rub, M. Diguet, Z. Krzeminski, A. Lewicki, "Speed and Load Torque Observer Application in High-Speed Train Electric Drive ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 565 - 574 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an application of induction motor mechanical speed and load torque observers in high-speed train drives. The observers are applied for a 1.2-MW electric drive with an induction motor. The goal of using such observers is to utilize computed variables for diagnostic purposes of speed sensors and torque transmission system. The concept of diagnostic system is presented in this paper, and proper criteria are proposed. The suggested system is designed to work without a speed sensor in the case of existing sensor faults. Monitored motor load torque is used to limit the maximum motor torque in the case of existing problems in the gearbox. The results of simulation and experimental investigations for a 1.2-MW induction motor drive are presented.

57.2.12    L. de Lillo, L. Empringham, P.W. Wheeler, S. Khwan-On, C. Gerada, M.N. Othman, Xiaoyan Huang, "Multiphase Power Converter Drive for Fault-Tolerant Machine Development in Aerospace Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes an experimental tool to evaluate and support the development of fault-tolerant machines designed for aerospace motor drives. Aerospace applications involve essentially safety-critical systems which should be able to overcome hardware or software faults and therefore need to be fault tolerant. A way of achieving this is to introduce variable degrees of redundancy into the system by duplicating one or all of the operations within the system itself. Looking at motor drives, multiphase machines, such as multiphase brushless dc machines, are considered to be good candidates in the design of fault-tolerant aerospace motor drives. This paper introduces a multiphase two-level inverter using a flexible and reliable field-programmable gate-array/digital-signal-processor controller for data acquisition, motor control, and fault monitoring to study the fault tolerance of such systems.

57.2.13    M.B. Camara, H. Gualous, F. Gustin, A. Berthon, B. Dakyo, "DC/DC Converter Design for Supercapacitor and Battery Power Management in Hybrid Vehicle Applications—Polynomial Control Strategy ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 587 - 597 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents supercapacitor (SCAP) and battery modeling with an original energy management strategy in a hybrid storage technology. The studied dc power supply is composed of SCAPs and batteries. SCAPs are dimensioned for peak power requirement, and batteries provide the power in steady state. A bidirectional dc/dc converter is used between SCAPs and the dc bus. Batteries are directly connected to the dc bus. The originality of this study is focused on SCAP behavior modeling and energy management strategy. The proposed strategy is based on a polynomial (RST) controller. For reasons of cost and existing components (not optimized) such as batteries and semiconductors, the experimental test benches are designed in reduced scale. The characterized packs of SCAPs include two modules of ten cells in series for each one and present a maximum voltage of 27 V. The proposed strategy is implemented on a PIC18F4431 microcontroller for two dc/dc converter topology controls. Experimental and simulation results obtained from the polynomial control strategy are presented, analyzed, and compared with that of classical proportional-integral control.

57.2.14    F.L. Mapelli, D. Tarsitano, M. Mauri, "Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle: Modeling, Prototype Realization, and Inverter Losses Reduction Analysis ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 598 - 607 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays, the greatest part of the effort to reduce pollution emissions is directed toward the hybridization of automotive drive trains. In particular, the design of hybrid vehicles requires a complete system analysis, including the optimization of the electric and electronic devices installed on the vehicle and the design of all the mechanical connections between the different power sources to reach the required performances. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and prototype realization of a plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV). Specifically, an energetic model was developed in order to analyze and optimize the power flux between the different parts. This model was experimentally validated using a prototype PHEV. In addition, in order to improve the driving range in an all-electric model (all-electric range), a detailed analysis of the inverter control was performed, because this component is one of the key components of the power train. In order to reduce inverter losses and dimensions, several control methods can be adopted. In this paper, a direct self-control strategy for reducing the inverter losses is presented and validated.

57.2.15    Z. Amjadi, S.S. Williamson, "Power-Electronics-Based Solutions for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Storage and Management Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 608 - 616 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Batteries, ultracapacitors (UCs), and fuel cells are widely being proposed for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs) as an electric power source or an energy storage unit. In general, the design of an intelligent control strategy for coordinated power distribution is a critical issue for UC-supported PHEV power systems. Implementation of several control methods has been presented in the past, with the goal of improving battery life and overall vehicle efficiency. It is clear that the control objectives vary with respect to vehicle velocity, power demand, and state of charge of both the batteries and UCs. Hence, an optimal control strategy design is the most critical aspect of an all-electric/plug-in hybrid electric vehicle operational characteristic. Although much effort has been made to improve the life of PHEV energy storage systems (ESSs), including research on energy storage device chemistries, this paper, on the contrary, highlights the fact that the fundamental problem lies within the design of power-electronics-based energy-management converters and the development of smarter control algorithms. This paper initially discusses battery and UC characteristics and then goes on to provide a detailed comparison of various proposed control strategies and proposes the use of precise power electronic converter topologies. Finally, this paper summarizes the benefits of the various techniques and suggests the most viable solutions for on-board power management, more specific to PHEVs with multiple/hybrid ESSs.

57.2.16    K. Gummi, M. Ferdowsi, "Double-Input DC–DC Power Electronic Converters for Electric-Drive Vehicles—Topology Exploration and Synthesis Using a Single-Pole Triple-Throw Switch ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 617 - 623 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Hybridizing energy systems using storage devices has gained popularity in transportation and distributed electric power generation applications. Traditionally, several independent power electronic converters (PECs) were utilized in such practices. Due to their reduced part count, double-input (DI) PECs prove to be a promising choice in hybridizing energy systems. A few topologies for multi-input converters have been reported in the literature; however, there is no systematic approach to synthesize them. Furthermore, all possible topologies are not completely explored, and it is difficult to derive new converters from existing topologies. Therefore, in this paper, a systematic approach to derive DI converters by using a single-pole triple-throw switch as a building block is presented.

57.2.17    E. Manla, A. Nasiri, C.H. Rentel, M. Hughes, "Modeling of Zinc Bromide Energy Storage for Vehicular Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 624 - 632 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Energy storage devices such as lithium-ion and nickel-metal hydrate batteries and ultracapacitors have been considered for utilization in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and HEVs to improve efficiency and performance and reduce gas mileage. In this paper, we analyze and model an advanced energy storage device, namely, zinc bromide, for vehicular applications. This system has high energy and power density, high efficiency, and long life. A series of tests has been conducted on the storage to create an electrical model of the system. The modeling results show that the open-circuit voltage of the battery is a direct function of the battery's state of charge (SOC). In addition, the battery internal resistance is also a function of SOC at constant temperature. A Kalman filtering technique is also designed to adjust the estimated SOC according to battery current.

57.2.18    Yimin Gao, M. Ehsani, "Design and Control Methodology of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 633 - 640 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper systematically discusses the design and control methodologies of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Design methodology is focused on battery energy and power capacity design. Two kinds of typical batteries, namely, NiMH and Li-ion, are discussed. Control strategies focus on all electric range and charge depletion range operations. In addition, a constrained engine on and off control strategy is discussed for charge-sustained operation. Simulation has been performed for an example passenger car. The simulation results indicate that a significant amount of fuel can be displaced by electric energy in typical urban driving.

57.2.19    M. Van Wieringen, R. Pop-Iliev, "Development of a Dual-Fuel Power Generation System for an Extended Range Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 641 - 648 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In recent decades, there has been a growing global concern with regard to vehicle-generated greenhouse gas emissions and the resulting air pollution. In response, automotive original equipment manufacturers focus their efforts on developing ??greener?? propulsion solutions in order to meet the societal demand and ecological need for clean transportation. Hydrogen is an ideal vehicle fuel for use not only in fuel cells (FCs) but also in a spark-ignition internal combustion engines (ICEs). The combustion of hydrogen ( H2) fuel offers vastly superior tail-pipe emissions when compared with gasoline and can offer improved performance. H2 is ideally suited for use in an extended range plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architecture where engine efficiency can be optimized for a single engine speed. H2 ICEs are significantly more cost effective then an equivalent-sized H2 FC making them a better near-term solution. Before hydrogen can replace gasoline and diesel as the main source of automotive fuel, a number of hurdles must first be overcome. One such hurdle includes developing a suitable hydrogen infrastructure, which could take decades. As such, dual-fuel capabilities will help to create a transition between gasoline- and hydrogen-powered vehicles in the near term, while a full-service hydrogen infrastructure is developed.

57.2.20    P.C. Desai, M. Krishnamurthy, N. Schofield, A. Emadi, "Novel Switched Reluctance Machine Configuration With Higher Number of Rotor Poles Than Stator Poles: Concept to Implementation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 649 - 659 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There is a great demand for efficient, quiet, reliable, and cost-effective motor drives for propulsion systems in hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Owing to a rigid structure and the absence of magnetic source on the rotor, a switched reluctance machine (SRM) is inherently robust and cost effective. In spite of these advantages, several challenges in the control of this machine remain an issue, including high levels of torque ripple, acoustic noise, and a relatively low torque density. This paper presents a new family of SRMs which have higher number of rotor poles than stator poles. Using a newly defined pole design formula, several novel combinations of the stator-rotor poles have been proposed. From the simulation and experimental analysis of a prototype 6/10 configuration, it has been observed that this machine produces higher torque per unit volume and comparable torque ripple when compared to a conventional 6/4 SRM with similar number of phases and constraints in volume. The results presented in this paper make this family of machines a strong contender for survivable high-performance applications for automotive propulsion systems. The simulation and experimental results for the prototype 6/10 configuration have been presented and compared to a conventional 6/4 design for verification.

57.2.21    Weili Li, Junci Cao, Xiaochen Zhang, "Electrothermal Analysis of Induction Motor With Compound Cage Rotor Used for PHEV ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 660 - 668 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new kind of induction motor with compound cage rotor (IMCCR) is proposed in this paper, in which rotor bars are composed of upper parts made of alloy (conductor for electric and magnetic) and lower parts made of cast aluminum. Calculation models for IMCCR electromagnetic field and whole region (including stator and rotor) temperature field analyses are established. From a motor electromagnetic analysis using the finite-element method, loss distributions are obtained, which are taken as the heat source in thermal analysis. In this paper, the starting and thermal performances of IMCCR operating under rated load are studied. From the comparison of the obtained results with test data, it can be seen that IMCCR would be a better choice for the driving system in electrical vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs). Furthermore, the influences of compound bar material on motor temperature distribution are analyzed, which would be helpful for the research on electrical materials used in machines. Considering the working conditions of motor used in PHEV and EV, the effects of ambient temperature and output load on motor thermal performance also have been studied.

57.2.22    N.P. Shah, A.D. Hirzel, Baekhyun Cho, "Transmissionless Selectively Aligned Surface-Permanent-Magnet BLDC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicles ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 669 - 677 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An axial-flux permanent-magnet brushless motor is designed with variable stator alignment of independent stators, thus allowing field weakening via a controllable and variable generated-voltage constant. This feature is particularly valuable in vehicle traction motors with large constant-power speed ratio, where there is also a strong desire to eliminate the need for gear changes and keep the overall size of the motor drive as small as possible. The advantage of high pole count as applied to this technique is discussed, and the simulation impact on motor drive kilovoltampere, efficiency, gradability, acceleration, and maximum speed over typical driving cycles is shown.

57.2.23    Jian-Long Kuo, Kai-Lun Chao, Li-Shiang Lee, "Dual Mechatronic MPPT Controllers With PN and OPSO Control Algorithms for the Rotatable Solar Panel in PHEV System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 678 - 689 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper aims at increasing the efficiency of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) by using rotatable solar panel. Conventionally, the PHEV with solar panel has a critical problem of putting on the roof of a PHEV. Since the limited space on the roof of the vehicle is not large enough, rotatable structure is considered to track the sunlight by mechanical Petri-net (PN)-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control. A stepping motor is used to control the rotating angle of the rotating solar panel. In addition, the electric MPPT with orthogonal particle swarm optimization (OPSO) method is also included. With the dual mechatronic MPPT with PN+OPSO control algorithms, the maximum power in a limited roof space of the vehicle is possible. The solar panel has not to be very large. This will increase the efficiency of the PHEV. It is convinced that the proposed dual mechatronic PN+OPSO MPPT controllers are helpful to the PHEV system.

57.2.24    A. Hajimiragha, C.A. Caizares, M.W. Fowler, A. Elkamel, "Optimal Transition to Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Ontario, Canada, Considering the Electricity-Grid Limitations ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 690 - 701 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyzes the feasibility of optimally utilizing Ontario's grid potential for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) during off-peak periods. Based on a simplified zonal model of Ontario's electricity-transmission network and a zonal pattern of base-load generation capacity from 2009 to 2025, an optimization model is developed to find the optimal, as well as maximum, penetrations of PHEVs into Ontario's transport sector. The results of this paper demonstrate that the present and projected electricity grid in Ontario can be optimally exploited for charging almost 6% of the total vehicles in Ontario or 12.5% of the vehicles in Toronto's transport sector by 2025; this corresponds to approximately 500 000 PHEVs that can be charged from the grid without any additional transmission or power-generation investments beyond those currently planned.

57.2.25    Chien-Hung Liu, Yuan-Yih Hsu, "Design of a Self-Tuning PI Controller for a STATCOM Using Particle Swarm Optimization ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 702 - 715 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A self-tuning proportional-integral (PI) controller in which the controller gains are adapted using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is proposed for a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM). An efficient formula for the estimation of system load impedance using real-time measurements is derived. Based on the estimated system load, a PSO algorithm, which takes the best particle gains, the best global gains, and previous change of gains into account, is employed to reach the desired controller gains. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed PSO self-tuning PI controller for a STATCOM, experimental results for a system under different loading conditions are presented. Results from the self-tuning PI controller are compared with those from the fixed-gain PI controllers.

57.2.26    Jung-Ik Ha, "Current Prediction in Vector-Controlled PWM Inverters Using Single DC-Link Current Sensor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 716 - 726 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a technique for predicting phase currents in vector-controlled pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) inverters using single dc-link current sensor. There is a limitation for current measurements in the inverters. The measurements are executed in the effective voltages, not in the zero voltage. The current measured in the dc-link and then reconstructed to the phase value is used as a feedback value for controlling an ac machine. Here, there is a difference between the reconstructed current and measured currents at the top or bottom of PWM carrier such as in the conventional inverters. It changes according to the reference voltages, load conditions, noises, and disturbances. Next, it can cause deterioration of the performance of current control by increasing ripples in currents and torque. This paper analyzes the difference in the drives of a permanent magnet synchronous motor and proposes a method for reducing it. The proposed method predicts the currents measured at the fixed sampling points from those measured in the dc-link and the PWM patterns of voltage outputs. It can reduce current ripples and the experimental results verify it. It is applicable to the vapor compression refrigeration process with the low-cost and high-performance feature.

57.2.27    A. Kuperman, Y. Horen, S. Tapuchi, "A Differential State-Space Approach to Simultaneous Emulation of Uncertainties and Disturbances in Voltage-Controlled Brushless Motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 727 - 734 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method that allows emulation of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances without any mechanical and electrical parts supplementary to the electric drive is proposed. The emulating signal reflecting the desired changes is created in software and added to the nominal controller output, forcing the unperturbed motor output to resemble the output of a motor with actual uncertainties and disturbances. The proposed method allows simultaneous emulation of any combination of parameter variations and unpredicted disturbances. The method can be related to a class of advanced hardware-in-the-loop simulations, where the nominal hardware is present in the test bed in addition to the controller. The technique can be used to thoroughly test the performance of advanced control algorithms before mass production or for didactic purposes in an educational laboratory using motion control kits found on the market. Simulation and experimental results are reported to prove the feasibility of the proposed approach.

57.2.28    Huang-Jen Chiu, Yu-Kang Lo, Jun-Ting Chen, Shih-Jen Cheng, Chung-Yi Lin, Shann-Chyi Mou, "A High-Efficiency Dimmable LED Driver for Low-Power Lighting Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 735 - 743 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a dimmable light-emitting diode (LED) driver with adaptive feedback control for low-power lighting applications. An improved pulsewidth modulation dimming technique is studied for regulating the LED current and brightness. Under universal input voltage operation, high efficiency and high power factor can be achieved by a coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter power factor correction (PFC) converter with a simple commercial transition-mode PFC controller. The operation principles and design considerations of the studied LED driver are analyzed and discussed. A laboratory prototype is also designed and tested to verify the feasibility.

57.2.29    N.A. Keeling, G.A. Covic, J.T. Boys, "A Unity-Power-Factor IPT Pickup for High-Power Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 744 - 751 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the design of a new unity-power-factor inductive-power-transfer (IPT) pickup using an LCL tuned network for application in high-power systems. This new topology has the potential to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of high-power pickups by minimizing the reactive currents in the pickup coil and the reflected VAR loading on the power supply. In a practical system, the rectifier and associated processing circuitry distorts the current waveforms, adding an effective inductive loading to the pickup circuit. A series compensation capacitor is added to correct this loading. A design strategy is developed for the new topology, and two example circuits are constructed and compared experimentally with a traditional parallel-tuned (LC) pickup operating on a monorail-based IPT system.

57.2.30    Wei Jiang, B. Fahimi, "Active Current Sharing and Source Management in Fuel Cell–Battery Hybrid Power System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 752 - 761 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fuel cells (FCs) are being considered as a potential alternative in long term to replace diesel/gasoline combustion engines in vehicles and emergency power sources. However, high cost and slow dynamic response of FC still persist as the main hurdles for wider applications. To remedy this problem, an energy storage system with adequate power capacity has to be incorporated. This paper presents a novel control design for FC-battery hybrid power system which enables both active current sharing and power source management control in such hybrid systems. Different hybrid power system structures are investigated and evaluated; dual-converter structure and four modes of operation are defined to provide efficient and sustainable solution to such a hybrid power system. A novel integrated control system with inherent current sharing and generation mode swapping capability is proposed; based on system component status, the control system is able to regulate the output power from each source under different scenarios. The dedicated control system is implemented in a TMS320F2812 DSP, and experimental results for an FC-battery-based uninterruptible power supply are provided to demonstrate the static and dynamic performance of the control system.

57.2.31    M.Y. Ibrahim, I.J. Spark, A. Percy, "New Control Concept for a Gantry Tractor Comprising a “Chorus Line” of Synchronized Modules ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 762 - 768 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new method of automatically maneuvering a gantry tractor through right-angle turns, U-turns, and narrow gates is described in this paper. In order to maximize traction and maneuverability, both the wheel-angle steering effect and the drive-wheel-speed steering effect are integrated. This technique produces identical and cooperative redundant steering systems. The necessary wheel angles and drive wheel speed have been simulated. The advantage of cooperative redundancy is that when any steering system begins to fail, it is reinforced by the other steering system.

57.2.32    R.A. Gupta, A.A. Masoud, Mo-Yuen Chow, "A Delay-Tolerant Potential-Field-Based Network Implementation of an Integrated Navigation System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 769 - 783 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Network controllers (NCs) are devices that are capable of converting dynamic, spatially extended, and functionally specialized modules into a taskable goal-oriented group called networked control system. This paper examines the practical aspects of designing and building an NC that uses the Internet as a communication medium. It focuses on finding compatible controller components that can be integrated via a host structure in a manner that makes it possible to network, in real-time, a webcam, an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), and a remote computer server along with the necessary operator software interface. The aim is to deskill the UGV navigation process and yet maintain a robust performance. The structure of the suggested controller, its components, and the manner in which they are interfaced are described. Thorough experimental results along with performance assessment and comparisons to a previously implemented NC are provided.

57.2.33    Chow Yin Lai, F.L. Lewis, V. Venkataramanan, Xuemei Ren, Shuzhi Sam Ge, T. Liew, "Disturbance and Friction Compensations in Hard Disk Drives Using Neural Networks ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 784 - 792 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we show that by using two adaptive neural networks (NNs), each of which is tailored for a specific task, the tracking performance of the hard-disk-drive (HDD) actuator can be significantly improved. The first NN utilizes accelerometer signal to detect external vibrations and compensates for its effect on HDD position via feedforward action. The second NN is designed to compensate for pivot friction. The appealing advantage of the NN compensators is that the design does not involve any information on the plant, sensor, disturbance dynamics, and friction model. The stability of the proposed scheme is analyzed by the Lyapunov criterion. Experimental results show that the tracking performance of the HDDs can be improved significantly with the use of the NN compensators as compared to the case without compensation.

57.2.34    Xiangxue Li, Weidong Qiu, Dong Zheng, Kefei Chen, Jianhua Li, "Anonymity Enhancement on Robust and Efficient Password-Authenticated Key Agreement Using Smart Cards ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 793 - 800 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: By exploiting a smart card, this paper presents a robust and efficient password-authenticated key agreement scheme. This paper strengthens the security of the scheme by addressing untraceability property such that any third party over the communication channel cannot tell whether or not he has seen the same (unknown) smart card twice through the authentication sessions. The proposed remedy also prevents a kind of denial of service attack found in the original scheme. High performance and other good functionalities are preserved.

57.2.35    Hyun-lark Do, "Energy-Recovery Sustain Driver With Low Circulating Current ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 801 - 804 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An energy-recovery sustain driver with low circulating current for a plasma display panel (PDP) is proposed. The energy stored in the external resonant inductors during the reverse-recovery periods of the diodes in the sustain driver is transferred to the input voltage source and the energy-recovery capacitors. The proposed sustain driver can reduce the circulating current and relieve the thermal problems of the main sustain switches. Experimental results obtained on a 42-in high-definition PDP with a resolution of 1024 ?? 768 are discussed.

57.2.36    Z. Zhou, Y. Du, C. Belcher, "Corrections to “Transforming Traditional Iris Recognition Systems to Work in Nonideal Situations” [Aug 09 3203-3213] ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 805 , Feb 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors of the above titled paper (ibid., vol 56, no. 8, pp. 3203-3213, Aug. 09) point out that the credits for Figs. 14 and 17 were missing in the final print version. These two figures were edited from the figures in another paper (see ref. [2]) and used to introduce the background of the Multimodal Biometrics Grand Challenge organized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 3, March 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.3.1    J.G. Rocha, L.M. Goncalves, P.F. Rocha, M.P. Silva, S. Lanceros-Mendez, "Energy Harvesting From Piezoelectric Materials Fully Integrated in Footwear ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 813 - 819 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the last few years, there has been an increasing demand for low-power and portable-energy sources due to the development and mass consumption of portable electronic devices. Furthermore, the portable-energy sources must be associated with environmental issues and imposed regulations. These demands support research in the areas of portable-energy generation methods. In this scope, piezoelectric materials become a strong candidate for energy generation and storage in future applications. This paper describes the use of piezoelectric polymers in order to harvest energy from people walking and the fabrication of a shoe capable of generating and accumulating the energy. In this scope, electroactive ??-polyvinylidene fluoride used as energy harvesting element was introduced into a bicolor sole prepared by injection, together with the electronics needed to increase energy transfer and storage efficiency. An electrostatic generator was also included in order to increase energy harvesting.

57.3.2    S. Mehraeen, S. Jagannathan, K.A. Corzine, "Energy Harvesting From Vibration With Alternate Scavenging Circuitry and Tapered Cantilever Beam ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 820 - 830 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Piezoelectric transducers are increasingly being used to harvest energy from environmental vibrations in order to either power remote sensors or charge batteries that power the sensors. In this paper, a new voltage compensation scheme for high-voltage-based (> 100 V) energy harvesting is introduced, and its fundamental concepts, as well as the operation details, are elaborated. This scheme, when applied to the voltage inversion method [synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI)], provides an increase of over 14% in harvested power when compared to the parallel inversion method (parallel SSHI) alone and more than 50% in the case of series inversion method (series SSHI). Second, tapered cantilever beams were shown to be more effective in generating a uniform strain profile over rectangular and trapezoidal beams if they are precisely shaped, resulting in a significant increase in harvested power over available methods in the literature from laboratory experimental tests. In addition, a simplified method to design such a beam is introduced. Finally, a field test of the proposed tapered beam is conducted by using a dozer for earth-moving applications, and experimental results are discussed.

57.3.3    Chunhua Liu, K.T. Chau, Xiaodong Zhang, "An Efficient Wind–Photovoltaic Hybrid Generation System Using Doubly Excited Permanent-Magnet Brushless Machine ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 831 - 839 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With ever-increasing concerns on energy issues, the development of renewable energy sources is becoming more and more attractive. This paper first reviews both the wind power and photovoltaic (PV) power generation techniques and their maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) methods. Then, a new stand-alone wind-PV hybrid generation system is proposed for application to remote and isolated areas. For the wind power generation branch, a new doubly excited permanent-magnet brushless machine is used to capture the maximum wind power by using online flux control. For the PV power generation branch, a single-ended primary inductance converter is adopted to harness the maximum solar power by tuning the duty cycle. The experimental results confirm that the proposed hybrid generation system can provide high efficiency with the use of MPPT.

57.3.4    A. Tabesh, L.G. Frechette, "A Low-Power Stand-Alone Adaptive Circuit for Harvesting Energy From a Piezoelectric Micropower Generator ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 840 - 849 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An adaptive energy-harvesting circuit with low power dissipation is presented and demonstrated, which is useful for efficient ac/dc voltage conversion of a piezoelectric micropower generator. The circuit operates stand-alone, and it extracts the piezoelectric strain energy independent of the load and piezoelectric parameters without using any external sensor. The circuit consists of a voltage-doubler rectifier, a step-down switching converter, and an analog controller operating with a single supply voltage in the range of 2.5-15 V. The controller uses the piezoelectric voltage as a feedback and regulates the rectified voltage to adaptively improve the extracted power. The nonscalable power dissipation of the controller unit is less than 0.05 mW, and the efficiency of the circuit is about 60% for output power levels above 0.5 mW. Experimental verifications of the circuit show the following: 1) the circuit notably increases the extracted power from a piezoelectric element compared to a simple full-bridge diode rectifier without control circuitry, and 2) the efficiency of the circuit is dominantly determined by its switching converter. The simplicity of the circuit facilitates the development of efficient piezoelectric energy harvesters for low-power applications such as wireless sensors and portable devices.

57.3.5    A. Khaligh, Peng Zeng, Cong Zheng, "Kinetic Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Technologies—State of the Art ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 850 - 860 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the latest progress in kinetic energy harvesting for wide applications ranging from implanted devices and wearable electronic devices to mobile electronics and self-powered wireless network nodes. The advances in energy harvesters adopting piezoelectric and electromagnetic transduction mechanisms are presented. Piezoelectric generators convert mechanical strain on the active material to electric charge while electromagnetic generators make use of the relative motion between a conductor and a magnetic flux to induce charge in the conductor. The existent kinetic piezoelectric generators including human-powered and vibration-based devices are comprehensively addressed. In addition, the electromagnetic generators which include resonant, rotational, and ??hybrid?? devices are reviewed. In the conclusion part of this paper, a comparison between the transduction methods and future application trends is given.

57.3.6    J.P. Carmo, L.M. Goncalves, J.H. Correia, "Thermoelectric Microconverter for Energy Harvesting Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 861 - 867 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a solution for energy microgeneration through energy harvesting by taking advantage of temperature differences that are converted into electrical energy using the Seebeck effect. A thermoelectric microconverter for energy scavenging systems that can supply low-power electronics was fabricated using thin films of bismuth and antimony tellurides. Thin films of n-type bismuth (Bi2Te3) and p-type antimony (Sb2Te3) tellurides were obtained by thermal coevaporation with thermoelectric figures of merit (ZT) at room temperature of 0.84 and 0.5 and power factors (PF ?? 10-3 [W ?? K-1 ??m-2]) of 4.87 and 2.81, respectively. The films were patterned by photolithography and wet-etching techniques. The goal for this thermoelectric microconverter is to supply individual electroencephalogram (EEG) modules composed by an electrode, processing electronics, and an antenna, where the power consumption ranges from hundredths of microwatts to a few milliwatts. Moreover, these wireless EEG modules allow patients to maintain their mobility while simultaneously having their electrical brain activity monitored.

57.3.7    W.G. Li, Siyuan He, Shudong Yu, "Improving Power Density of a Cantilever Piezoelectric Power Harvester Through a Curved L-Shaped Proof Mass ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 868 - 876 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a cantilever piezoelectric power harvester with a curved L-shaped proof mass. With this novel proof mass, a lower fundamental frequency and a higher power density (output power per unit volume) were achieved. Three prototypes of 0.242 cm3 in volume were fabricated and tested. A power density of 1.45 mW/cm3 was achieved for the sinusoidal excitation of 0.75 g. The power harvester was also tested on a shoe at various walking speeds, and it generated an average power of 49 ??W at 3.0 mi/h.

57.3.8    F. Krismer, J.W. Kolar, "Accurate Power Loss Model Derivation of a High-Current Dual Active Bridge Converter for an Automotive Application ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 881 - 891 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An accurate power loss model for a high-efficiency dual active bridge converter, which provides a bidirectional electrical interface between a 12-V battery and a high-voltage (HV) dc bus in a fuel cell car, is derived. The nominal power is 2 kW, the HV dc bus varies between 240 and 450 V, and the battery voltage range is between 11 and 16 V. Consequently, battery currents of up to 200 A occur at nominal power. In automotive applications, high converter efficiency and high power densities are required. Thus, it is necessary to accurately predict the dissipated power for each power component in order to identify and to properly design the heavily loaded parts of the converter. In combination with measured efficiency values, it is shown that conventional converter analysis predicts substantially inaccurate efficiencies for the given converter. This paper describes the main reasons why the conventional method fails and documents the different steps required to predict the power losses more accurately. With the presented converter prototype, an efficiency of more than 92% is achieved at an output power of 2 kW in a wide input/output voltage range.

57.3.9    F. Khoucha, S.M. Lagoun, K. Marouani, A. Kheloui, M. El Hachemi Benbouzid, "Hybrid Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel-Inverter Induction-Motor-Drive Direct Torque Control for Automotive Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 892 - 899 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel motor drive direct torque control (DTC) scheme for electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid EVs. The control method is based on DTC operating principles. The stator voltage vector reference is computed from the stator flux and torque errors imposed by the flux and torque controllers. This voltage reference is then generated using a hybrid cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter, where each phase of the inverter can be implemented using a dc source, which would be available from fuel cells, batteries, or ultracapacitors. This inverter provides nearly sinusoidal voltages with very low distortion, even without filtering, using fewer switching devices. In addition, the multilevel inverter can generate a high and fixed switching frequency output voltage with fewer switching losses, since only the small power cells of the inverter operate at a high switching rate. Therefore, a high performance and also efficient torque and flux controllers are obtained, enabling a DTC solution for multilevel-inverter-powered motor drives.

57.3.10    Hae-Ryong Choi, Gyu-Ha Choe, "A Multiobjective Parametric Optimization for Passenger-Car Steering Actuator ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 900 - 908 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robust design for the size optimization of a motor-driven steer applied in a compact car, using the design of simulation trial, is described and illustrated in this paper. The objective of the optimal design using the combined design of simulation trial and finite-element analysis (FEA) approach is to ensure that the motor-driven steer's performance for compact cars is insensitive to noise, with moderate computational effort. The optimal design process takes into consideration noises that arise in the unexpected load condition, such as tolerances for parameter variation of the electric motor and reduction gear in the actuator. The optimization is realized by a simulation and analysis tool that integrates the Target-wise Parameter Optimization and the FEA. The proposed procedure can not only reduce the size of an actuator but also raise the system efficiency of the motor-driven steering (MDS). In this paper, we have used an orthogonal array L18(21 x 37) to implement simulation trials and made a response table and graph of control factors. Eventually, the optimal values of the control factors, the diameter of the stator core, the width of the wire, the turn number of the wire, the gear ratio of the worm and worm-wheel gear, the surface flux density of the magnet, the armature core's stack factor, and the module ratio of the worm and worm-wheel gear were decided, and then, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was increased to 20.58%. The simulation results demonstrated that the proposed method applied to the optimal design of the MDS' actuator was feasible and efficient. In this paper, the design optimization process is described, and the results are presented.

57.3.11    M. Cugnet, J. Sabatier, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, B. Sahut, A. Oustaloup, J.-M. Tarascon, "On Lead-Acid-Battery Resistance and Cranking-Capability Estimation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With hybrid and electric vehicle developments, battery-monitoring systems have to meet the new requirements of the automobile industry. This paper deals with one of them, the battery's ability to start a vehicle, also called battery crankability, through battery-resistance estimation. A fractional-order model obtained by system identification is used to estimate the internal resistance of lead-acid batteries. Fractional-order modeling permits an accurate simulation of the battery electrical behavior with a low number of parameters. Moreover, the high-frequency gain of the fractional model is directly linked to the battery resistance. A resistance-estimation method based on a frequency-invalidation method is, thus, proposed. It is demonstrated that the battery's available power that defines battery crankability is correlated to the battery resistance. Thus, a battery-crankability estimator using the battery resistance is suggested. Validation tests are carried out with various batteries. This estimator cannot be embedded in a microcontroller due to the linear-matrix-inequality-based optimization algorithm in the invalidation-model method used. A simplified algorithm is finally proposed, and its efficiency is proved.

57.3.12    M. Montazeri-Gh, M. Soleymani, "Investigation of the Energy Regeneration of Active Suspension System in Hybrid Electric Vehicles ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 918 - 925 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the idea of the energy regeneration of active suspension (AS) system in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). For this purpose, extensive simulation and control methods are utilized to develop a simultaneous simulation in which both HEV powertrain and AS systems are simulated in a unified medium. In addition, a hybrid energy storage system (ESS) comprising electrochemical batteries and ultracapacitors (UCs) is proposed for this application. Simulation results reveal that the regeneration of the AS energy results in an improved fuel economy. Moreover, by using the hybrid ESS, AS load fluctuations are transferred from the batteries to the UCs, which, in turn, will improve the efficiency of the batteries and increase their life.

57.3.13    Z. Amjadi, S.S. Williamson, "A Novel Control Technique for a Switched-Capacitor-Converter-Based Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Storage System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 926 - 934 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the analysis and novel controller design for a hybrid switched-capacitor bidirectional dc/dc converter. Features of voltage step-down, step-up, and bidirectional power flow are integrated into a single circuit. The novel control strategy enables simpler dynamics compared to a standard buck converter with an input filter, good regulation capability, low electromagnetic interference, lower source current ripple, ease of control, and continuous input current waveform in both modes of operation (buck and boost modes).

57.3.14    S. Ostroznik, P. Bajec, P. Zajec, "A Study of a Hybrid Filter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 935 - 942 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents results of a comparative study of two possible hybrid filter topologies, comprised of a passive and active stage, which can be implemented in any general dc supply distribution system. The main filter task is to mitigate current dynamics in the dc distribution system in order to prolong the operational life of delicate dc supplies, i.e., fuel cells, and to reduce the electromagnetic interferences between sensitive electronic circuits connected to the distribution net. The active stage is incorporated into the passive part in order to: 1) improve its insufficient attenuation in the low-frequency range and 2) source or sink any surplus energy flow between the dc source and load in case of low-frequency current dynamics. Two active stage topologies are proposed, analyzed, and evaluated in detail: 1) an active filter based on a single-leg inverter and 2) an active filter based on an electronic smoothing inductor. A special focus is on achieving attenuation at different voltage levels of the auxiliary supply and at different coupling inductances. The impact of the current ripple generated by the switching mode of the active filter operation is discussed as well. The active filter based on the single-leg inverter offers superior attenuation, particularly in the low-frequency range where attenuation is improved nearly for 15 dB compared to the passive filter.

57.3.15    J. Dixon, I. Nakashima, E.F. Arcos, M. Ortuzar, "Electric Vehicle Using a Combination of Ultracapacitors and ZEBRA Battery ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 943 - 949 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The sodium-nickel chloride battery, commonly known as ZEBRA, has been used for an experimental electric vehicle (EV). These batteries are cheaper than Li-ion cells and have a comparable specific energy (in watt-hours per kilogram), but one important limitation is their poor specific power (in watts per kilogram). The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate experimentally that the combination of ZEBRA batteries and ultracapacitors (UCAPs) can solve the lack of specific power, allowing an excellent performance in both acceleration and regenerative braking in an EV. The UCAP system was connected to the ZEBRA battery and to the traction inverter through a buck-boost-type dc-dc converter, which manages the energy flow with the help of DSP controllers. The vehicle uses a brushless dc motor with a nominal power of 32 kW and a peak power of 53 kW. The control system measures and stores the following parameters: battery voltage, car speed to adjust the energy stored in the UCAPs, instantaneous currents in both terminals (battery and UCAPs), and present voltage of the UCAP. The increase in range with UCAPs results in more than 16% in city tests, where the application of this type of vehicle is being oriented. The results also show that this alternative is cheaper than Li-ion powered electric cars.

57.3.16    Fangang Meng, Shiyan Yang, Wei Yang, Xiaozhong Jin, "Comments and Further Results on “A New Critical Formula and Mathematical Model of Double-Tap Interphase Reactor in a Six-Phase Tap-Changer Diode Rectifier” ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 950 - 953 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents some comments and further results concerning the mathematical model of double-tap interphase reactor (IPR) in a six-phase tap-changer diode rectifier. On the basis of coupling circuit principle and phase-coordinate method, the proposed model, which reduces the mutual inductance coupling completely, describes the double-tap IPR by an admittance matrix containing the information about the connection way and electrical quantities. Some computer simulation and experiments are included to support the theoretical analysis of the model.

57.3.17    J.M. Espi Huerta, J. Castello-Moreno, J.R. Fischer, R. Garcia-Gil, "A Synchronous Reference Frame Robust Predictive Current Control for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 954 - 962 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new predictive current control for three-phase grid-connected inverters in the synchronous reference frame. The control combines a deadbeat control law with a diagonal Luenberger observer to estimate the future value of the grid currents. It provides a decoupled control of the active and reactive power and offers robustness against the computational delay inherent in the digital implementation and against filter and grid-impedance uncertainties. This control exhibits a very fast current response while widely improving the gain and phase margins of the traditional predictive controllers.

57.3.18    Dong-Eok Kim, Dong-Choon Lee, "Feedback Linearization Control of Three-Phase UPS Inverter Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 963 - 968 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a feedback linearization technique is proposed to control the output voltage control of three-phase uninterruptible power supply systems. First, a nonlinear model including the output LC filters is derived from the power balance condition between the inverter output terminal and the load side. Then, input-output feedback linearization is applied to the nonlinear model to make it linear. The controller of the linearized model is designed by linear control theory. The tracking control law is obtained with a pole placement technique. It is shown experimentally that the proposed control scheme gives high dynamic responses in response to load variation as well as a zero steady-state error.

57.3.19    Bing Cheng, T.R. Tesch, "Torque Feedforward Control Technique for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 969 - 974 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a torque control method for interior permanent-magnet (IPM) motors operating in a wide speed range requiring high torque/power accuracy and a fast dynamic response. Using the fact that the motor parameters are nonlinear and significantly vary with direct and quadrature current operating points, a new optimal operating plane is generated. This operating plane combines the maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) curve, current limit circle, and maximum torque per volt (MTPV) curve, voltage limitations, and torque calculation under the nonlinear parameter variations. As a result, new feedforward tables are generated, which make full use of measured motor parameters. The new torque and flux regulators built around the feedforward tables provide a fast dynamic response and accurate steady-state torque/power production. The proposed controller was implemented and successfully tested on a 105-kW IPM motor electric drive used in a fuel-cell vehicle program.

57.3.20    M. Hajian, J. Soltani, G.A. Markadeh, S. Hosseinnia, "Adaptive Nonlinear Direct Torque Control of Sensorless IM Drives With Efficiency Optimization ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 975 - 985 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Efficiency optimization of induction motor (IM) drives is a major subject based on these drives' extensive use in the industry. Among the different proposed methods, a model-based approach (MBA) seems to be the fast one. However, this method needs the motor parameters that must be correctly identified. On the other hand, a search-based approach (SBA) is a parameter-independent method but needs a greater convergence time. In this paper, a novel model-based loss-minimization approach is presented, which is combined with a backstepping direct torque control of the IM drive. An improved search-based method for efficiency optimization is also introduced. The proposed controller is realized in the stationary reference frame and has a fast-tracking capability of rotor flux and electromagnetic torque. Moreover, a sliding-mode rotor-flux observer is introduced, which is employed for simultaneous determination of rotor-flux space vector, rotor speed, and rotor time constant. The proposed control idea is experimentally implemented in real time using a field-programmable gate-array board synchronized with a personal computer. Simulation and experimental results are finally presented to verify the effectiveness of the method proposed.

57.3.21    S. Bolognani, L. Peretti, M. Zigliotto, E. Bertotto, "Commissioning of Electromechanical Conversion Models for High Dynamic PMSM Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 986 - 993 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Several emerging applications require fast and precise torque control. Torque measurements are still expensive, bulky, and delicate. On the other hand, estimation techniques are all valid in principle, but their accuracy is largely affected by model identification and commissioning. This paper presents an accurate model for an effective torque estimation based on voltage and current measurements. The model includes all motor losses to get an enhanced overall accuracy, along with a fast response. The key feature is the commissioning procedure, based on a set of offline measurements. Procedure details and experimental results on a laboratory prototype are included.

57.3.22    Dezheng Wu, S.D. Pekarek, B. Fahimi, "A Voltage-Input-Based Field Reconstruction Technique for Efficient Modeling of the Fields and Forces Within Induction Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 994 - 1001 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In recent research, a field reconstruction (FR) technique was developed to enable more efficient evaluation of the magnetic fields and forces within induction machines. By using the FR, the results of two finite-element (FE) solutions (in which stator current is used as the input to the FE model) are used to establish basis functions for the flux densities in the air gap of the machine. The basis functions are then used to predict the magnetic fields and forces under arbitrary stator excitation. In this paper, the technique is enhanced to enable modeling with stator voltage (rather than stator current) as the model input. This enables a more convenient coupling of the FR model to external circuit components to model overall system performance.

57.3.23    K. Borisov, H.L. Ginn, "Multifunctional VSC Based on a Novel Fortescue Reference Signal Generator ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1002 - 1007 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel reference signal generator (RSG) for voltage-source converters (VSCs) that enables the maximization of its functionality. The proposed RSG is based on a combination of the Fortescue decomposition with recursive discrete Fourier transform. The method is characterized by computational efficiency, excellent detection accuracy, and fast dynamic response. An experimental prototype of a multifunctional VSC with the proposed RSG has been built, and experimental results are presented. The functionality of the VSC can be extended to such modes of operation as harmonic compensator, active power filter, pulsewidth modulator (PWM) rectifier, PWM inverter, balancing compensator, and STATCOM, with the update of only six coefficients in the RSG.

57.3.24    M. Jinno, Po-Yuan Chen, Yu-Chun Lai, K. Harada, "Investigation on the Ripple Voltage and the Stability of SR Buck Converters With High Output Current and Low Output Voltage ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1008 - 1016 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Synchronous rectifiers (SRs) composed of MOSFETs have recently been employed to replace the conventional rectifiers with diodes. SRs are widely used in switched-mode power supplies with low output voltage and high output current for efficiency improvement. Owing to the high-efficiency characteristic, it is adequate to use an SR buck converter in a voltage regulator for powering a central processing unit. Normally, such SR buck converter must operate at fairly high switching frequency for miniaturizing a whole circuit and achieving a fast response. However, at the conditions of low output voltage, high output current, and high switching frequency, the influence of parasitic elements to circuit operation will become extremely obvious. Therefore, the design considerations concerning the ripple voltage and the stability of such SR converters should be carefully investigated and clarified. By establishing the equivalent circuit and using a state-space averaged method, the ripple ratio of output voltage and the static and dynamic characteristics of the SR buck converter with nonnegligible parasitic elements are obtained. Thus, the design criteria concerning the output ripple voltage and the stability are clarified.

57.3.25    Eung-Ho Kim, Bong-Hwan Kwon, "Zero-Voltage- and Zero-Current-Switching Full-Bridge Converter With Secondary Resonance ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1017 - 1025 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A zero-voltage- and zero-current-switching full-bridge (FB) converter with secondary resonance is presented and analyzed. The primary side of the converter is composed of FB insulated-gate bipolar transistors, which are driven by phase-shift control. The secondary side is composed of a resonant tank and a half-wave rectifier. Without an auxiliary circuit, zero-voltage switching (for leading-leg switches) and zero-current switching (for lagging-leg switches) are achieved in the entire operating range. To implement the converter without an additional inductor, the leakage inductance of the transformer is utilized as the resonant inductor. Due to its many advantages, including high efficiency, minimum number of devices, and low cost, this converter is attractive for high-voltage and high-power applications. The analysis and design considerations of the converter are presented. A prototype was implemented for an application requiring a 5-kW output power, an input-voltage range varying from 250 to 350 V, and a 350-V output voltage. The experimental results obtained from a prototype verify the analysis. The prototype's efficiency at full load is over 95.5%.

57.3.26    H. Komurcugil, "Steady-State Analysis and Passivity-Based Control of Single-Phase PWM Current-Source Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1026 - 1030 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a passivity-based control (PBC) strategy for single-phase pulsewidth-modulated current-source inverters feeding a resistive load. In this strategy, it is required to estimate the load resistance and the inductor-current reference. However, the estimation accuracy depends on the inductance value when the load resistance and the inductor-current reference are estimated using an existing adaptive algorithm. In this paper, it is shown that the inductor-current reference estimation is possible at the expense of a constant reference function for the inductor current. In addition, the design of inductor and the sensitivity of the output voltage to the value of output capacitor used in the controller are studied extensively through the steady-state analysis of the proposed PBC. It is also shown that even very large values of the estimation error do not give rise to significant change in the output-voltage amplitude. Computer simulations and experiments are presented to verify the theoretical considerations.

57.3.27    K. Raggl, T. Nussbaumer, J.W. Kolar, "Guideline for a Simplified Differential-Mode EMI Filter Design ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1031 - 1040 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design of electromagnetic interference (EMI) input filters, needed for switched power converters to fulfill the regulatory standards, is typically associated with high development effort. This paper presents a guideline for a simplified differential-mode (DM) filter design. First, a procedure to estimate the required filter attenuation based on the total input rms current using only a few equations is given. Second, a volume optimization of the needed DM filter based on the previously calculated filter attenuation and volumetric component parameters is introduced. It is shown that a minimal volume can be found for a certain optimal number of filter stages. The considerations are exemplified for two single-phase power factor correction converters operated in continuous and discontinuous conduction modes, respectively. Finally, EMI measurements done with a 300-W power converter prototype prove the proposed filter design method.

57.3.28    Jun Zhang, D.D.-C. Lu, Ting Sun, "Flyback-Based Single-Stage Power-Factor-Correction Scheme With Time-Multiplexing Control ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1041 - 1049 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A flyback-based single-stage power-factor-correction scheme with time-multiplexing control (TMC) is proposed. As a portion of the input power will be transferred to the output after the first power processing to improve the conversion efficiency, the output voltage would contain substantial low-frequency ripple. An isolated auxiliary circuit based on forward topology is therefore added to the converter to serve as a buffer and a ripple suppression circuit. With TMC, all the power processes can be achieved by a single transformer to lower the size and cost of the converter. In addition, the proposed converter inherits bulk capacitor (auxiliary) voltage clamping capability. The experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed scheme with high power factor, natural bulk capacitor (auxiliary) clamping voltage, and tight output regulation.

57.3.29    K. Natori, T. Tsuji, K. Ohnishi, A. Hace, K. Jezernik, "Time-Delay Compensation by Communication Disturbance Observer for Bilateral Teleoperation Under Time-Varying Delay ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1050 - 1062 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the effectiveness of a time-delay compensation method based on the concept of network disturbance and communication disturbance observer for bilateral teleoperation systems under time-varying delay. The most efficient feature of the compensation method is that it works without time-delay models (model-based time-delay compensation approaches like Smith predictor usually need time-delay models). Therefore, the method is expected to be widely applied to network-based control systems, in which time delay is usually unknown and time varying. In this paper, the validity of the time-delay compensation method in the cases of both constant delay and time-varying delay is verified by experimental results compared with Smith predictor.

57.3.30    Min-Sik Rho, Sam-Young Kim, "Development of Robust Starting System Using Sensorless Vector Drive for a Microturbine ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1063 - 1073 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the development of a robust starting system for a microturbine (MT) with a single-shaft structure. Because the operating speed for the ignition and motoring of an MT is close to several tens of thousands of revolutions per minute, stable high-speed operation of the high-speed motor-generator (HSMG) is a critical issue in realizing a starting system for a single shaft. A sensorless vector inverter was developed for this high-speed operation. To successfully start an MT with the developed starter in practice, two new starting algorithms were proposed. One is a constant power output control algorithm that can maintain a perfect motoring schedule with significantly deteriorated performance of the input battery power in a vehicle under an extremely low temperature and severe engine drag. The other is a new reliable ignition verification logic that uses the inverter output current when the exhausted gas temperature sensor does not work properly. Since the two proposed algorithms are derived from the torque and q-axis current formulas for the vector drive, no additional hardware is required to apply them to an existing MT. In this paper, a single-shaft MT with a 10-kW inverter, 6-kW booster converter, and 25-kW HSMG was developed, and the proposed algorithms were applied to motoring. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithms, experiments were carried out under variable conditions, such as extremely low temperature (-32??C) and room temperature. The MT has used in a military truck for supplying electrical power and bleeding air.

57.3.31    K. Suwanratchatamanee, M. Matsumoto, S. Hashimoto, "Robotic Tactile Sensor System and Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1074 - 1087 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a tactile sensor system for a robot manipulator and an active-sensing technique to realize 3-D object recognitions concerning object shape, object surface normal, and object edge tracing with experimental results. The proposed tactile sensor units implemented on the robot hand consist of three thin sheets of force-sensitive resistors arranged triangularly with the peripheral circuits. One potential application of the proposed techniques is to realize an effective human-robot cooperation to move an object together by utilizing the control of a hand pose to keep the direction of the hand normal to the object surface in three dimensions, which is often necessary when pushing an object. Another is a 3-D object edge tracing. The proposed techniques can be employed in industrial processes such as welding and inspection to eliminate manual teaching procedures for searching the object edge automatically before doing the welding process. In these applications, information about the object shape or orientation is not required in advance.

57.3.32    Han-Pang Huang, Jiu-Lou Yan, Teng-Hu Cheng, "Development and Fuzzy Control of a Pipe Inspection Robot ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1088 - 1095 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new pipe inspection robot, called the National Taiwan University (NTU) Navigator, is described in this paper. The NTU Navigator is lightweight, modularly designed, and easily manipulated and repaired. The robot consists of camera, steering, driving, and functional mechanism modules. Each module has its own control circuit and functions. In addition, a new stretch mechanism is designed and optimized in order to adapt the robot to pipes of various radii. The robot can be easily controlled using GUI on a PC. A stable and smooth fuzzy steering controller for operating inside the pipes is constructed. The stability and performance of the fuzzy controller are shown and compared with both the conventional proportional-integral-derivative controller and the flatness-based controller. Simulations and experiments further justify the performance of the NTU Navigator.

57.3.33    Yi-Sheng Huang, Cheng-Chung Sung, "Function-Based Controller for Linear Motor Control Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1096 - 1105 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology for designing and implementing position control for permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) systems. We utilize both a new function-based sliding-mode control (SMC) method and direct thrust control (DTC). It has been established that chattering is a problem in conventional SMC and stems from discontinuous control. However, the new function-based controller allows designers to employ fuzzy membership functions directly. The advantage of the proposed method is that the chattering phenomenon can be reduced and/or completely eliminated. The design of the control method for the proposed system can be performed without the need for great expertise as it does not require the use of very complicated techniques. It should be noted that we have managed to control the inherent flux linkage problems associated with PMLSMs. To our knowledge, this is the first work that combines the new SMC with DTC techniques in order to create a position control for a real-world PMLSM. Simulation and experimental results verify that the proposed method can achieve favorable control performance with regard to parameter variations and external disturbances.

57.3.34    J.-C. Olivier, J.-C. Le Claire, L. Loron, "A Nonlinear Phenomenon on Self-Oscillating Current Controllers: The Indirect Synchronization ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1106 - 1111 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a particular phenomenon called indirect synchronization is investigated on self-oscillating current controllers. This phenomenon appears in medium frequencies, when the reference signal frequency tends to the switching frequency. In a previous work, it has been shown that the indirect synchronization causes discontinuities on the frequential response of the system, making the various linear or continuous models inefficient. For high-accuracy applications, such as active filtering or high-precision power supply, these discontinuities are a real problem. Thus, it seems important to offer an analytical description of this phenomenon. In this paper, an analytical model of the indirect synchronization phenomenon is proposed and checked by simulation and experimental results.

57.3.35    A. Tay, Hui Tong Chua, Yuheng Wang, Yit Sung Ngo, "Equipment Design and Control of Advanced Thermal-Processing Module in Lithography ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1112 - 1119 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A programmable multizone thermal-processing module is developed to achieve wafer-temperature uniformity during the thermal-cycling process in lithography. The bake and chill steps are conducted sequentially within the same module without any substrate movement. An array of thermoelectric devices (TEDs) is used to provide a distributed heating to the substrate for uniformity and transient temperature control. The TEDs also provide active cooling for chilling the substrate to a temperature suitable for subsequent processing steps. This design is an improvement of a previous work, eliminating the need of a mica heater. The system is designed via detailed modeling and simulations based on first-principle heat-transfer analysis. Experimental results on the prototype demonstrate about ??0.4??C spatial uniformity during the entire thermal cycle.

57.3.36    Liang-Chia Chen, Xuan-Loc Nguyen, Hsin-Sing Huang, Jin-Liang Chen, "Dynamic Surface Profilometry and Resonant-Mode Detection for Microstructure Characterization Using Nonconventional Stroboscopic Interferometry ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1120 - 1126 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an innovative method of automatic resonant-mode detection employing nonconventional stroboscopic interferometry is developed for nanoscale dynamic characterization of microstructures. Considering that a tested microstructure having an individual vibrating excitation source cannot be analyzed directly by the traditional stroboscopic method, an optical microscopy based on new stroboscopic interferometry was established to achieve resonant-mode detection and full-field vibratory out-of-plane surface profilometry of microstructures. To verify the effectiveness of the developed methodology, a crossbridge microbeam was measured to analyze the resonant vibratory modes and full-field dynamic-mode characterization. The experimental results confirm that the dynamic behavior of the microstructures can be accurately characterized with satisfactory mode-detection accuracy and surface profilometry.

57.3.37    J.J. Yin, W. Tang, K.F. Man, "A Comparison of Optimization Algorithms for Biological Neural Network Identification ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 1127 - 1131 , March 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recently, the identification of biological neural networks has been reformulated as an optimization problem based on a framework of adaptive synchronization. In this paper, four different optimization algorithms, including genetic algorithm, jumping gene genetic algorithm (JGGA), tabu search, and simulated annealing, have been applied for this optimization problem. Based on the simulation results, their performances are compared, and it is concluded that JGGA can outperform the other three methods in term of minimizing the synchronization and parameter estimation errors.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 4, April 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.4.1    Wei Li, G. Joos, J. Belanger, "Real-Time Simulation of a Wind Turbine Generator Coupled With a Battery Supercapacitor Energy Storage System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1137 - 1145 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Wind power generation studies of slow phenomena using a detailed model can be difficult to perform with a conventional offline simulation program. Due to the computational power and high-speed input and output, a real-time simulator is capable of conducting repetitive simulations of wind profiles in a short time with detailed models of critical components and allows testing of prototype controllers through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). This paper discusses methods to overcome the challenges of real-time simulation of wind systems, characterized by their complexity and high-frequency switching. A hybrid flow-battery supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS), coupled in a wind turbine generator to smooth wind power, is studied by real-time HIL simulation. The prototype controller is embedded in one real-time simulator, while the rest of the system is implemented in another independent simulator. The simulation results of the detailed wind system model show that the hybrid ESS has a lower battery cost, higher battery longevity, and improved overall efficiency over its reference ESS.

57.4.2    M.O.O. Faruque, V. Dinavahi, "Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of Power Electronic Systems Using Adaptive Discretization ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1146 - 1158 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation of power electronic systems using a unique adaptive discretization technique based on the input of the system, where the coefficient matrices and system equations are changed while the simulation is running. The voltage-source-converter (VSC)-based HVDC system is used as a case study. Two z-transform-based discretization techniques, known as the step-invariant transformation (SIT) and the ramp-invariant transformation, and one of their derivative time-shifted SIT are applied for simulating the VSC-HVDC system. Discrete switching synchronization algorithms are used to accommodate the asynchronous events that take place in between two discrete simulation points. The HIL simulation is implemented using an off-the-shelf PC cluster interfaced with a digital controller. The simulator and the controller are connected through I/O ports, which facilitate the exchange of analog and digital signals. A 4-kW VSC-HVDC experimental setup is used to validate the simulation results, using the same digital controller as that in the HIL simulation to supply the necessary gate pulses for the experimental VSCs. A comparative study of the results obtained through offline, HIL simulation, and the experiment is presented.

57.4.3    D. Westermann, M. Kratz, "A Real-Time Development Platform for the Next Generation of Power System Control Functions ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1159 - 1166 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A real-time development platform for simulation studies of control and operation of the next generation of power system control functions is introduced. The platform covers all aspects of the challenges of future power system requirements related to operation and control. In this paper, the requirements of a simulation platform will be formulated. A laboratory setup with special attention to the utilization of real-time simulation equipment and some typical reference applications will be described.

57.4.4    Sunan Huang, Kok Kiong Tan, "Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for the Development of an Experimental Linear Drive ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1167 - 1174 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Linear drives (LDs) are designed to meet industrial applications like factory automation, material testing, packaging, pumping, and stamping. Because of the complexity of LDs, it is very important to analyze the dynamics and characteristics of the controlled systems before actual testing. The purpose of this paper is to build a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulator that can provide an effective platform for developing and testing real-time LD systems. The HIL system comprises of a dynamical friction model, a dSPACE control system, and a human-machine interface. The developed system is tested by a proportional-integral-derivative controller.

57.4.5    A.-L. Allegre, A. Bouscayrol, J.-N. Verhille, P. Delarue, E. Chattot, S. El-Fassi, "Reduced-Scale-Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of an Innovative Subway ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1175 - 1185 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An innovative subway has been proposed using super capacitors as the main energy source. Different steps have been defined in order to check the performance of this new supply system on a real subway. In this paper, a reduced-scale hardware-in-the-loop simulation is presented for initial experimental validations on a reduced-power experimental setup. Special attention is paid to reproducing torque, acceleration, and jerk limitations of the real system.

57.4.6    L. Gauchia, J. Sanz, "A Per-Unit Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Energy System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1186 - 1194 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays, hybrid energy systems have a great applicability for both vehicle and stationary purposes. The design, development, and testing of these systems are not straightforward due to the high number of elements involved, the complexity, and cost. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) is an appropriate approach to simulate the hybrid system as it combines both physical and simulated elements. However, the HIL simulation sizing may vary from watts to megawatts, depending on the application. If, instead of carrying out the simulation in absolute values, it is carried out in per-unit (p.u.) values, the HIL test bench will be independent of the application power rating. Hence, a p.u. HIL test bench to simulate a hybrid energy system is proposed. To prove the usefulness and applicability of the HIL simulation presented, a particular fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle is simulated in real time. Results show that the proposed p.u. HIL simulation is appropriate for the simulation of high-power systems.

57.4.7    S. Lentijo, S. D'Arco, A. Monti, "Comparing the Dynamic Performances of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Interfaces ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1195 - 1207 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of two interface design solutions for power hardware-in-the-loop experiments. The evaluation is performed according to four figures of merit that focus on both the dynamic and steady-state performances of the interface systems. An analytical process is then used to both compare the different interfaces and, more importantly, to define a design procedure based on an optimization problem. The primary advantage of the proposed approach is that the figures of merits can be calculated by accounting not only for the topology of the interface but also for the structure and characteristics of the controller adopted for the interface itself.

57.4.8    S. Grubic, B. Amlang, W. Schumacher, A. Wenzel, "A High-Performance Electronic Hardware-in-the-Loop Drive–Load Simulation Using a Linear Inverter (LinVerter) ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1208 - 1216 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In modern drive systems, inverters are a fundamental component. To improve the performance of this component, ensure their operability, and check their reliability, motor-load testbeds are used during the process of development. Unfortunately, there are several drawbacks and disadvantages inherent to conventional motor-load testbeds. In order to avoid these problems, a new concept for a hardware-in-the-loop-based electronic testbed has been developed. A well-defined second inverter in combination with a mathematical model of the machine-load combination is used to replace the conventional test setup. Different machine-load combinations can be easily simulated with one system by simply changing the mathematical models. This paper shows the system topology, analyzes the components of the testbed, and presents the experimental results that verify the feasibility and capability of the method proposed.

57.4.9    Y. Srinivasa Rao, M.C. Chandorkar, "Real-Time Electrical Load Emulator Using Optimal Feedback Control Technique ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1217 - 1225 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a method of emulating electrical loads using power electronic converters. The loads include machines such as induction motors and their associated mechanical load and also more complex machine systems such as wind-driven generators. The load emulator is, effectively, a dynamically controllable source or sink which is capable of bidirectional power exchange with either a grid or another power electronic converter system. Using load emulation, the feasibility of connecting a particular machine to a grid under various load conditions can be examined without the need for any electromechanical machinery. This paper considers the case of a power electronic voltage source inverter (VSI) emulating a three-phase induction motor connected to a three-phase ac grid. The VSI is operated in a mode where the current drawn from the ac grid is controlled by closed-loop control. The consistency of the experimental results with the simulation results proves the ability of the emulator and the proposed testing approach.

57.4.10    S. Karimi, P. Poure, S. Saadate, "An HIL-Based Reconfigurable Platform for Design, Implementation, and Verification of Electrical System Digital Controllers ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1226 - 1236 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a top-down design flow for design, implementation, and verification of digital controllers associated with electrical systems. In the proposed design flow, the functional description of the studied system and the detailed electronic hardware design and validation of the digital controller are performed using a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)-based reconfigurable platform in a unique design environment. The way of using this design flow and the reconfigurable HIL platform is analyzed through a fault-tolerant shunt active power filter application. The experimental results obtained with a laboratory prototype fault-tolerant active filter demonstrate the performances and the efficiency of the proposed design flow and HIL-based reconfigurable platform.

57.4.11    F.R.P. Pinto, A.P. Vega-Leal, "A Test of HIL COTS Technology for Fuel Cell Systems Emulation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1237 - 1244 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The objective of this paper is twofold: a simple formal test to verify that an emulator hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) technology is well suited for specific purposes (the HIL test) and the implementation of an HIL system using very common commercial-off-the-shelf technology (Peripheral component interconnect eXtensions for instrumentation modular instrumentation, LabVIEW Real Time, and Simulink Software Platforms). The HIL approach is used to develop electronic controllers for fuel cell systems (FCSs) by emulation of the FCS. As a conclusion, the HIL test in that specific application is assessed.

57.4.12    A.J. Roscoe, A. Mackay, G.M. Burt, J.R. McDonald, "Architecture of a Network-in-the-Loop Environment for Characterizing AC Power-System Behavior ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1245 - 1253 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the method by which a large hardware-in-the-loop environment has been realized for three-phase ac power systems. The environment allows an entire laboratory power-network topology (generators, loads, controls, protection devices, and switches) to be placed in the loop of a large power-network simulation. The system is realized by using a real-time power-network simulator, which interacts with the hardware via the indirect control of a large synchronous generator and by measuring currents flowing from its terminals. These measured currents are injected into the simulation via current sources to close the loop. This paper describes the system architecture and, most importantly, the calibration methodologies which have been developed to overcome measurement and loop latencies. In particular, a new ??phase advance?? calibration removes the requirement to add unwanted components into the simulated network to compensate for loop delay. The results of early commissioning experiments are demonstrated. The present system performance limits under transient conditions (approximately 0.25 Hz/s and 30 V/s to contain peak phase- and voltage-tracking errors within 5?? and 1%) are defined mainly by the controllability of the synchronous generator.

57.4.13    M. Steurer, C.S. Edrington, M. Sloderbeck, Wei Ren, J. Langston, "A Megawatt-Scale Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Setup for Motor Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1254 - 1260 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We report on the application of a 5-MW variable voltage source (VVS) amplifier converter for utilization in power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) experiments with megawatt-scale motor drives. In particular, a commercial 2.5-MW variable speed motor drive (VSD) with active front end was connected to a virtual power system using the VVS for integrating the drive with a simulated power system. An illustrative example is given, whereby a 4-MW gas turbine generator system, including various loads, is simulated and interfaced with the VSD hardware in the lab through the VVS using current feedback to the simulation. Mechanical loading is applied to the motor via an identical 2.5-MW dynamometer connected to the same shaft. This paper first describes the PHIL facility, illustrates the challenges of powering a motor drive from a controlled voltage source converter at the multimegawatt scale, and provides experimental results from dynamic simulations. While certain challenges remain with the accuracy of the interface, it is concluded that PHIL simulations at the megawatt power level are possible and may prove useful for validating models of drive systems in the future.

57.4.14    D.C. Patel, R.R. Sawant, M.C. Chandorkar, "Three-Dimensional Flux Vector Modulation of Four-Leg Sine-Wave Output Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1261 - 1269 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The time integral of the output voltage vector of a three-phase inverter is often termed the inverter flux vector. This paper addresses the control of a three-phase four-leg sine-wave output inverter having an LC filter at its output, by controlling the flux vector in three dimensions. Flux vector control has the property that an output filter resonance is actively damped by an output voltage control loop alone. Furthermore, an inverter switching action inherently regulates the output voltage rapidly against dc-bus voltage variations. The flux vector control of sine-wave output inverters finds several applications in three-phase four-wire systems. This paper presents a flux modulation method for three-phase four-leg inverters feeding unbalanced and nonlinear loads. All the necessary steps for the digital implementation of the flux modulator are presented. The switching behavior of the modulator has been evaluated, which is useful for the variable fundamental frequency applications of the inverters. To provide experimental validation, the modulator is implemented as a part of the control system for a stand-alone three-phase four-leg inverter with an LC filter at its output. Control system details are also provided. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the modulator and control system in providing balanced voltages at the output of the LC filter even under highly unbalanced conditions with nonlinear loads. The resonance damping and voltage regulation properties of the modulator are also apparent from the experimental results.

57.4.15    G. Foo, M.F. Rahman, "Sensorless Sliding-Mode MTPA Control of an IPM Synchronous Motor Drive Using a Sliding-Mode Observer and HF Signal Injection ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1270 - 1278 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a nonlinear sliding-mode speed-control scheme for interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drives incorporating the maximum-torque-per-ampere trajectory. The drive uses an adaptive sliding-mode observer (SMO) for rotor-speed estimation. The global asymptotic stabilities of both the controller and observer are guaranteed by Lyapunov stability analysis. The very low speed and standstill performance of the drive is further enhanced by combining high-frequency signal injection with the SMO. Hence, the sensorless drive is capable of exhibiting high dynamic and steady-state performances over a wide speed range. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

57.4.16    J. Le Besnerais, A. Fasquelle, M. Hecquet, J. Pelle, V. Lanfranchi, S. Harmand, P. Brochet, "Multiphysics Modeling: Electro-Vibro-Acoustics and Heat Transfer of PWM-Fed Induction Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design of variable-speed electrical machines involves several fields of physics, such as electromagnetism, thermics, mechanics, and also acoustics. This paper describes the analytical multiphysics models of a computer-aided-design software which is applied to inverter-fed traction induction machines. The electromagnetic model computes rotor and stator currents, the induction-machine traction characteristics, and the radial air-gap flux density. The mechanical and acoustic models compute the motor's audible magnetic noise level due to Maxwell forces. The thermal model based on 3-D nodal network computes the transient temperature of different parts of the motor. These fast models make it possible to couple the software with some optimization tools. Some simulation results are presented on a self-ventilated closed motor and compared to experiments.

57.4.17    J. Le Besnerais, V. Lanfranchi, M. Hecquet, P. Brochet, "Characterization and Reduction of Audible Magnetic Noise Due to PWM Supply in Induction Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1288 - 1295 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper derives the analytical characterization of the Maxwell radial vibrations due to pulsewidth modulation (PWM) supply in induction machines and, particularly, in traction motors supplied with an asynchronous switching frequency. The number of nodes and the velocity of these particular force waves are experimentally validated by visualizing some operational deflection shapes of the stator. It is shown that according to the switching frequency, these forces can be responsible for high magnetic-noise levels during starting and braking. A simple rule to avoid PWM noise is then proposed and applied to an industrial traction motor. Experimental results show that the choice of the switching frequency can have a 15-dB impact on the sound power level emitted by the motor during starting and that a lower switching frequency can sometimes lead to lower magnetic noise. In agreement with analytical predictions, the new proposed switching frequency that avoids resonances between PWM exciting forces and corresponding stator modes reduces the magnetic noise of 5 dB during starting.

57.4.18    T. Orlowska-Kowalska, M. Dybkowski, "Stator-Current-Based MRAS Estimator for a Wide Range Speed-Sensorless Induction-Motor Drive ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1296 - 1308 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with an analysis of the vector-controlled induction-motor (IM) drive with a novel model reference adaptive system (MRAS)-type rotor speed estimator. A stability-analysis method of this novel MRAS estimator is shown. The influence of equivalent-circuit parameter changes of the IM on the pole placement of the estimator transfer function and the stability of the whole drive system are analyzed and tested. The influence of the adaptation-algorithm coefficients of the MRAS-estimator scheme is also tested. The allowable range of motor-parameter changes is determined, which guarantees the stable operation of the sensorless field-oriented IM drive with this speed and flux estimator. Dynamical performances of the vector-control system with the current-type MRAS estimator are tested in a laboratory setup.

57.4.19    T. Orowska-Kowalska, M. Kaminski, K. Szabat, "Implementation of a Sliding-Mode Controller With an Integral Function and Fuzzy Gain Value for the Electrical Drive With an Elastic Joint ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1309 - 1317 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a modified sliding-mode structure implemented for the speed control of a two-mass drive. A characteristic feature of the presented control method is the higher rank of the switching function caused by the application of an integral element (sliding mode with an integral function control). The proposed control system is a combination of a sliding-mode controller and a linear controller. Furthermore, to eliminate the chattering phenomenon related to the sliding-mode control, a switching function with a variable slope based on the fuzzy system is implemented. This solution ensures the robustness and dynamics of a two-mass drive better than with a linear speed controller. The main stages of the design methodology of the presented speed control structure are described in the initial sections of this paper. In the subsequent sections, simulation and experimental tests for the proposed control structure are presented and discussed.

57.4.20    A.M. Rahimi, A. Emadi, "Discontinuous-Conduction Mode DC/DC Converters Feeding Constant-Power Loads ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1318 - 1329 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One of the major issues in multiconverter power-electronic systems, which exist in different land, sea, air, and space vehicles, is the stability problem imposed by constant-power loads (CPLs). The research work done in this field has been focused mainly on continuous-conduction mode of operation. In this paper, we study the case when the loaded converter operates in discontinuous-conduction mode (DCM). We prove that the open-loop DC/DC converters operating in DCM are stable when they are loaded by CPLs. Furthermore, we present that the problem of feedback design for a converter operating in DCM and loaded by a CPL can be translated into a conventional feedback-design task for the same converter with a resistive load. Simulation and experimental results verify the presented discussion.

57.4.21    A. De Nardo, N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, "Optimal Buck Converter Output Filter Design for Point-of-Load Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1330 - 1341 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel method to design the output filter of low-voltage/high-current buck dc-dc switching regulators. The method is based on the concept of acceptability boundary curves (ABCs). ABCs are the curves bounding the regions in the space of parameters, including commercial components which ensure an acceptable output voltage ripple and a load-transient surge based on design specifications. ABCs help in quickly finding tradeoff design solutions, as well as in a better understanding of the functional correlations among power components. Examples regarding buck converters for point-of-load applications are discussed to highlight the flexibility and reliability of the ABC-based design method. Experimental measurements confirm the analytical results and numerical predictions.

57.4.22    Siew-Chong Tan, "General n -Level Driving Approach for Improving Electrical-to-Optical Energy-Conversion Efficiency of Fast-Response Saturable Lighting Devices ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1342 - 1353 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Power-electronics interface and the technique of pulsewidth modulation have been the heart of controlling the illumination intensity of lighting devices. It is, however, observed that for some lighting devices, the use of such a methodology leads to a lower energy-conversion efficiency (with a lower light intensity for the same amount of electrical input power) than potentially possible. The main problem is related to the saturable characteristic of the electrical-to-optical energy conversion, which follows that of an exponential characteristic, and the fast nature of this reaction in these lighting devices. This paper presents an in-depth discussion on the phenomenon and offers a solution to the problem. Specifically, it is proposed that an n -level type of driving approach to be adopted in the design and construction of power-electronic drivers for fast-response saturable lighting devices to achieve a quasi-optimal lighting efficacy. The result is energy saving for the same required light illumination. Theoretical proofs and experimental results are provided for verification. The topic of discussion in this paper and the proposed approach are not only applicable to the area of electronic circuits and lighting devices, but also to general controlled systems which comprise components that inherit a saturable and fast-reactive energy conversion characteristic.

57.4.23    Hau-Chen Yen, "Analysis of Balancing Driver for Multiple Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1354 - 1359 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel topology to drive the cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in a direct-type backlight module. The topology is capable of driving an even number of lamps with identical current without additional balancing circuits, thereby significantly reducing the display's size, weight, and cost. Aiming at alleviating the influence of parasitic capacitance and thus balancing the lamp currents and light output, the proposed topology comprises series CCFLs and the secondary sides of transformers, takes the leakage inductances of the transformer and the parasitic capacitances of the metal back-plank as a resonance tank, and provides both ends of lamps the voltages of equal magnitude and opposite phase. A prototype of the multi-CCFLs driver is designed and built for a backlight module with 14 lamps in a 32-in LCD. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the current balance topology.

57.4.24    M.C. Cavalcanti, K.C. de Oliveira, A.M. de Farias, F.A.S. Neves, G.M.S. Azevedo, F.C. Camboim, "Modulation Techniques to Eliminate Leakage Currents in Transformerless Three-Phase Photovoltaic Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1360 - 1368 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In some photovoltaic (PV) applications, it is possible to remove the transformer of a system in order to reduce losses, cost, and size. In transformerless systems, the PV module parasitic capacitance can introduce leakage currents in which the amplitude depends on the converter topology, on the pulsewidth modulation, and on the resonant circuit comprised by the system components. Based on the common-mode voltage model, modulation techniques are proposed to eliminate the leakage current in transformerless PV systems without requiring any modification on the converter and any additional hardware. The main drawback is that the proposed modulation technique for two-level inverters can only be used with 650-V dc link in the case of a 110-V (rms) grid phase voltage. Comparisons among the modulation techniques are discussed, and it is proven that the proposed modulation for two- and three-level inverters presents the best results. To validate the models used in the simulations, an experimental three-phase inverter is used.

57.4.25    R. Stala, "The Switch-Mode Flying-Capacitor DC–DC Converters With Improved Natural Balancing ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1369 - 1382 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents investigations of voltage-sharing stabilization with the use of passive RLC circuit in switch-mode flying capacitor DC-DC converters. Practical and simulation results and also a mathematical analysis of the balancing process in boost and buck-boost converters are presented. Analyzed converters use additional capacitors (flying capacitors), charged to proper value, for decreasing the voltage on switches and increasing the inductor-current frequency. Such advantages are achieved under proper voltage sharing on the flying capacitors. The voltages are stabilized in a natural way by the load current and with the use of external RLC circuit to force the current that flows through the converters' capacitors under unbalance state. This paper focuses on the analysis of the balancing phenomenon with the use of the external RLC circuit in these topologies. The balancing booster improves the balancing process in these converters, making it independent of the load. It can also reduce oscillations that arise in the converters in transient states.

57.4.26    C. Mitsantisuk, S. Katsura, K. Ohishi, "Force Control of Human–Robot Interaction Using Twin Direct-Drive Motor System Based on Modal Space Design ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1383 - 1392 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Future robot systems are required to focus on developing more flexible systems for use with human operator. These robots must operate more slowly and be more compliant to safe user interaction. This paper proposes an improved design methodology for the human-robot interaction system. The main contribution of the work described in this paper is the design of dual disturbance observers combined with modal space design for the twin direct-drive motor system. Two of the same direct-drive motors are required and connected by wire rope mechanism. Since both direct-drive motors have almost the same value of the friction effect and other nonlinearities, it is easy for the proposed system to compensate these deterioration effects. The proposed force control system is independently controlled in acceleration dimension by realizing the system based on common mode and differential mode. In the common mode, it is utilized for control of vibration suppression and wire rope tension. Moreover, the bandwidth and the stiffness of mechanism can be regulated by changing the wire rope tension control. In the differential mode, the purity of human external force with compensation of friction force is obtained. This mode is useful for control of the interaction force of human. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.

57.4.27    K. Saiki, A. Hara, K. Sakata, H. Fujimoto, "A Study on High-Speed and High-Precision Tracking Control of Large-Scale Stage Using Perfect Tracking Control Method Based on Multirate Feedforward Control ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1393 - 1400 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In hard-disk-drive control, the perfect tracking control (PTC) method has already obtained high performance. Therefore, the first author and his group study the PTC scheme for improving the performance of large-scale stages. This paper presents an application of the PTC scheme to the tracking control of two different stages. The results from both simulations and experiments show that the PTC method outperforms the conventional rigid-body-mode-based feedforward method.

57.4.28    T. Sasaki, D. Brscic, H. Hashimoto, "Human-Observation-Based Extraction of Path Patterns for Mobile Robot Navigation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1401 - 1410 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a mobile robot navigation method based on the observation of human walking is presented. The proposed method extracts paths that are frequently used by human and builds a topological map of the environment from the observed human walking paths. Unlike the conventional methods, the proposed method enables us to generate paths which are practical, have no obstacles, and are natural for humans since the paths reflect the motion of persons. For realizing the human observation in a large area, in this paper, multiple vision sensors are placed in space. By using distributed sensors, people can be observed even when the robot is not near them or if they are hidden behind obstacles. Mobile robot navigation based on the topological map is also performed with the support of the distributed sensors. The global position of the mobile robot can be directly measured by using external sensors, which makes the localization problem much easier. Based on the position information, the mobile robot can follow the generated paths and reach the goal point while avoiding obstacles.

57.4.29    S.E. Talole, J.P. Kolhe, S.B. Phadke, "Extended-State-Observer-Based Control of Flexible-Joint System With Experimental Validation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1411 - 1419 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a feedback linearization (FL)-based control law made implementable using an extended state observer (ESO) is proposed for the trajectory tracking control of a flexible-joint robotic system. The FL-based controller cannot be implemented unless the full transformed state vector is available. The design also requires exact knowledge of the system model making the controller performance sensitive to uncertainties. To address these issues, an ESO is designed, which estimates the state vector, as well as the uncertainties in an integrated manner. The FL controller uses the states estimated by ESO, and the effect of uncertainties is compensated by augmenting the FL controller with the ESO-estimated uncertainties. The closed-loop stability of the system under the proposed observer-controller structure is established. The effectiveness of the ESO in the estimation of the states and uncertainties and the effectiveness of the FL + ESO controller in tracking are demonstrated through simulations. Lastly, the efficacy of the proposed approach is validated through experimentation on Quanser's flexible-joint module.

57.4.30    Ching-Chih Tsai, Hsu-Chih Huang, Shui-Chun Lin, "Adaptive Neural Network Control of a Self-Balancing Two-Wheeled Scooter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1420 - 1428 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an adaptive control using radial-basis-function neural networks (RBFNNs) for a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter. A mechatronic system structure of the scooter driven by two dc motors is briefly described, and its mathematical modeling incorporating two frictions between the wheels and the motion surface is derived. By decomposing the overall system into two subsystems (yaw motion and mobile inverted pendulum), one proposes two adaptive controllers using RBFNN to achieve self-balancing and yaw control. The performance and merit of the proposed adaptive controllers are exemplified by conducting several simulations and experiments on a two-wheeled self-balancing scooter.

57.4.31    A. Mukherjee, A. Sengupta, "Estimating the Probability Density Function of a Nonstationary Non-Gaussian Noise ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1429 - 1435 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of estimating the probability density function (pdf) of a nonstationary non-Gaussian noise is addressed. The non-Gaussian noise is modeled using Gaussian mixture pdfs, and an algorithm is proposed to estimate the parameters by maximizing the log-likelihood function. Three simulation results illustrate the validity and utility of the proposed algorithm for stationary or nonstationary, Gaussian or non-Gaussian, zero mean or nonzero mean, and unimodal or multimodal distributed noise.

57.4.32    C. Pukdeboon, A.S.I. Zinober, M.-W.L. Thein, "Quasi-Continuous Higher Order Sliding-Mode Controllers for Spacecraft-Attitude-Tracking Maneuvers ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1436 - 1444 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper studies higher order sliding-mode-control laws to deal with some spacecraft-attitude-tracking problems. Quasi-continuous second- and third-order sliding controllers and differentiators are applied to quaternion-based spacecraft-attitude-tracking maneuvers. A class of linear sliding manifolds is selected as a function of angular velocities and quaternion errors. The second method of Lyapunov is used to show that tracking is achieved globally. An example of multiaxial attitude-tracking maneuvers is presented, and simulation results are included to verify and compare the practical usefulness of the various controllers.

57.4.33    Xiangjun Zeng, Yao Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, "Some Novel Techniques for Insulation Parameters Measurement and Petersen-Coil Control in Distribution Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1445 - 1451 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The traditional resonance grounding method is hard to completely satisfy the requirement of suppressing normal neutral-to-ground voltage and self-extinguishing grounding fault arcs in asymmetry distribution systems. For improvement, a new grounding method of a Petersen-coil in parallel with a reactor is developed, and some novel techniques for insulation parameters measurement and Petersen-coil control are proposed in this paper. An interpolation algorithm is presented to calculate the distribution systems resonance frequency. The insulation parameters (including capacitance to earth, leakage conductance, damping coefficient, and dissipation factor) are measured by the injecting resonance signal. The measured insulation parameters are then applied in Petersen-coil tuning. The new grounding equipment and the device for insulation parameters measurement and Petersen-coil control are developed. The results of laboratory tests and distribution systems operation show that the novel Petersen-coil control techniques can satisfy the requirement of asymmetry distribution systems. The proposed measurement method of insulation parameters is simple, convenient, precise, and tested in real time without power supply interrupting.

57.4.34    S.A. Arogeti, Danwei Wang, Chang Boon Low, "Mode Identification of Hybrid Systems in the Presence of Fault ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1452 - 1467 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A mode identification method for hybrid system diagnosis is proposed. The method is presented as a module of a quantitative health monitoring framework for hybrid systems. After fault occurrence, the fault is detected and isolated. The next step is fault parameters estimation, where the size of the fault is identified. Fault parameter estimation is based on data collected from the hybrid system while the system is faulty, and its dynamical model is partially unknown. A hybrid system's dynamics consists of continuous behavior and discrete states represented by modes. Fault parameter estimation requires knowledge of the monitored system's operating mode. The new method utilizes the partially known dynamical model to identify hybrid system modes in the presence of a single parametric fault.

57.4.35    Do-Yun Kim, Han-Shin Jo, Hyungoo Yoon, Cheol Mun, Byung-Jun Jang, Jong-Gwan Yook, "Reverse-Link Interrogation Range of a UHF MIMO-RFID System in Nakagami- m Fading Channels ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1468 - 1477 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the reverse-link interrogation range (RIR) of ultrahigh-frequency-band passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) is analyzed for single-input and single-output (SISO) and multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems with maximal-ratio combining in the pinhole channel, where each channel is modeled as an arbitrarily correlated Nakagami-m distribution. Under the assumptions of perfect channel estimation and no interference, the closed-form expression of average RIR is derived, involving various parameters, such as the number of antennas, correlation, reader structure, and Nakagami- m shaping factor. The results show that the employment of multiple antennas at a reader causes the received SNR to change favorably and contributes to the improvement of the average RIR. Particularly, for the bistatic structure and Rayleigh fading (m = 0 dB), a 3 ?? 3 MIMO-RFID system can achieve 60% gain in the average RIR compared to the SISO-RFID system. In order to consider more realistic environments, finally, we investigated the influence of interference and imperfect channel estimation on the average RIR of the MIMO-RFID system in the uncorrelated Rayleigh fading channel.

57.4.36    Zhen Ning Low, J.J. Casanova, P.H. Maier, J.A. Taylor, R.A. Chinga, Jenshan Lin, "Method of Load/Fault Detection for Loosely Coupled Planar Wireless Power Transfer System With Power Delivery Tracking ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1478 - 1486 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method to determine various operating modes of a high-efficiency inductive wireless power transfer system which is capable of supporting more than one receiver is proposed. The three operating modes are no-load, safe, and fault modes. The detection scheme probes the transmitter circuitry periodically to determine the operating mode. For power saving, the transmitter is powered down when there is no valid receiver placed on the transmitting coil. If any conductive or magnetic object that can affect the total effective inductance of the transmitting coil is located nearby, the system will enter the fault mode and shut down the transmitter so that it will not be damaged. The safe mode is the nominal operation mode when the power transmission efficiency is high with minimum power loss and zero-voltage switching operation of the class-E transmitter is achieved. The determination of the operating mode is achieved by analyzing the transmitting coil voltage and supply current space, requiring no communication link between the transmitter and receiver. The linear relationship between the power delivery and the supply current can be used to calculate the power delivered to the load(s).

57.4.37    Lin Cai, A.B. Rad, Wai-Lok Chan, "An Intelligent Longitudinal Controller for Application in Semiautonomous Vehicles ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1487 - 1497 , April 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present a neuro-fuzzy controller for intelligent cruise control of semiautonomous vehicles. This paper addresses the problem of longitudinal control that aims at regulating the speed of the controlled vehicle in order to maintain constant time headway with respect to the vehicle in front. A fuzzy radial basis function network (FRBFN) longitudinal controller is designed to incorporate the merits of fuzzy logics as well as neural networks. The FRBFN is prestructured, and its parameters are configured such that they are associated with their physical meaning. The parameters of the output layer are learned online via gradient algorithm. An attractive feature of the proposed method is that it does not require the training data and the vehicle longitudinal dynamic model. Simulation results on a vehicle theoretical model are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of this controller. In order to investigate the proposed control algorithms in real-life situations, a small-scaled vehicle with computer and sensors onboard is developed. Experimental results of a conventional PID controller and the FRBFN controller are provided for comparison.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 5, May 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.5.1    ZhenQi Chen, F.F. Dai, "Effects of LO Phase and Amplitude Imbalances and Phase Noise on M -QAM Transceiver Performance ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1505 - 1517 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a rigorous analytical model for analyzing the effects of local oscillator output imperfections such as phase/amplitude imbalances and phase noise on M -ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) transceiver performance. A closed-form expression of the error vector magnitude (EVM) and an analytic expression of the symbol error rate (SER) are derived considering a single-carrier linear transceiver link with additive white Gaussian noise channel. The proposed analytical model achieves a good agreement with the simulation results based on the Monte Carlo method. The proposed QAM imperfection analysis model provides an efficient means for system and circuit designers to analyze the wireless transceiver performance and specify the transceiver block specifications.

57.5.2    Hyung-Jung Kim, Jin-Up Kim, Jae-Hyung Kim, Hongmei Wang, In-Sung Lee, "The Design Method and Performance Analysis of RF Subsampling Frontend for SDR/CR Receivers ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1518 - 1525 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: RF subsampling can be used by radio receivers to directly down convert and digitize RF signals. The goal of software-defined radio (SDR) design is to place analog-to-digital converter (ADC) as near the antenna as possible. Based on this, an RF subsampling frontend (FE) for SDR is designed and verified by a hardware platform. The effects of timing jitter, ADC resolution, and folding noise dominating SNR degradation sources in the digital FE were considered. We present an efficient method of SNR measurement and an analysis of its performance. The experimental results indicate that the three degradation sources are sufficient to estimate the performance of the RF subsampling FE, and this conclusion matches the theoretical analysis results.

57.5.3    Dawei Liu, Moon-Chuen Lee, Dan Wu, "A Node-to-Node Location Verification Method ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1526 - 1537 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we study the problem of location claim verification of a mobile node in a wireless network. Existing verification methods rely primarily on cooperative approaches, which require the cooperation of several detecting nodes for the verification of a location claim from a target node. These methods all suffer from one or both of the drawbacks: 1) not able to cope with a sparse network situation and 2) the design being based on a particular measurement technique. To remedy the drawbacks, we propose a general location verification scheme. It employs a node-to-node approach for location verification and could use different measurement techniques; moreover, it supports location verification in sparse networks. The proposed verification scheme has been shown to be able to achieve satisfactory performance via extensive real-world Global-Positioning-System-based wireless sensor network experiments.

57.5.4    Shaoyuan Chen, Lin Wang, Guanrong Chen, "Data-Aided Timing Synchronization for FM-DCSK UWB Communication Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1538 - 1545 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Frequency-modulated differential chaos shift keying (FM-DCSK) ultrawideband (UWB) communication systems convey information by transmitting ultrashort chaotic pulses (in the nanosecond scale). Since such pulses are ultrashort, timing offset may severely degrade the bit error rate (BER) performance. In this paper, a fast data-aided timing synchronization algorithm with low complexity is proposed for FM-DCSK UWB systems, which capitalizes on the excellent correlation characteristic of chaotic signals. Simulation results show that the BER performance of such systems is fairly close to that of perfect timing thanks to the proposed new algorithm. Moreover, the new algorithm requires less synchronization searching time and lower computational complexity than the conventional one for transmitted reference UWB systems existing in the current literature.

57.5.5    Haolu Xie, Xin Wang, Lin Lin, He Tang, Qiang Fang, Hui Zhao, Shijun Wang, "A 52-mW 3.1–10.6-GHz Fully Integrated Correlator for IR-UWB Transceivers in 0.18 \mu\hbox {m} CMOS ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Correlators play key roles in impulse radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) transceivers. Multiplier-based correlator performs correlation-type demodulation in addition to select desired UWB signals by correlating incoming pulses with templates. This paper reports design and implementation of a fully integrated low-power broadband multiplier-based correlator for a 3.1-10.6-GHz fullband IR-UWB receiver in 0.18 μm CMOS that consists of a UWB multiplier core, two UWB pulse generators, single-ended-to-differential-ended converter, a first-order RC integrator with a 200-MHz bandwidth, and a buffer. Measurement results confirm desired correlation-type demodulation and correlation functions with a conversion gain of 11.03 dB, noise figure of 15.7 dB, very low power consumption of 52 mW and a 1-dB compression point of better than -0.8 dBm over a 7.5-GHz bandwidth.

57.5.6    Bo Qin, Xin Wang, Haolu Xie, Lin Lin, He Tang, A. Wang, Hongyi Chen, "1.8 pJ/Pulse Programmable Gaussian Pulse Generator for Full-Band Noncarrier Impulse-UWB Transceivers in 90-nm CMOS ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a single-chip ultralow power programmable Gaussian pulse generator (PG) designed and implemented in the 90-nm CMOS for 3.1-10.6 GHz full-band impulse-radio ultrawideband (UWB) transmitters. Measurement shows that this novel simple two-inverter-based PG achieves the lowest reported power dissipation of merely 1.8 pJ/pulse with a 100-MHz pulse-repeating frequency at 1-V supply, extremely short and programmable pulsewidth ranging from 150 to 350 ps while covering the full 3.1-10.6 GHz UWB spectrum, and a very small area of 0.0068 mm2. It supports up to 6 Gb/s data rate for UWB wireless streaming. A new Federal-CommunicationCommission-aware Gaussian PG design optimization method is discussed and verified experimentally.

57.5.7    Young-Han Kim, Yong-Chang Choi, Min-Woo Seo, Sang-Sun Yoo, Hyung-Joun Yoo, "A CMOS Transceiver for a Multistandard 13.56-MHz RFID Reader SoC ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1563 - 1572 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A CMOS transceiver for a multistandard 13.56-MHz radio-frequency identification reader system-on-a-chip (SoC) is designed and fabricated. The SoC consists of an RF/analog part for modulation/demodulation and a digital part for controlling the transceiver functionality. Prior to designing the integrated circuit, pre-experiments using discrete components and commercial tags are performed. With the results, overall functions and specifications are determined. For supporting multistandard, several blocks are designed with digital controls according to the standards. In the transmitter, a digitally controlled amplitude modulator for various modulation indexes and a power control circuit are adopted. In the receiver, a variable gain amplifier and a level-controllable comparator, which are also controlled digitally according to the standard, are introduced. The full transceiver SoC is implemented in the Chartered 0.18-??m CMOS technology. The measurement results of the implemented chip indicate that the designed transceiver operates in a multistandard mode.

57.5.8    Yu-Jung Huang, Ching-Chien Yuan, Ming-Kun Chen, Wei-Cheng Lin, Hsien-Chiao Teng, "Hardware Implementation of RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1573 - 1582 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is a wireless technology that utilizes radio communication to identify objects with a unique electrical identity. The widespread deployment of RFID technologies may generate new threats to security and user privacy. One of the main drawbacks of RFID technology is the weak authentication systems between a reader and a tag. In general, ??weak?? authentication systems that either leak the password directly over the network or leak sufficient information while performing authentication allow intruders to deduce or guess the password. In this paper, we study the RFID tag-reader mutual authentication scheme. A hardware implementation of the mutual authentication protocol for the RFID system is proposed. The proposed system was simulated using Modelsim XE II and synthesized using Xilinx synthesis technology. The system has been successfully implemented in hardware using an Altera DE2 board that included an Altera Cyclone II field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Finally, the output waveforms from the FPGA were displayed on the 16702A logic analysis system for real-time verification.

57.5.9    Pui-Yi Lau, K.K.-O. Yung, E.K.-N. Yung, "A Low-Cost Printed CP Patch Antenna for RFID Smart Bookshelf in Library ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1583 - 1589 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a small wideband circularly polarized patch antenna printed on the low-cost FR-4 material for radio-frequency-identification smart bookshelves in libraries. The antenna is composed of four top-loaded patches sequentially rotated with a phase difference of 90?? and double shorted to the ground. It operates at a center frequency of 0.915 GHz. The impedance bandwidth (SWR < 2) is 26.8%, the axial-ratio (AR) bandwidth (measured AR < 3 dB) is 11.6%, and the 3-dB beamwidth is 115??. The antenna gain is about 4 dBi, and the overall dimension is reduced by ~60% in length, in comparison with that of the conventional sequential patch antenna.

57.5.10    G. Elliott, S. Raabe, G.A. Covic, J.T. Boys, "Multiphase Pickups for Large Lateral Tolerance Contactless Power-Transfer Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1590 - 1598 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The majority of commercial contactless power-transfer systems used in manufacturing applications can only tolerate limited movement of the power pickup relative to the track to which it is magnetically coupled. This paper describes a new multiphase (quadrature) pickup that significantly improves the tolerance of the power receiver to such relative movement, enabling expanded applications such as continuously powered automatic guided vehicles, robots, and other vehicles to be considered. The advantage gained is largely independent of the track type, so that single-phase or multiphase tracks can be used as desired to improve both the power transfer and lateral tolerance as required. The improvement is achieved by capturing both vertical and horizontal components of magnetic flux around any track.

57.5.11    E. Etien, C. Chaigne, N. Bensiali, "On the Stability of Full Adaptive Observer for Induction Motor in Regenerating Mode ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1599 - 1608 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper, which deals with the stability of adaptive observers for induction motor in the regenerating mode, proposes a new approach that is consist of describing the error system in state space representation. With this formulation, it is possible to establish a cartography of unstable eigenvalues in the torque/speed plane, thus simplifying the stability analysis. Moreover, a new stability criterion is defined and used to realize stabilizing designs based on feedback gain as well as on the speed adaptation law.

57.5.12    Sam-Young Kim, Wootaik Lee, Min-Sik Rho, Seung-Yub Park, "Effective Dead-Time Compensation Using a Simple Vectorial Disturbance Estimator in PMSM Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1609 - 1614 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an effective online approach for dead-time compensation using a simple vectorial disturbance estimator in permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. The proposed estimator can calculate the disturbance voltages, which are induced by dead time, by the use of simple vector operations, i.e., the inner and outer products of flux linkage increments and a unit back electromotive force function. Then, to compensate the effect of dead time, the estimated disturbance voltages are feedforwardly added to the current control loop. This method is applied to the 750-W laboratory PMSM drive to show its effectiveness.

57.5.13    Ke Jin, Yi Sun, Ming Xu, D. Sterk, F.C. Lee, "Integrated Magnetic Self-Driven ZVS Nonisolated Full-Bridge Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1615 - 1623 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a high-efficiency high-power-density voltage regulator (VR). An integrated magnetic self-driven full-bridge topology is employed as the main circuit. The proposed VR runs at a 700-kHz switching frequency for a 1 Unit Height (1U) form factor. A novel synchronous rectifier drive method is used to achieve high efficiency. The direct current resistance (DCR) current-sensing method is used for the integrated transformer to achieve adaptive voltage position. Compared with the traditional multiphase buck converter, the proposed solution has higher efficiency, a smaller passive component footprint, and a lower device cost. A 1U 700-kHz VR prototype is built in the laboratory, and it achieves 88.2% efficiency at a 1.2-V/130-A output. The experimental result verifies the theoretical analysis.

57.5.14    Sangshin Kwak, "A Review of Switch-Mode Sustain Drivers With Resonant Networks for Plasma Display Panels ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1624 - 1634 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the last 30 years, industrial and academic research work has matured plasma display panels (PDPs) to the successful product level for commercial flat-screen television sets. Along with the development of panel manufacturing technology, recent advances in the development of electronic circuitry drivers have paved the way for achieving better performance, higher efficiency, and lower cost. A substantial number of notable driver topologies have been developed; however, most of the presented works have been focused on their own topology and operational principles without giving overall impressions related with other works. This paper is an attempt to provide insights into these diverse drivers of the PDPs by presenting an overview of the topologies. The driver configurations are classified based on the resonant energy source, the connecting type of resonant networks, and the number of levels of panel voltage. Selected drivers in each class are analyzed, and key structural characteristics are identified. Issues related to the practical implementation are also discussed.

57.5.15    Jun-Young Lee, Jung-Won Kang, Yu-Seok Jeong, "Single-Side Sustaining Technique for Plasma Display Panel Using Dual-Resonant Method ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1635 - 1643 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new plasma display panel single-side sustaining driver with dual-resonant technique is proposed. Since this circuit enables one to keep the device voltage stresses the same as those of conventional circuit that generates alternating sustaining pulses, it is helpful to reduce driver cost in single-side sustaining driver that suffers from high-voltage stresses. To integrate the sustaining function into single side with a single power source in the driver, the charge-pump method is adopted to make negative sustaining voltage and achieve dual-resonant energy recovery on sustaining mode by controlling the voltage level of energy storage capacitor. Moreover, a method to solve the address voltage increase that is the defect of single-side driving is suggested.

57.5.16    Fuxin Liu, Jiajia Yan, Xinbo Ruan, "Zero-Voltage and Zero-Current-Switching PWM Combined Three-Level DC/DC Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1644 - 1654 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a zero-voltage and zero-current-switching (ZVZCS) PWM combined three-level (TL) dc/dc converter, which is a combination of a ZVZCS PWM TL converter with a ZVZCS PWM full-bridge converter. The proposed converter has the following advantages: all power switches suffer only half of the input voltage; the voltage across the output filter is very close to the output voltage, which can reduce the output filter inductance significantly; and the voltage stress of the rectifier diodes is reduced too, so that the converter is very suitable for high input voltage and wide input voltage range applications. The converter also can achieve zero-voltage-switching for the leading switches and ZCS for the lagging switches in a wide load range to achieve higher efficiency. The design considerations and procedures are presented in this paper. The operation principle and characteristics of the proposed converter are analyzed and verified on a 400-800-V input and 54-V/20-A output prototype.

57.5.17    R.O. Sanchez, N. Vazquez, C. Hernandez, E. Rodriguez, S. Pinto, M. Juarez, "Electric Dynamic Modeling of HID Lamps for Electronic Ballast Design ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1655 - 1662 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a nonlinear model of high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps based on electrical variables. The proposal, oriented to the engineering area, has a special application for the design of electronic ballast. Parameters are obtained from straightforward measurement of electrical variables as power, current, and voltage in the lamp. The lamp resistance is obtained as a function of electrical power; which is estimated from the Saha equation. This model, which can be simulated using software such as ??Simulink?? or ??Pspice,?? takes into account some important dynamic behaviors of HID lamps, which are normally omitted in some other models suggested in literature nowadays. Experimental and simulation results are shown.

57.5.18    R. Prieto, J.A. Oliver, J.A. Cobos, M. Christini, "Magnetic Component Model for Planar Structures Based on Transmission Lines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1663 - 1669 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Magnetic component models are quite complex if they take into consideration the variation of the field distribution in a three-dimensional (3-D) space. However, if the field distribution can be assumed to be one-dimensional (1-D), the magnetic component models can be drastically simplified because it is feasible to obtain accurate analytical expressions based on the solution of the Maxwell equations for a 1-D field distribution. The field distribution in magnetic components can be assumed to be 1-D when the field depends on one of its coordinates and the dependence on the other coordinates is negligible. Therefore, classical 1-D models have to be modified in order to be applied to planar transformers because their magnetic field vector has a constant direction, but its magnitude is not constant along that direction. This paper presents a 1-D model for planar magnetic transformers. Some comparisons between 2-D approaches and the proposed 1-D model have been carried out in order to show the accuracy of the proposed method.

57.5.19    Ying Qiu, H. Liu, Xiyou Chen, "Digital Average Current-Mode Control of PWM DC–DC Converters Without Current Sensors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1670 - 1677 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces a digital average current-mode control technique for pulsewidth modulation dc-dc converters which only rely on voltage sampling. The proposed approach is to estimate inductor current using first-order discrete-time low-pass filter; therefore, the controller can calculate average inductor current in every switching cycle. As a novel technique of predictive average current control, it has been investigated by choosing an appropriate duty ratio to regulate valley inductor current first and then eliminating error between the estimated average inductor current and a reference current in succedent switching cycle. The algorithm is based on a two-loop control structure to achieve an accurate voltage regulation and is derived for three basic converters: buck, boost, and buck-boost. The validity of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by simulation and experimental results on a dc-dc boost converter.

57.5.20    M. Cacciato, A. Consoli, R. Attanasio, F. Gennaro, "Soft-Switching Converter With HF Transformer for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1678 - 1686 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the design, realization, and performance evaluation of a single-phase 3-kW dc/ac power converter, using an active-bridge dc/dc converter and a full-bridge dc/ac, are introduced, presenting a novel solution on the industrial scenario for the considered application. Control algorithms, including the maximum power point tracking, paralleling to the grid, and converter switching signals, are digitally implemented on a standard microcontroller.

57.5.21    T.-H.S. Li, Ying-Chieh Yeh, Jyun-Da Wu, Ming-Ying Hsiao, Chih-Yang Chen, "Multifunctional Intelligent Autonomous Parking Controllers for Carlike Mobile Robots ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1687 - 1700 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An increasing number of carlike mobile robot (CLMR) studies have addressed the issues of autonomous parking and obstacle avoidance. An autonomous parking controller can provide convenience to a novice driver. However, if the controller is not designed adequately, it may endanger the car and the driver. Therefore, this paper presents a novel multifunctional intelligent autonomous parking controller that is capable of effectively parking the CLMR in an appropriate parking space, by integrating sensor data capable of obtaining the surrounding data of the robot. An ultrasonic sensor array system has been developed with group-sensor firing intervals. A binaural approach to the CLMR has been adopted for providing complete contactless sensory coverage of the entire workspace. The proposed heuristic controller can obtain the posture of a mobile robot in a parking space. In addition, the controller can ensure the ability of the CLMR to withstand collision to guarantee safe parking. Moreover, the CLMR can recognize the parking space and the obstacle position in dynamic environment. Therefore, the proposed controller installed in a car could ensure safe driving. Finally, practical experiments demonstrate that the proposed multifunctional intelligent autonomous parking controllers are feasible and effective.

57.5.22    B. Ugurlu, A. Kawamura, "ZMP-Based Online Jumping Pattern Generation for a One-Legged Robot ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1701 - 1709 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is aimed at presenting a method to generate online jumping patterns, which can be applied to one-legged jumping robots and optionally to humanoid robots. Our proposed method is based on ensuring the overall dynamic balance through the complete jumping cycle. To be able to reach this goal, we discretized the zero moment point equation in polar coordinates so that we are able to include angular momentum information in a natural way. Thus, undesired torso angle fluctuation is expected to be more restrainable compared to other methods in which angular momentum information is ignored or zero referenced. Moreover, we unified support and flight phases in terms of motion generation. Having obtained successful simulation results and vertical jumping experiments in our previous work, we conducted forward jumping experiments. As the result, we obtained successful and repetitive jumping cycles, which satisfactorily verify the proposed method.

57.5.23    Chaohua Dai, Weirong Chen, Yunfang Zhu, "Seeker Optimization Algorithm for Digital IIR Filter Design ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1710 - 1718 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Since the error surface of digital infinite-impulse-response (IIR) filters is generally nonlinear and multimodal, global optimization techniques are required in order to avoid local minima. In this paper, a seeker-optimization-algorithm (SOA)-based evolutionary method is proposed for digital IIR filter design. SOA is based on the concept of simulating the act of human searching in which the search direction is based on the empirical gradient by evaluating the response to the position changes and the step length is based on uncertainty reasoning by using a simple fuzzy rule. The algorithm's performance is studied with comparison of three versions of differential evolution algorithms, four versions of particle swarm optimization algorithms, and genetic algorithm. The simulation results show that SOA is superior or comparable to the other algorithms for the employed examples and can be efficiently used for IIR filter design.

57.5.24    K.I. Hwu, Y.T. Yau, "Voltage-Boosting Converter Based on Charge Pump and Coupling Inductor With Passive Voltage Clamping ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1719 - 1727 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new voltage-boosting converter, combining a charge pump and a coupling inductor, together with a passive voltage-clamping circuit which pumps part of the leakage inductance energy to the output, is presented herein. Therefore, by doing so, the efficiency tends to be flat between the minimum and rated loads, which is similar to the behavior of the KY converter. Moreover, the implementation of the passive voltage-clamping circuit for this converter with multiphase is very easy. In this paper, some mathematical derivations are given first, and second, simulated and experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed voltage-boosting converter topology.

57.5.25    I. Jedlicska, R. Weiss, R. Weigel, "Linearizing the Output Characteristic of GMR Current Sensors Through Hysteresis Modeling ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1728 - 1734 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new method for increasing the measurement accuracy of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. The method used is to linearize the output characteristic by numerically eliminating the hysteresis-the main error source. A simplified mathematical model of the hysteresis is derived from the T(x) model and tested in a software simulation environment by comparing the results with the real measurements. The model is then discretized and implemented on a fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP). An algorithm based on the model is developed in order to eliminate error propagation during the measurements. The 75% improvement in accuracy and the linear output characteristic delivered by the DSP verify the validity of the proposed method. The successful final results demonstrate that modeling hysteresis is a convenient and very effective way to increase the accuracy and the measurement range of GMR sensors in practical applications.

57.5.26    Weiyao Lan, Chin Kwan Thum, B.M. Chen, "A Hard-Disk-Drive Servo System Design Using Composite Nonlinear-Feedback Control With Optimal Nonlinear Gain Tuning Methods ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1735 - 1745 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the design of composite nonlinear-feedback (CNF) control law for a hard-disk-drive (HDD) servo system. First, a scaled nonlinear function is introduced for the CNF control law, in which a parameter is scaled by the error between the amplitude of the target reference and the initial value of the system controlled output. The closed-loop system under the scaled function has robust transient performance to the variation of the amplitude of the target reference. Then, the parameters of the selected nonlinear function are tuned by optimal tuning methods. More specifically, the parameter-tuning problem is formulated as an optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently via numerical methods. The simulation and experimental results show that the control law designed using the new approach yields excellent performance for both track seeking and track following in the HDD servo system.

57.5.27    Chuxiong Hu, Bin Yao, Qingfeng Wang, "Coordinated Adaptive Robust Contouring Control of an Industrial Biaxial Precision Gantry With Cogging Force Compensations ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1746 - 1754 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Cogging force is an important source of disturbances for linear-motor-driven systems. To obtain a higher level of contouring motion control performance for multiaxis mechanical systems subject to significant nonlinear cogging forces, both the coordinated control of multiaxis motions and the effective compensation of cogging forces are necessary. In addition, the effect of unavoidable velocity measurement noises needs to be sufficiently attenuated. This paper presents a discontinuous-projection-based desired compensation adaptive robust contouring controller to address these control issues all at once. Specifically, the presented approach explicitly takes into account the specific characteristics of cogging forces in the controller designs and employs the task coordinate formulation for coordinated motion controls. Theoretically, the resulting controller achieves a guaranteed transient performance and a steady-state contouring accuracy even in the presence of both parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities. In addition, the controller also achieves asymptotic output tracking when there are parametric uncertainties only. Comparative experimental results obtained on a high-speed Anorad industrial biaxial precision gantry are presented to verify the excellent contouring performance of the proposed control scheme and the effectiveness of the cogging force compensations.

57.5.28    A.Y. Goharrizi, N. Sepehri, "A Wavelet-Based Approach to Internal Seal Damage Diagnosis in Hydraulic Actuators ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1755 - 1763 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the application of wavelet transform (WT) to detect internal leakage in hydraulic actuators, caused by seal damage. The method analyzes the pressure signal at one side of the actuator in response to periodic step inputs to the control valve. It is shown that the detailed version of decomposed pressure signal, using discrete WT, establishes feature patterns that can effectively detect internal leakage and its severity. The proposed scheme requires a baseline (threshold) value, predetermined first by analyzing the pressure signal of a healthy actuator. Once the root mean square (rms) of the level-two detail coefficient values, obtained from the measured pressure signals in subsequent offline tests, fall below this baseline, a fault alarm is triggered. Furthermore, the degree of changes of the rms value from the one obtained under normal operating condition indicates the severity of fault. Experimental tests show promising results for detecting internal leakages as low as 0.124 L/min, representing approximately 2.6% reduction of flow rate available to move the actuator. This is done without a need to model the actuator or leakage. Other methods of leakage fault diagnosis require the model of the actuator or leakage fault. Furthermore, no other method reported the internal leakage detection of magnitude as low as the one reported in this paper.

57.5.29    J.P. Carmo, P.M. Mendes, C. Couto, J.H. Correia, "A 2.4-GHz CMOS Short-Range Wireless-Sensor-Network Interface for Automotive Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1764 - 1771 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a CMOS interface for short-range wireless sensor networks (CMOS-SRWSN interface). The sensor interface is composed of a sensor readout, electronics for processing and control, a memory, a radio-frequency CMOS transceiver for operation in the 2.4-GHz industrial, scientific, and medical bands, and a planar antenna. The receiver has a sensitivity of -60 dBm and consumes 6.3 mW from a 1.8-V supply. The transmitter delivers an output power of 0 dBm with a power consumption of 11.2 mW. The application of the CMOS-SRWSN interface is in the automotive industry for the reduction of cables and to support the information, communication, and entertainment systems in cars.

57.5.30    M.L. Heldwein, H. Ertl, J. Biela, J.W. Kolar, "Implementation of a Transformerless Common-Mode Active Filter for Offline Converter Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1772 - 1786 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a study and practical implementation of an active filter employing a high-frequency (HF) power amplifier and passive-filter components to be connected to the ac power lines in order to mitigate common-mode conducted emissions of three-phase pulsewidth modulation converter systems. The filter topology is chosen from different possibilities listed in a literature survey and studied regarding practical implementation issues, where requirements for an HF power amplifier to be applied in active filtering are derived. Special attention is put on the stability analysis where the challenges for the feedback are discussed, and a simple feedback structure is proposed. Other feedback concepts are analyzed, and limitations posed by stability requirements are presented. A prototype is designed and built, from which mathematical and experimental results are obtained demonstrating the potential and limitations of such a system.

57.5.31    S.-h.P. Won, W.W. Melek, F. Golnaraghi, "A Kalman/Particle Filter-Based Position and Orientation Estimation Method Using a Position Sensor/Inertial Measurement Unit Hybrid System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1787 - 1798 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel methodology that estimates position and orientation using one position sensor and one inertial measurement unit. The proposed method estimates orientation using a particle filter and estimates position and velocity using a Kalman filter (KF). In addition, an expert system is used to correct the angular velocity measurement errors. The experimental results show that the orientation errors using the proposed method are significantly reduced compared to the orientation errors obtained from an extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach. The improved orientation estimation using the proposed method leads to better position estimation accuracy. This paper studies the effects of the number of particles of the proposed filter and position sensor noise on the orientation accuracy. Furthermore, the experimental results show that the orientation of the proposed method converges to the correct orientation even when the initial orientation is completely unknown.

57.5.32    Pei-Yung Hsiao, Chieh-Lun Lu, Li-Chen Fu, "Multilayered Image Processing for Multiscale Harris Corner Detection in Digital Realization ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1799 - 1805 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The PC-based software programming used in complex or luxuriant image processing algorithms is time consuming and resource wasting. As appropriate processing for the image data indeed speedups complicated algorithms, we focus on a crucial case - multilayered processes. In this paper, we gauge deeply into the data flow of multilayered image processing to avoid waiting for the result from every previous steps to access the memory which occurs in many applicable algorithms. Based on combining the parallel and pipelined properties to eliminate unnecessary delays, we propose new visual pipeline architecture and use field programmable gate array to implement our hardware scheme. For verification, the multiscale Harris corner detector in cooperating with shape context and thin-plate splines were combined to complete our real-time experiment of the integrated hardware and software (H/S) system for pattern recognition.

57.5.33    L. Gomes, J. Lourenco, "Rapid Prototyping of Graphical User Interfaces for Petri-Net-Based Controllers ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1806 - 1813 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a tool framework allowing the rapid prototyping of an animated synoptic application associated with an embedded system controller. The motto for developing this tool framework is to be able to automatically generate controllers with associated graphical user interface (GUI) without writing a line of execution code; instead, the tool framework will provide specific aids allowing the designer to define the controller behavior and associated GUI (including static parts and intended dynamics). The behavior of the controller is described through a low-level Petri-net model, and the tool framework supports the definition of characteristics for the intended GUI and the association of the characteristics of the Petri-net behavioral model with specific characteristics of the GUI through a set of dedicated rules. Two main tools are described. The first one, named as ??Animator,?? allows an interactive definition of the graphical characteristics of the synoptic and automatic code generation. The second one, named as ??Synoptic,?? is responsible for the embedded control-execution part, integrating real-time updating of the GUI. The application of the tool framework to a simple automation system, namely, to the controller of a manufacturing system composed of a four-cell first-in-first-out system, is presented.

57.5.34    Chih-Hui Chiu, "The Design and Implementation of a Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Using an Adaptive Output Recurrent Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1814 - 1822 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel adaptive output recurrent cerebellar model articulation controller (AORCMAC) is utilized to control wheeled inverted pendulums (WIPs) that have a pendulum mounted on two coaxial wheels. This paper focuses mainly on adopting a self-dynamic balancing control strategy for such WIPs. Since the AORCMAC captures system dynamics, it is superior to conventional CMACs in terms of efficient learning and dynamic response. The AORCMAC parameters are adjusted online using the dynamic gradient descent method. The learning rates of the AORCMAC are determined using an analytical method based on a Lyapunov function, such that system convergence is achieved. The variable and optimal learning rates are derived to achieve rapid tracking-error convergence. A WIP standing control is utilized to experimentally verify the effectiveness of the proposed control system. Experimental results indicate that WIPs can stand upright stably with external disturbances via the proposed AORCMAC.

57.5.35    V. Machado, A. Neto, J.D. de Melo, "A Neural Network Multiagent Architecture Applied to Industrial Networks for Dynamic Allocation of Control Strategies Using Standard Function Blocks ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1823 - 1834 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a multiagent architecture applied to factory automation. These agents detect faults in automated processes and allocate intelligent algorithms in field device function blocks (FBs) to solve these faults. We also present a dynamic FB parameter exchange strategy that allows agent fieldbus allocation. This architecture is a foundation for intelligent physical agents standard-based agent platform developed using Foundation Fieldbus technology. The aim is to enable problem detection activities, independent of user intervention. The use of artificial neural network (ANN)-based algorithms enables the agents to learn about fault patterns and adapt an algorithm that can be used in fault situations. Thus, we intend to reduce supervisor intervention in selecting and implementing an appropriate structure for FB algorithms. Furthermore, these algorithms, when implemented in device FBs, provide a solution at the fieldbus level, reducing data traffic between gateway and device, and speeding up the process of problem resolution. We also show some examples of our approach. The first is a neural network architecture change that allocates different types of neural networks in field devices without interrupting the fieldbus network operation. The second shows a multiagent architecture that implements the neural network change in a laboratory test process, where fault scenarios have been simulated.

57.5.36    JongHyup Lee, Taekyoung Kwon, JooSeok Song, "Group Connectivity Model for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1835 - 1844 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is a recent trend to consider wireless sensor networks in harsh industrial environments. With actual deployment of wireless sensor networks, it would be desirable to make a concrete deployment plan regarding connectivities and to place sensors by grouping them according to the planned deployment points, even more in case of targeting multiple objects to be sensed and monitored in harsh environments. The connectedness of groups as well as individual sensors is important specifically for real-time data acquisitions and even more if there are no external communication links among these groups. In this paper, we focus on the connectivity of sensor groups, rather than the individual sensors only, and propose a novel group connectivity model so as to analyze group connectivity and to make a concrete deployment plan of sensor groups with regard to the internal distribution of sensors and group positions. We believe that the proposed model should be useful in planning the deployment of wireless sensor networks in harsh industrial environments where running wires is less practical and also prohibitively expensive.

57.5.37    A. Dinu, M.N. Cirstea, S.E. Cirstea, "Direct Neural-Network Hardware-Implementation Algorithm ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1845 - 1848 , May 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An algorithm for compact neural-network hardware implementation is presented, which exploits the special properties of the Boolean functions describing the operation of artificial neurons with step activation function. The algorithm contains three steps: artificial-neural-network (ANN) mathematical model digitization, conversion of the digitized model into a logic-gate structure, and hardware optimization by elimination of redundant logic gates. A set of C++ programs automates algorithm implementation, generating an optimized very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language code. This strategy bridges the gap between ANN design software and hardware design packages (Xilinx). Although the method is directly applicable only to neurons with step activation functions, it can be extended to sigmoidal functions.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 6, June 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.6.1    Fei Gao, B. Blunier, A. Miraoui, A. El Moudni, "A Multiphysic Dynamic 1-D Model of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel-Cell Stack for Real-Time Simulation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1853 - 1864 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents cell-layer-scale multidomain dynamic 1-D proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) stack model using VHDL-AMS modeling language. The model covers three main fuel-cell energy domains: electrical, fluidic, and thermal. The performance and advantages of the VHDL-AMS language are shown in the first part. Then, by means of the ??top-down?? modeling approach, the electrical-, fluidic-, and thermal-domain models of the PEMFC stack are addressed in three separate parts. Simulation results are then compared with a Ballard 1.2-kW NEXA fuel-cell system and show a great agreement with experimental data. This complex multidomain VHDL-AMS stack model, containing more than 25 000 state variables and only few empirical coefficients (four parameters identified on the polarization curve), can be used for fuel-cell system components design and also for real-time applications. Real-time simulation is a key issue in many applications such as system control and hardware-in-the-loop applications. Moreover, this fuel-cell stack model is suitable and can be parameterized for all kinds of PEMFC including water-cooled and metal bipolar plates stacks: Only the cooling fluid and materials properties have to be changed.

57.6.2    M. Guarnieri, V. Di Noto, F. Moro, "A Dynamic Circuit Model of a Small Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Portable Electronic Devices ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1865 - 1873 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) constitute nowadays a promising alternative to lithium ion batteries for powering portable devices. The effective design of power-management units for interfacing DMFCs requires accurate models able to account for variable-load conditions and fuel consumption. A dynamic nonlinear circuit model for passive methanol fuel cells is presented in this paper. The model takes into account mass transport, current generation, electronic and protonic conduction, methanol adsorption, and electrochemical kinetics. Adsorption and oxidation rates, which mostly affect the cell dynamics, are modeled by a detailed two-step reaction mechanism. The fully coupled multiphysics equivalent circuit is solved by assembling first-order differential equations into a nonlinear state-variable system in order to simulate the electrical evolution of the fuel cell from its initial conditions. The fuel-cell discharge and methanol consumption are computed by combining mass-transport and conservation equations. As a result, the runtime of a DMFC can be predicted from the current load and the initial methanol concentration.

57.6.3    G. Fontes, C. Turpin, S. Astier, "A Large-Signal and Dynamic Circuit Model of a \hbox {H}_{2}/\hbox {O}_{2} PEM Fuel Cell: Description, Parameter Identification, and Exploitation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1874 - 1881 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors propose a large-signal and dynamic circuit model for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, which includes the following different main physical and chemical phenomena: activation, electrochemical double layer, gas diffusion through the gas diffusion and active layers, and ohmic losses. Be careful: this is not an impedance model. This model will be used in studying the interactions between fuel cells and power converters which are connected and, particularly, the fuel-cell behavior facing the perturbations created by the buck converter and the single-phase inverter.

57.6.4    L. Boulon, D. Hissel, A. Bouscayrol, M. Pera, "From Modeling to Control of a PEM Fuel Cell Using Energetic Macroscopic Representation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1882 - 1891 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to design the control part of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (FC) stack. The objective is to control the FC voltage. This methodology is based on an energetic macroscopic representation (EMR) of the FC and leads to a so-called maximal control structure (MCS). The MCS is a step-by-step inversion of the EMR (inversion-model-based control structure). The control design process is based on an explicit definition of the problem. Basically, for instance, the tuning inputs, the system objectives, or constraints are highlighted to organize the control. Moreover, the MCS shows the places where sensors are required and controllers are requested. Unfortunately, the MCS is only a theoretical control structure. Consequently, a realistic structure needs some simplifications, leading to a so-called practical control structure. The FC model is first presented and experimentally validated. The designed control structure is then simulated, and the results are discussed.

57.6.5    A. Arce, A.J. del Real, C. Bordons, D.R. Ramirez, "Real-Time Implementation of a Constrained MPC for Efficient Airflow Control in a PEM Fuel Cell ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1892 - 1905 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fuel cells represent an area of great industrial interest due to the possibility to generate clean energy for stationary and automotive applications. It is clear that the proper performance of these devices is closely related to the kind of control that is used; therefore, a study of improved control alternatives is fully justified. The air-supply control is widely used to guarantee safety and to achieve a high performance. This paper deals with this control loop, proposing and comparing two control objectives aimed at satisfying the oxygen starvation avoidance criterion and the maximum efficiency criterion, respectively. The control architecture is based on a constrained explicit model predictive control (MPC) law suitable for real-time implementation due to its low computational demands. The proposed controller is implemented and evaluated on a 1.2-kW polymer electrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane fuel-cell test bench, thus obtaining real data which show that the maximum efficiency criterion does not conflict with the starvation avoidance criterion and allows system performance improvements of up to 3.46%. Moreover, experimental results utilizing the explicit MPC approach also show improved transient responses compared to those of the manufacturer's control law.

57.6.6    R.J. Talj, D. Hissel, R. Ortega, M. Becherif, M. Hilairet, "Experimental Validation of a PEM Fuel-Cell Reduced-Order Model and a Moto-Compressor Higher Order Sliding-Mode Control ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1906 - 1913 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a gaseous fuel directly into electricity. They are widely regarded as potential future stationary and mobile power sources. The response of a fuel-cell system depends on the air and hydrogen feed, flow and pressure regulation, and heat and water management. In this paper, the study is concentrated on the air subsystem that feeds the fuel-cell cathode with oxygen. Proceeding from a fourth-order model representing the air subsystem of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, a reduced third-order model is presented. Simulations show that the relative error caused by this reduction does not exceed 5%. Experimental validation has been done on a 33-kW PEM fuel cell, for both fourth- and reduced third-order models with less than 5% relative error. Additionally, a higher order sliding-mode supertwisting algorithm, with a well-known heuristic modification using variable gains, has been designed and validated experimentally to control a permanent-magnet synchronous motor that drives a volumetric compressor (double screw) designed to feed the 33-kW fuel cell with air.

57.6.7    C.A. Ramos-Paja, R. Giral, L. Martinez-Salamero, J. Romano, A. Romero, G. Spagnuolo, "A PEM Fuel-Cell Model Featuring Oxygen-Excess-Ratio Estimation and Power-Electronics Interaction ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1914 - 1924 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a polymer-electrolyte-membrane fuel-cell (FC) model that is useful for simulation and control purposes is presented. The model uses both electrical-circuit components and functional blocks to reproduce both static and dynamic FC behaviors. Its main feature is in the reproduction of the oxygen-excess-ratio behavior, but it is also able to interact with any electrical device connected at the FC terminals, e.g., a load or a switching converter. Consequently, the proposed model can be used to develop new control strategies aimed at avoiding the oxygen-starvation effect and/or minimizing the fuel consumption. The model has been customized for a Ballard Nexa 1.2-kW power system, and this has allowed an experimental validation by means of measurements performed on a real FC device.

57.6.8    M. Ordonez, M.O. Sonnaillon, J.E. Quaicoe, M.T. Iqbal, "An Embedded Frequency Response Analyzer for Fuel Cell Monitoring and Characterization ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1925 - 1934 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an embedded frequency response analyzer for fuel cells (FCs) based on a robust measurement technique with simple implementation. A frequency response analysis technique provides valuable information of different electrochemical processes that occur inside the FC. The measurement system is implemented on a low-cost digital signal processor to perform frequency response and impedance tracking. The small-size and low-power consumption allows this special device to be embedded into the FC controller or power conditioning stage. The system is capable of measuring automatically the frequency response of the FC at different operating points, even when the FC is operating with a load. These measurements can be used to characterize the FC at the design stage and to perform online monitoring of the FC state during a continuous operation. The proposed instrument uses the lock-in amplification technique, which allows very accurate and precise measurements even in the presence of high noise levels. The proposed hardware and signal processing technique are described in this paper, including the experimental result of a 1.2-kW proton exchange membrane FC system.

57.6.9    Xuancai Zhu, Xiao Li, Guoqiao Shen, Dehong Xu, "Design of the Dynamic Power Compensation for PEMFC Distributed Power System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1935 - 1944 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Transient load power may bring damage to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and shorten the lifetime of the stack. This paper introduces a dynamic power compensation unit consisting of a bidirectional dc/dc converter and a supercapacitor pack, used for compensating the slow dynamic response of the PEMFC and guaranteeing the operation safety of the fuel cell (FC) during load transitions. In this paper, the characteristics of PEMFC are first studied by an experiment, and then, the target of the dynamic power compensation is set based on the experimental results. Subsequently, an analysis on the dynamic power compensation and derivation of the design target is presented. The controller and the filter design based on these analyses are given. With regard to the hardware realization, the bidirectional dc/dc converter is then introduced. Finally, the experimental results on a 5-kW FC power system with dynamic power compensation are given to verify the theoretical analysis and the design. With the dynamic power compensation unit, the FC only needs to supply a slowly changing output power during the sharp load transition process. A more reliable operation condition can be achieved for the FC.

57.6.10    Junbo Jia, Gucheng Wang, Yew Thean Cham, Youyi Wang, Ming Han, "Electrical Characteristic Study of a Hybrid PEMFC and Ultracapacitor System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1945 - 1953 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the characteristic study of a clean hybrid power supply system combining proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main power source and ultracapacitor (UC) as the energy storage unit. Unlike the conventional fuel-cell hybrid system with power conditioning unit, the study investigated the electrical characteristic of the PEMFC and UC hybrid system without dc/dc converter. As a platform to evaluate the proposed system, the fuel-cell-based electric bicycle is implemented. The platform consists of PEMFC stack, metal hydride, thermal balance system, UC, dc motor, system control and data logging unit, as well as user interface. The test results showed that the proposed architecture is functional and leads to good results. By road testing, it was verified that the PEMFC can provide the rated power to the load and that the UC can deliver the power at system startup and the peak power if needed. The road testing results showed that the design objectives are fulfilled.

57.6.11    W. Greenwell, A. Vahidi, "Predictive Control of Voltage and Current in a Fuel Cell–Ultracapacitor Hybrid ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1954 - 1963 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a system integration and control strategy for managing power transients on a Nexa polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (FC) with the assistance of an ultracapacitor (UC) module. The two degrees of freedom provided by the use of two dc/dc converters enable the independent low-level control of dc bus voltage and the current split between the FC and UC. The supervisory-level control objectives are to respond to rapid variations in load while minimizing damaging fluctuations in FC current and maintaining the UC charge (or voltage) within allowable bounds. The use of a model predictive control approach which optimally balances the distribution of power between the FC and UC while satisfying the constraints is shown to be an effective method for meeting the supervisory-level objectives. The results are confirmed in experiments.

57.6.12    M.J. Vasallo, J.M. Andujar, C. Garcia, J.J. Brey, "A Methodology for Sizing Backup Fuel-Cell/Battery Hybrid Power Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1964 - 1975 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Hybridization of fuel cells and batteries combines the advantages of both power sources. This paper proposes the use of fuel-cell/battery hybrid power systems as backup power systems and develops a methodology for sizing both fuel cell and battery bank, according to a minimum lifecycle cost criterion, from any defined hourly load profile and any defined backup time. For this purpose, an existing power-system-sizing computer tool has been used, but its initial capabilities have been extended. The developed methodology allows decisions to be taken before any investment is made. As a practical application, the methodology is used for the sizing of a backup power system for a telecommunication system.

57.6.13    Ke Jin, Mengxiong Yang, Xinbo Ruan, Min Xu, "Three-Level Bidirectional Converter for Fuel-Cell/Battery Hybrid Power System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1976 - 1986 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel three-level (3L) bidirectional converter (BDC) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the traditional BDC, the inductor of the 3L BDC can be reduced significantly so that the dynamic response is greatly improved. Hence, the proposed converter is very suitable for fuel-cell/battery hybrid power systems. In addition, the voltage stress on the switch of the proposed converter is only half of the voltage on the high-voltage side, so it is also suitable for high-voltage applications. The operation principle and the implementation of the control circuit are presented in detail. This paper also proposes a novel bidirectional soft-start control strategy for the BDC. A 1-kW prototype converter is built to verify the theoretical analysis.

57.6.14    S.V. Araujo, R.P. Torrico-Bascope, G.V. Torrico-Bascope, "Highly Efficient High Step-Up Converter for Fuel-Cell Power Processing Based on Three-State Commutation Cell ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1987 - 1997 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The interest toward the application of fuel cells is increasing in the last years mainly due to the possibility of highly efficient decentralized clean energy generation. The output voltage of fuel-cell stacks is generally below 50 V. Consequently, low-power applications with high output voltage require a high gain for proper operation. Several solutions were so far proposed in the literature, ranging from the use of high-frequency transformers to capacitive multipliers. This paper proposes the modification of a boost converter operating with a three-state commutation cell that is already well suited for high current stress in the input due to the current sharing between the active switches. Here, an additional winding is added to the autotransformer to provide not only the required high gain but also to significantly reduce the voltage stress across the active switches. Moreover, by employing the three-state switching cell, the size of the inductor is reduced because the operating frequency is double of the switching frequency. A prototype for the verification of the circuit was built for a 30-45-V input-voltage range, 400-V output voltage, and 250-W output power. The operation is evaluated, and the experimental waveforms and efficiency curves are presented.

57.6.15    Ching-Tsai Pan, Ching-Ming Lai, "A High-Efficiency High Step-Up Converter With Low Switch Voltage Stress for Fuel-Cell System Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 1998 - 2006 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel high step-up converter is proposed for fuel-cell system applications. As an illustration, a two-phase version configuration is given for demonstration. First, an interleaved structure is adapted for reducing input and output ripples. Then, a C??uk-type converter is integrated to the first phase to achieve a much higher voltage conversion ratio and avoid operating at extreme duty ratio. In addition, additional capacitors are added as voltage dividers for the two phases for reducing the voltage stress of active switches and diodes, which enables one to adopt lower voltage rating devices to further reduce both switching and conduction losses. Furthermore, the corresponding model is also derived, and analysis of the steady-state characteristic is made to show the merits of the proposed converter. Finally, a 200-W rating prototype system is also constructed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter. It is seen that an efficiency of 93.3% can be achieved when the output power is 150-W and the output voltage is 200-V with 0.56 duty ratio.

57.6.16    Shih-Kuen Changchien, Tsorng-Juu Liang, Jiann-Fuh Chen, Lung-Sheng Yang, "Novel High Step-Up DC–DC Converter for Fuel Cell Energy Conversion System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2007 - 2017 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel high step-up dc-dc converter for fuel cell energy conversion is presented in this paper. The proposed converter utilizes a multiwinding coupled inductor and a voltage doubler to achieve high step-up voltage gain. The voltage on the active switch is clamped, and the energy stored in the leakage inductor is recycled. Therefore, the voltage stress on the active switch is reduced, and the conversion efficiency is improved. Finally, a 750-W laboratory prototype converter supplied by a proton exchange membrane fuel cell power source and an output voltage of 400 V is implemented. The experimental results verify the performances, including high voltage gain, high conversion efficiency, and the effective suppression of the voltage stress on power devices. The proposed high step-up converter can feasibly be used for low-input-voltage fuel cell power conversion applications.

57.6.17    Ching-Shan Leu, Ming-Hui Li, "A Novel Current-Fed Boost Converter With Ripple Reduction for High-Voltage Conversion Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2018 - 2023 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Employing a new rectifier circuit, i.e., a novel current-fed boost converter with ripple reduction, is proposed in this paper. It features high conversion ratio with smaller transformer turn ratio, recovery of transformer secondary leakage energy, low voltage stress on the rectifier diodes, and lower input- and output-current ripples with minimum component count. Therefore, high efficiency and power density can be achieved under high-frequency operation. Moreover, the new rectifier circuit can be applied to all current-fed power topologies for high-voltage conversion applications, such as fuel-cell-powered systems. The operating principle, theoretical analysis, and design considerations are presented. To demonstrate its feasibility, a 150-kHz, 16-22-V-input, and 200-V/400-W-output converter is implemented and tested.

57.6.18    M. Mohr, W.T. Franke, B. Wittig, F.W. Fuchs, "Converter Systems for Fuel Cells in the Medium Power Range—A Comparative Study ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2024 - 2032 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Inverter systems that feed electrical power from fuel cells into the grid must convert the direct current of the fuel cell into the alternating current of the grid. In addition, these inverters have to adapt the different voltages of the fuel-cell system and the grid to each other. In this paper, different topologies of appropriate inverter systems in the medium power range of 20 kW and higher are presented briefly. The inverter operating behavior, power rating, and efficiency are compared. The power rating and efficiency are compared using an analytical calculation of the semiconductor losses. The study includes transformerless inverters as well as two-stage inverter systems with high-frequency transformers (dc/dc converter combined with an inverter). This paper compares converter systems using insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), e.g., a boost converter in series with a voltage-source inverter (VSI), current-source inverter, and z-source inverter or converter systems using superjunction MOSFETs, such as voltage- and current-fed full-bridge converters or a boost converter with an autotransformer. The MOSFET-based dc/dc converters must be connected in series to a VSI with IGBTs to feed into the three-phase grid. The presented converters were tested in the laboratory. Some characteristics of their laboratory performance are shown.

57.6.19    Guoqiao Shen, Xuancai Zhu, Jun Zhang, Dehong Xu, "A New Feedback Method for PR Current Control of LCL-Filter-Based Grid-Connected Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2033 - 2041 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For a grid-connected converter with an LCL filter, the harmonic compensators of a proportional-resonant (PR) controller are usually limited to several low-order current harmonics due to system instability when the compensated frequency is out of the bandwidth of the system control loop. In this paper, a new current feedback method for PR current control is proposed. The weighted average value of the currents flowing through the two inductors of the LCL filter is used as the feedback to the current PR regulator. Consequently, the control system with the LCL filter is degraded from a third-order function to a first-order one. A large proportional control-loop gain can be chosen to obtain a wide control-loop bandwidth, and the system can be optimized easily for minimum current harmonic distortions, as well as system stability. The inverter system with the proposed controller is investigated and compared with those using traditional control methods. Experimental results on a 5-kW fuel-cell inverter are provided, and the new current control strategy has been verified.

57.6.20    A. Giustiniani, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, M. Vitelli, "Low-Frequency Current Oscillations and Maximum Power Point Tracking in Grid-Connected Fuel-Cell-Based Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2042 - 2053 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The study of a double-stage single-phase inverter for fuel-cell-based applications is proposed in this paper. A novel control strategy aimed at reducing the low-frequency oscillations of the fuel-cell (FC) current in order to guarantee the FC safety operating conditions is proposed. The reduction of such oscillations increases the FC lifetime and avoids high mechanical stress of the membrane and unnecessary consumption of reactants. Furthermore, it allows one to design a strategy for extracting the maximum power from the FC stack with a total control of the concentration losses. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

57.6.21    K. Lee, T.M. Jahns, T.A. Lipo, V. Blasko, "New Control Method Including State Observer of Voltage Unbalance for Grid Voltage-Source Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2054 - 2065 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: New observer-based disturbance-estimation and control algorithms are introduced in this paper that compensate source voltage unbalances. The algorithms are also designed to compensate the detrimental impact of delay effects caused by the digital-signal processing. Consequently, these techniques are appropriate for higher power systems with reduced pulsewidth modulation switching frequency and limited current-controller bandwidth. Analytical, simulation, and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the new observer-based control techniques.

57.6.22    J.I. Leon, O. Lopez, L.G. Franquelo, J. Doval-Gandoy, S. Vazquez, J. Alvarez, F.D. Freijedo, "Multilevel Multiphase Feedforward Space-Vector Modulation Technique ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multiphase converters have been applied to an increasing number of industrial applications in recent years. On the other hand, multilevel converters have become a mature technology mainly in medium- and high-power applications. One of the problems of multilevel converters is the dc voltage unbalance of the dc bus. Depending on the loading conditions and the number of levels of the converter, oscillations appear in the dc voltages of the dc link. This paper presents a feedforward modulation technique for multilevel multiphase converters that reduces the distortion under balanced or unbalanced dc conditions. The proposed modulation method can be applied to any multilevel-converter topology with any number of levels and phases. Experimental results are shown in order to validate the proposed feedforward modulation technique.

57.6.23    S. Lopez Arevalo, P. Zanchetta, P.W. Wheeler, A. Trentin, L. Empringham, "Control and Implementation of a Matrix-Converter-Based AC Ground Power-Supply Unit for Aircraft Servicing ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2076 - 2084 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the design, control, and implementation of a three-phase ground power-supply unit for aircraft servicing. Instead of a classical back-to-back converter configuration, a three-phase direct ac-ac (matrix) converter has been used as the power conditioning core of the power supply, working in conjunction with input and output LC filters. An optimized control system in the ABC frame employing a repetitive controller has been successfully implemented, taking into account both the transient and steady-state performance targets together with the system effectiveness under extreme unbalanced conditions. Extensive experimental tests on a 7.5-kVA prototype prove the efficiency of the designed system in meeting the high demanding civil and military international standards requirements.

57.6.24    K. Basu, J.S.S. Prasad, G. Narayanan, H.K. Krishnamurthy, R. Ayyanar, "Reduction of Torque Ripple in Induction Motor Drives Using an Advanced Hybrid PWM Technique ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2085 - 2091 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A voltage source inverter-fed induction motor produces a pulsating torque due to application of nonsinusoidal voltages. Torque pulsation is strongly influenced by the pulsewidth modulation (PWM) method employed. Conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM) is known to result in less torque ripple than sine-triangle PWM. This paper aims at further reduction in the pulsating torque by employing advanced bus-clamping switching sequences, which apply an active vector twice in a subcycle. This paper proposes a hybrid PWM technique which employs such advanced bus-clamping sequences in conjunction with a conventional switching sequence. The proposed hybrid PWM technique is shown to reduce the torque ripple considerably over CSVPWM along with a marginal reduction in current ripple.

57.6.25    F. Genduso, R. Miceli, C. Rando, G.R. Galluzzo, "Back EMF Sensorless-Control Algorithm for High-Dynamic Performance PMSM ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2092 - 2100 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a low-time-consuming and low-cost sensorless-control algorithm for high-dynamic performance permanent-magnet synchronous motors, both surface and internal permanent-magnet mounted for position and speed estimation, is introduced, discussed, and experimentally validated. This control algorithm is based on the estimation of rotor speed and angular position starting from the back electromotive force space-vector determination without voltage sensors by using the reference voltages given by the current controllers instead of the actual ones. This choice obviously introduces some errors that must be vanished by means of a compensating function. The novelties of the proposed estimation algorithm are the position-estimation equation and the process of compensation of the inverter phase lag that also suggests the final mathematical form of the estimation. The mathematical structure of the estimation guarantees a high degree of robustness against parameter variation as shown by the sensitivity analysis reported in this paper. Experimental verifications of the proposed sensorless-control system have been made with the aid of a flexible test bench for brushless motor electrical drives. The test results presented in this paper show the validity of the proposed low-cost sensorless-control algorithm and, above all, underline the high dynamic performances of the sensorless-control system also with a reduced equipment.

57.6.26    C. Ortega, A. Arias, C. Caruana, J. Balcells, G.M. Asher, "Improved Waveform Quality in the Direct Torque Control of Matrix-Converter-Fed PMSM Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2101 - 2110 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Despite the ability of matrix converters (MCs) to generate a higher number of voltage vectors compared with standard voltage-source inverters, most of the applications reported in the literature utilize only those having larger amplitudes. This paper investigates the use of MC input voltages with different amplitudes in order to reduce the inherent torque ripple that appears when direct torque control (DTC) is used to drive ac machines, particularly permanent-magnet synchronous motors, as its stator inductance is typically half of that of an induction machine of similar ratings. Utilizing a wider range of input voltage vectors for the MC, but not using the rotating vectors, a new lookup table that distinguishes between small and large torque errors is developed, leading to an enhanced MC-fed DTC. The enhancement enables a reduction in the electromagnetic torque ripple and output-current total harmonic distortion. Furthermore, the proposed control strategy improves the MC voltage transfer ratio up to 86.6% compared with 50% achieved by the conventional DTC using MCs at the expense, however, of slightly decreasing the input power factor control capability. The proposed enhanced MC DTC was tested experimentally, and results comparing its performance with MC DTC using an adapted lookup table are shown.

57.6.27    N.A. Rahim, J. Selvaraj, "Multistring Five-Level Inverter With Novel PWM Control Scheme for PV Application ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2111 - 2123 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a single-phase multistring five-level photovoltaic (PV) inverter topology for grid-connected PV systems with a novel pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) control scheme. Three PV strings are cascaded together in parallel configuration and connected to a five-level inverter to produce output voltage in five levels: zero, +1/2V dc, V dc, -1/2V dc, and -V dc. Two reference signals that were identical to each other with an offset that was equivalent to the amplitude of the triangular carrier signal were used to generate PWM signals for the switches. DSP TMS320F2812 is used to implement this PWM switching scheme together with a digital proportional-integral current control algorithm. The inverter offers much less total harmonic distortion and can operate at near-unity power factor. The validity of the proposed inverter is verified through simulation and implemented in a prototype. The experimental results are compared with a conventional single-phase multistring three-level grid-connected PWM inverter.

57.6.28    Y. Kano, T. Kosaka, N. Matsui, "A Simple Nonlinear Magnetic Analysis for Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2124 - 2133 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a simple nonlinear magnetic analysis for axial-flux permanent-magnet machines as an assistant design tool of 3-D finite-element analysis (3D-FEA). The proposed analysis consists of an equivalent magnetic circuit and an analytical model of air-gap permeances, including saturable permeances in the core. The proposed analysis is capable of calculating the flux distribution and torque characteristics under heavy operating conditions. We verify the accuracy of the proposed analysis by comparing the results with those of 3D-FEA for various design free parameters. After verifying the accuracy of the analysis, we present our analysis-based optimum design, which realizes the maximum torque density while maintaining efficiency at the desired value. Compared to the traditional 3D-FEA, the design method proposed here has the same accuracy, while the computation time is as short as 1/21.

57.6.29    Wenxiang Zhao, K.T. Chau, Ming Cheng, Jinghua Ji, Xiaoyong Zhu, "Remedial Brushless AC Operation of Fault-Tolerant Doubly Salient Permanent-Magnet Motor Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2134 - 2141 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The doubly salient permanent-magnet (DSPM) machine is a new class of stator-PM brushless machines, which inherently offers the fault-tolerant feature. In this paper, a new operation strategy is proposed and implemented for fault-tolerant DSPM motor drives. The key is to operate the DSPM motor drive in a remedial brushless ac (BLAC) mode under the open-circuit fault condition, while operating in the conventional brushless dc mode under normal condition. Both cosimulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed remedial BLAC operation can maintain the average torque, reduce the torque ripple, and retain the self-starting capability under the open-circuit fault.

57.6.30    Hai Xu, Hee-Jun Kim, Won-Sup Chung, "Experimental Identification Method for Small-Signal Analysis of Smart Power ICs ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2142 - 2150 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Smart power integrated circuits (ICs), as the combination of control and power functions on a single chip, enable the production of more miniaturized systems. This paper presents an experimental method for the small-signal frequency-response analysis of smart power ICs in switch-mode power supplies. In this method, the switching-duty-cycle output of a power IC is converted into a digital signal by using two high-speed counters during each switching period, and the power IC's control input signal is simultaneously converted into a digital signal by an analog-to-digital converter. After processing the data of the duty-cycle output and the control input, not only the transient response but also the frequency response of the power IC can be obtained. Using least square identification, the smart power IC's transfer function is finally synthesized from the measurement data. This analysis method, referred to as sampling the transient responses and frequency responses of power ICs, can efficiently provide reliable and accurate transfer functions whether the switching frequency of a power IC is jittered or frequency modulated. The experiments using different power ICs were presented herein to validate the analysis method. The results were discussed, and the effectiveness and practicality of the method were verified.

57.6.31    Feng Luo, Dongsheng Ma, "Design of Digital Tri-mode Adaptive-Output Buck–Boost Power Converter for Power-Efficient Integrated Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2151 - 2160 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An integrated buck-boost converter with a tri-mode digital control is presented. It employs an adaptive step-up/down voltage conversion to enable a wide range of output voltage. This is beneficial to the ever-increasing electronic systems that employ dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) techniques for power-efficient operations. Three control modes are employed in the converter to operate jointly and seamlessly for performance optimization during the periods of start-up, steady state, and dynamic voltage/load transient states. To avoid latch-up problem and minimize leakage current, an automatic substrate switching circuit (ASSC) is introduced. The design was fabricated in a 0.35-??m digital CMOS N-well process, with a die area of 1.3 mm2. It precisely regulates an adaptively adjustable power output from 0.9 to 3.0 V. The maximum efficiency is 96.5%, which is measured at 0.9-V output and 45-mW load power. The efficiency remains above 50% over the entire 800-mW power range. The converter responds to a 45-mA load step transient change within 600 ns. The DVS tracking speed is 37 ??s/V for a 1-V step-down change and is 150 ??s/V for a 1-V step-up change. With a line regulation of 20.4 mV/V, the converter functions robustly when the input power source frequently varies between 1.6 and 3.3 V. The ASSC consumes only 88- ??W static power.

57.6.32    Jinhui Zhang, Yuanqing Xia, "Design of Static Output Feedback Sliding Mode Control for Uncertain Linear Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2161 - 2170 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper considers the problem of designing a sliding mode controller via static output feedback for a class of uncertain systems with mismatched uncertainty in the state matrix. First, we derive a new existence condition of linear sliding surface in terms of strict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) and propose an adaptive reaching control law such that the motion of the closed-loop system satisfies the reaching condition. Second, we further consider the delay-type switching function, and a new robust stability condition is given in terms of LMIs for the reduced-order sliding mode dynamics. Then, a synthesis procedure is established to design the sliding surface parameters. Finally, three examples, including an aircraft model, are utilized to illustrate the design procedures proposed in this paper.

57.6.33    G.W. Chang, Cheng-I Chen, Yu-Feng Teng, "Radial-Basis-Function-Based Neural Network for Harmonic Detection ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2171 - 2179 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The widespread application of power-electronic loads has led to increasing harmonic pollution in the supply system. In order to prevent harmonics from deteriorating the power quality, detecting harmonic components for harmonic mitigations becomes a critical issue. In this paper, an effective procedure based on the radial-basis-function neural network is proposed to detect the harmonic amplitudes of the measured signal. By comparing with several commonly used methods, it is shown that the proposed solution procedure yields more accurate results and requires less sampled data for harmonic assessment.

57.6.34    Shih-Kang Kuo, Sung-Lin Chen, Chang-Tsun Lin, "Design and Development of RFID Label for Steel Coil ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2180 - 2186 , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Although RF identification (RFID) technology has had a remarkable impact on various industries in recent years, designing RFID tags for metallic objects with satisfactory performance is still a challenge. So far, only few success stories have been reported in the steel industry. This paper presents the design and development of RFID labels for steel coils. In order to achieve automatic inventory during the product-delivery process, a novel antenna structure based on the principle of a monopole antenna has been designed, and the performance has been verified through measurements. In order to minimize the implementation cost added to the product line, the RFID tag is embedded into a barcode label with special perforations. A site test demonstrates that the developed tag has excellent performance, enabling automatic inventory using fixed readers.

57.6.35    Huang-Jen Chiu, Yu-Kang Lo, Hung-Chi Lee, Shih-Jen Cheng, Yeong-Chang Yan, Chung-Yi Lin, Tai-Hung Wang, "A Single-Stage Soft-Switching Flyback Converter for Power-Factor-Correction Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. , June 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This letter presents a single-stage soft-switching Flyback converter for power-factor-correction (PFC) applications. High power factor and high conversion efficiency can be achieved by a simple single-stage circuit with soft-switching features. The operation principles and design criteria for the studied PFC converter are analyzed and discussed. A laboratory prototype is also built and tested. Finally, the experimental waveforms for this prototype circuit are shown to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 7, July 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.7.1    M. Malinowski, K. Gopakumar, J. Rodriguez, Pé, M.A. rez, "A Survey on Cascaded Multilevel Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2197 - 2206 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Cascaded multilevel inverters synthesize a medium-voltage output based on a series connection of power cells which use standard low-voltage component configurations. This characteristic allows one to achieve high-quality output voltages and input currents and also outstanding availability due to their intrinsic component redundancy. Due to these features, the cascaded multilevel inverter has been recognized as an important alternative in the medium-voltage inverter market. This paper presents a survey of different topologies, control strategies and modulation techniques used by these inverters. Regenerative and advanced topologies are also discussed. Applications where the mentioned features play a key role are shown. Finally, future developments are addressed.

57.7.2    P. Lezana, J. Pou, T.A. Meynard, J. Rodriguez, S. Ceballos, F. Richardeau, "Survey on Fault Operation on Multilevel Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2207 - 2218 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is related to faults that can appear in multilevel (ML) inverters, which have a high number of components. This is a subject of increasing importance in high-power inverters. First, methods to identify a fault are classified and briefly described for each topology. In addition, a number of strategies and hardware modifications that allow for operation in faulty conditions are also presented. As a result of the analyzed works, it can be concluded that ML inverters can significantly increase their availability and are able to operate even with some faulty components.

57.7.3    J. Rodriguez, S. Bernet, P.K. Steimer, I.E. Lizama, "A Survey on Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2219 - 2230 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters are the most widely used topology of multilevel inverters in high-power applications (several megawatts). This paper presents in a very simple way the basic operation and the most used modulation and control techniques developed to date. Special attention is paid to the loss distribution in semiconductors, and an active NPC inverter is presented to overcome this problem. This paper discusses the main fields of application and presents some technological problems such as capacitor balance and losses.

57.7.4    M. Ben Smida, F. Ben Ammar, "Modeling and DBC-PSC-PWM Control of a Three-Phase Flying-Capacitor Stacked Multilevel Voltage Source Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2231 - 2239 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors propose a mathematical model for a new topology called "stacked multicell converter" (SMC). Each phase of the SMC n × m multilevel inverter is formed by a stack of m flying-capacitor multilevel inverters, and each stack or stage is realized by connecting in series n controllable commutation cells. An original multicarrier subharmonic pulsewidth modulation (PWM), called disposition band carrier and phase-shifted carrier PWM (DBC-PSC-PWM), method is developed to produce (n × m + 1) output voltage levels and to improve the output voltage harmonic spectrum with a wide output frequency range. A diagram state machine is then used to decode the DBC-PSC-PWM modulator and distribute the commutations evenly to each inverter cell in a cyclical fashion. To carry out, in practice, the SMC n × m modulation technique, the implementation of the modulation control strategy has been done in a field-programmable gate array circuit XC4010E+ of XILINX to control a three-phase SMC 3 × 2 seven-level inverter, and the experimental results are carried out to confirm the high performance of this inverter.

57.7.5    F. Defay, A.-M. Llor, M. Fadel, "Direct Control Strategy for a Four-Level Three-Phase Flying-Capacitor Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2240 - 2248 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A direct predictive control strategy is proposed for a three-phase four-level flying-capacitor (FC) inverter in this paper. The balancing of the FC voltages, a challenge in applications with small capacitors and low switching frequencies, is done without any modulation, simply using tables calculated offline. These allow the realization of fast-dynamics output currents with reduced dv/dt in the output voltages and reduced switching frequencies. Moreover, no interharmonics are created when operating at low switching frequencies and with reference currents containing multiple harmonic components, which is a key feature for active power filters. Simulations and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the excellent performance of the direct control strategy in comparison with a conventional pulsewidth-modulation control technique, mostly for operation at low switching frequencies.

57.7.6    A. Shukla, A. Ghosh, A. Joshi, "Flying-Capacitor-Based Chopper Circuit for DC Capacitor Voltage Balancing in Diode-Clamped Multilevel Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2249 - 2261 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a flying-capacitor-based chopper circuit for dc capacitor voltage equalization in diode-clamped multilevel inverters. Its important features are reduced voltage stress across the chopper switches, possible reduction in the chopper switching frequency, improved reliability, and ride-through capability enhancement. This topology is analyzed using three- and four-level flying-capacitor-based chopper circuit configurations. These configurations are different in capacitor and semiconductor device count and correspondingly reduce the device voltage stresses by half and one-third, respectively. The detailed working principles and control schemes for these circuits are presented. It is shown that, by preferentially selecting the available chopper switch states, the dc-link capacitor voltages can be efficiently equalized in addition to having tightly regulated flying-capacitor voltages around their references. The various operating modes of the chopper are described along with their preferential selection logic to achieve the desired performances. The performance of the proposed chopper and corresponding control schemes are confirmed through both simulation and experimental investigations.

57.7.7    Chenchen Wang, Yongdong Li, "Analysis and Calculation of Zero-Sequence Voltage Considering Neutral-Point Potential Balancing in Three-Level NPC Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2262 - 2271 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The neutral-point (NP) potential of the three-level neutral-point-clamped converters is needed to maintain balancing. Zero-sequence voltage is the only freedom degree when carrier-based pulsewidth modulation is utilized. Appropriate zero-sequence voltage should be identified to control the NP potential. The relationship between the neutral current and injected zero-sequence voltage is studied comprehensively, and two balancing algorithms of NP potential, respectively adopting searching-optimization and interpolation methods, are presented. The theoretical optimum zero-sequence voltage for controlling NP potential can be obtained by the latter proposed algorithm. Simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the validity and practicability of the proposed algorithms.

57.7.8    D. Floricau, G. Gateau, A. Leredde, "New Active Stacked NPC Multilevel Converter: Operation and Features ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2272 - 2278 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the operation and the features of a new three-level converter are presented. The proposed topology was named three-level active-stacked neutral point clamped (3L-ASNPC). It is a derivative of the 3L-SNPC structure, having two additional active switches connected antiparallel with the clamp diodes. The main advantage of 3L-ASNPC converter is the reduction of the average switching frequency for all power devices. In the same time, the apparent switching frequency of the output voltage is doubled. Experimental and simulation results are shown in order to validate the proposed structure and the analysis of the switching states.

57.7.9    T. Chaudhuri, A. Rufer, P.K. Steimer, "The Common Cross-Connected Stage for the 5L ANPC Medium Voltage Multilevel Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2279 - 2286 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Rising interest in multilevel applications has triggered new research activities. This paper proposes a novel multilevel power electronics building block (PEBB) for the five-level active neutral point clamped (ANPC) multilevel voltage source inverter. The PEBB is composed of six switches in a crossed configuration and one capacitor. It is common to the three phases of a five-level ANPC topology, enabling a large number of levels to be generated. This PEBB is meant to be a reliable upgrade to the 5L topology, increasing output signal quality and reducing the size of the output filter in medium voltage applications. The number of levels generated by the common cross-connected stage (C3S) PEBB and the ANPC depends on the voltage ratios chosen between the phase capacitors of the ANPC and the PEBB capacitor(s). The tradeoff stands between the ability to balance the capacitors, the rated blocking voltage of the devices, and the number of levels produced. Under a given configuration, nine levels can be produced, with the possibility to balance the capacitors up to modulation indexes in the region of m = 0.92. The analysis of the general topology, the description of the nine-level case, and simulation results are first presented. Prototyping results are then shown, and they validate the introduced concept and topology.

57.7.10    S. Vazquez, J.I. Leon, J.M. Carrasco, L.G. Franquelo, E. Galvan, M. Reyes, J.A. Sanchez, "Analysis of the Power Balance in the Cells of a Multilevel Cascaded H-Bridge Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converters have been presented as a good solution for high-power applications. In this way, several control and modulation techniques have been proposed for this power converter topology. In this paper, the steady-state power balance in the cells of a single-phase two-cell CHB is studied. The capability to be supplied with active power from the grid or to deliver active power to the grid in each cell is analyzed according to the dc-link voltages and the desired ac output voltage value. The limits of the maximum and minimum input active powers for a stable operation of the CHB are addressed. Simulation results are shown to validate the presented analysis.

57.7.11    D.A.B. Zambra, C. Rech, J.R. Pinheiro, "Comparison of Neutral-Point-Clamped, Symmetrical, and Hybrid Asymmetrical Multilevel Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2297 - 2306 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of three topologies of multilevel inverters applied to drive an induction motor of 500 kVA/4.16 kV rating. The multilevel inverters analyzed are the following: a neutral-point-clamped inverter, a symmetrical cascaded multilevel inverter, and a hybrid asymmetrical cascaded multilevel inverter. The performance indexes used in the comparison are total harmonic distortion, first-order distortion factor, second-order distortion factor, common-mode voltage, semiconductor power loss distribution, and heat-sink volume. The multilevel inverters are designed to present 99% efficiency at the nominal operating point, and the aforementioned performance indexes are compared for distinct values of amplitude modulation depth.

57.7.12    D.A. Ruiz-Caballero, R.M. Ramos-Astudillo, S.A. Mussa, M.L. Heldwein, "Symmetrical Hybrid Multilevel DC–AC Converters With Reduced Number of Insulated DC Supplies ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2307 - 2314 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Novel symmetric hybrid multilevel topologies are introduced for both single- and three-phase medium-voltage high-power systems. The topology conception is presented in detail, where a three-level switching cell with low component count, and its modulation pattern give the origin of the proposed converters. Voltage sharing and low output-voltage distortion are achieved. The theoretical frequency spectra are derived. Switching devices are separated into high- and low-frequency devices, generating hybrid converters. Five-level three-phase topologies are generated from only three insulated dc sources, while the number of semiconductors is the same as for the cascaded H bridge. Both simulation and experimental results are provided showing the validity of the analysis.

57.7.13    J. Napoles, J.I. Leon, R. Portillo, L.G. Franquelo, M.A. Aguirre, "Selective Harmonic Mitigation Technique for High-Power Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2315 - 2323 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In high-power applications, the maximum switching frequency is limited due to thermal losses. This leads to highly distorted output waveforms. In such applications, it is necessary to filter the output waveforms using bulky passive filtering systems. The recently presented selective harmonic mitigation pulsewidth modulation (SHMPWM) technique produces output waveforms where the harmonic distortion is limited, fulfilling specific grid codes when the number of switching angles is high enough. The related technique has been previously presented using a switching frequency that is equal to 750 Hz. In this paper, a special implementation of the SHMPWM technique optimized for very low switching frequency is studied. Experimental results obtained applying SHMPWM to a three-level neutral-point-clamped converter using a switching frequency that is equal to 350 Hz are presented. The obtained results show that the SHMPWM technique improves the results of previous selective harmonic elimination pulsewidth modulation techniques for very low switching frequencies. This fact highlights that the SHMPWM technique is very useful in high-power applications, leading its use to an important reduction of the bulky and expensive filtering elements.

57.7.14    M.M. Renge, H.M. Suryawanshi, "Three-Dimensional Space-Vector Modulation to Reduce Common-Mode Voltage for Multilevel Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2324 - 2331 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an approach to reduce common-mode voltage (CMV) at the output of multilevel inverter using 3-D space-vector modulation (SVM) is proposed. The 3-D SVM is superset of the traditional 2-D SVM, and thus, it inherits all the merits of traditional 2-D. A simple technique for the selection of switching states to constitute the reference vector is proposed here. The computational cost of the proposed technique is independent of voltage levels of inverter. This technique is easy to implement online in digital controller. The tradeoff between quality of output voltage and CMV is achieved in this paper. This paper realizes the implementation of 3-D SVM to reduce the CMV using a five-level diode-clamped inverter for a three-phase induction motor. Experimental and simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

57.7.15    Liliang Gao, J.E. Fletcher, "A Space Vector Switching Strategy for Three-Level Five-Phase Inverter Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2332 - 2343 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel space vector modulation (SVM) technique for a three-level five-phase inverter is described based on an optimized five vectors concept. The concept utilizes a novel vector minimization technique that reduces the number of vectors in the d1-q1 vector space by identifying candidate vectors in each of the ten sectors that comprise the decagon vector space. The candidate vectors are selected based on the inequality relationship between the five-phase voltages during each switching cycle. Using this technique, the original 243 inverter states are reduced to 113 candidate vectors, and from the remaining states ten possible switching sequences in each sector are utilized to develop the desired voltage reference in the d1-q1 vector space while forcing a null vector in the d3-q3 vector space. A novel region determination technique is also introduced to identify the subregion that the d1-q1 voltage vector occupies. This technique significantly reduces the computational overhead required when implementing SVM techniques with multilevel and multiphase inverters. The space vector technique can utilize redundant vectors to assist in balancing subcycle variation of the dc-link capacitor voltage under unbalanced load conditions. Experiments validate simulation results where the low-order voltage harmonics show that the d3-q3 voltage vector is null.

57.7.16    R. Gupta, A. Ghosh, A. Joshi, "Multiband Hysteresis Modulation and Switching Characterization for Sliding-Mode-Controlled Cascaded Multilevel Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2344 - 2353 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a generalized multiband hysteresis modulation and its characterization have been proposed for the sliding-mode control of cascaded H-bridge multilevel-inverter (CHBMLI)-controlled systems. A frequency-domain method is proposed for the determination of net hysteresis bandwidth for a given desired maximum switching frequency of the inverter. The switching transition concept of Tsypkin's method and the describing function of nonlinear relay have been used for the derivation of results. A hierarchical switching algorithm has been suggested for the modular cells of the cascaded multilevel inverter. The hierarchy of each cell is swapped sequentially to provide the self-balancing capability in case the dc-link voltage is supported by the capacitors. The simulation and experimental verification of the derived results are provided through a single-phase distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) model. The application in the three-phase system has been shown through simulation studies on a 3.3-kV distribution-system compensation using DSTATCOM. Verification on both single- and three-phase systems is obtained using a five-level cascaded-multilevel-inverter topology.

57.7.17    B. Vafakhah, J. Salmon, A.M. Knight, "A New Space-Vector PWM With Optimal Switching Selection for Multilevel Coupled Inductor Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2354 - 2364 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel space vector pulsewidth modulation (SVPWM) control is shown to be a very useful tool for coupled inductor inverters as six independent pulsewidth modulation (PWM) signals are required, and there is additional complexity of meeting the performance requirements for the coupled inductor while balancing the winding common-mode dc current and generating high-quality multilevel PWM output voltages. A new multilevel SVPWM technique with a five-segment switching sequence is described, where half-wave symmetrical PWM voltage waveforms are used to balance the inductor common-mode dc voltages and also to avoid all possible switching states with a high winding current ripple. The proposed SVPWM is shown to have better inverter performance, compared with traditional carrier-based and the original multilevel SVPWM schemes at low modulation depths. Inverter operation with the proposed SVPWM is validated through simulation and experimental results.

57.7.18    Jing Zhao, Xiangning He, Rongxiang Zhao, "A Novel PWM Control Method for Hybrid-Clamped Multilevel Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2365 - 2373 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel pulsewidth modulation (PWM) control method is proposed in this paper. The PWM control method is called higher and lower carrier cells alternative phase opposition PWM (HLCCAPOPWM) for the hybrid-clamped multilevel inverter and based on the improvement of carrier phase disposition PWM (PDPWM). The principle of the HLCCAPOPWM method, the comparison with the carrier PDPWM method, and the analysis on output voltage spectrum are given. Simulations and experiments show that comparing with the carrier PDPWM method, the novel method can effectively reduce the number of devices switching on or off within broad modulation index range, consequently reducing switching losses, and remarkably reduce the amplitude of lower harmonics. Simulations also show the generalization of the HLCCAPOPWM method for hybrid-clamped n-level inverters and neutral-point-clamped inverters.

57.7.19    A.K. Rathore, J. Holtz, T. Boller, "Synchronous Optimal Pulsewidth Modulation for Low-Switching-Frequency Control of Medium-Voltage Multilevel Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2374 - 2381 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the mechanism and details of synchronous optimal pulsewidth modulation (PWM) generation for control of medium-voltage induction motor drives using multilevel inverters at low switching frequency. Multilevel inverters allow operation at multiple of dc-link voltage and reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD). Synchronous optimal PWM control permits setting the maximum switching frequency to a low value without compromising THD. Low switching frequency reduces the switching losses of the power semiconductor devices. An optimal control procedure is explained in detail. The performances of three- and five-level inverter topologies are compared. The experimental results of a five-level inverter drive using optimal PWM control are presented.

57.7.20    P. Kujan, Hromč, í, M. k, Š, M. ebek, "Complete Fast Analytical Solution of the Optimal Odd Single-Phase Multilevel Problem ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2382 - 2397 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we focus on the computation of optimal switching angles for general multilevel (ML) odd symmetry waveforms. We show that this problem is similar to (but more general than) the optimal pulsewidth modulation (PWM) problem, which is an established method of generating PWM waveforms with low baseband distortion. We introduce a new general modulation strategy for ML inverters, which takes an analytic form and is very fast, with a complexity of only O(n log2 n) arithmetic operations, where n is the number of controlled harmonics. This algorithm is based on a transformation of appropriate trigonometric equations for each controlled harmonics to a polynomial system of equations that is further transformed to a special system of composite sum of powers. The solution of this system is carried out by a modification of the Newton's identity via Padé approximation, formal orthogonal polynomials (FOPs) theory, and properties of symmetric polynomials. Finally, the optimal switching sequence is obtained by computing zeros of two FOP polynomials in one variable or, alternatively, by a special recurrence formula and eigenvalues computation.

57.7.21    A.M. Massoud, S. Ahmed, P.N. Enjeti, B.W. Williams, "Evaluation of a Multilevel Cascaded-Type Dynamic Voltage Restorer Employing Discontinuous Space Vector Modulation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2398 - 2410 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the application of a cascaded multilevel inverter as a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is investigated. Two discontinuous multilevel space vector modulation (SVM) techniques are implemented for DVR control and are shown to reduce inverter switching losses while maintaining virtually the same harmonic performance as the conventional multilevel SVM at a high number of levels. This paper also presents a mathematical relationship for computing the distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC) as a function of the distortion of the DVR. This enables the selection of the number of levels required for a certain application. An extended sag duration support compared to the two-level DVR is another advantage of the DVR with a cascaded multilevel inverter. The common-mode voltage (CMV) at the PCC has been evaluated for the three SVM techniques (the conventional multilevel SVM and the two discontinuous SVM), presenting a lower CMV for the second discontinuous SVM. A design example is presented for an 11-kV 5-MVA DVR multilevel cascaded inverter for up to 17 levels, employing the conventional multilevel SVM and the two discontinuous SVM techniques.

57.7.22    Shuai Lu, S. Mariethoz, K.A. Corzine, "Asymmetrical Cascade Multilevel Converters With Noninteger or Dynamically Changing DC Voltage Ratios: Concepts and Modulation Techniques ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2411 - 2418 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Asymmetrical cascade multilevel inverters offer a high number of voltage levels with a given switch count. For a given topology, the number of levels depends on the configuration of the dc voltage (ratios). This paper deals with the design and control of such converters with noninteger dc voltage ratio, which leads to unevenly distributed space vectors. It describes how to select the dc voltage ratio configurations that yield space vectors as evenly distributed as possible. It describes how to produce an effective PWM modulation that allows generating undistorted current even in the presence of (some) unevenly distributed space vectors.

57.7.23    A. Hamadi, S. Rahmani, K. Al-Haddad, "A Hybrid Passive Filter Configuration for VAR Control and Harmonic Compensation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2419 - 2434 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel topology for a three-phase hybrid passive filter (HPF) to compensate for reactive power and harmonics. The HPF consists of a series passive filter and a thyristor-controlled-reactor-based variable-impedance shunt passive filter (SPF). A mutual-inductance design concept is used to reduce the series passive filter inductance rating. The special features of the proposed HPF system are as follows: 1) insensitivity to source-impedance variations; 2) no series or parallel resonance problems; 3) fast dynamic response; and 4) significant size reduction in an SPF capacitor. The performance of the proposed HPF system is validated by simulation, as well as by experimentation, under different load conditions. Experimental and simulation results show that the proposed system can effectively compensate all voltage and current harmonics and reactive power for large nonlinear loads.

57.7.24    S.J. Underwood, I. Husain, "Online Parameter Estimation and Adaptive Control of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2435 - 2443 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on the benefits of adaptive control for permanent-magnet synchronous machines; a novel method of online parameter estimation for such machines has been developed. Two recursive least square algorithm segments, a fast and a slow one, are uniquely combined in real time with rich enough data from the machine to estimate all four machine parameters instead of a subset of these. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

57.7.25    Y. Ege, O. Kalender, S. Nazlibilek, "Electromagnetic Stirrer Operating in Double Axis ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2444 - 2453 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new rotating magnetic stirrer system that is controlled by a programmable-integrated-circuit (PIC) microcontroller and can stir in double axis is developed. In contrast to making a stirring action only at one point, as in the case of traditional electromagnetic stirrers, the system that is developed can rotate at two separate axes. One of the rotations is around the axis of the magnetic stir bar itself, and the other is over a circle defined by a rotating magnetic field. That is, the stirrer makes two rotational motions. This is the main contribution of this paper. The magnetic stirrer system is designed as a three-phase system, and a sinusoidal ramp signal is applied to the phases as the supply voltage. During the design stage, the mathematical model of the system was obtained, and the parameters affecting the design were determined. Based on these parameters, a parameter set was established. This parameter set can be used for subsequent design studies of the system. A PIC-based control circuit is used to control the frequency of the supply voltage. The structure of the double-rotating electromagnetic stirring system is explained. The physical conditions affecting the double-axis rotational motion of the magnetic stir bar are discussed in detail. It was observed that a more homogeneous stirring process could be achieved with this kind of double-axis rotation.

57.7.26    Marč, etić, D.P. , Adž, ić, E.M. , "Improved Three-Phase Current Reconstruction for Induction Motor Drives With DC-Link Shunt ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2454 - 2462 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper aims to reveal an offset jitter-like waveform error, which is usually present in all three-phase current signals reconstructed from dc-link current samples. This paper also presents a method for the cancellation of that error, which could be useful in low-cost shaft-sensorless drives. A combination of two samples' time displacement and the line current pulse-width modulation (PWM) ripple produces a distinctive shape of the reconstructed current error, which is offset jitter like, and is always at the current ripple level. This unusual waveform distortion is often masked by other jitters and noise sources and therefore is typically not given in the relevant literature. However, the distortion is difficult to filter out, and it may be harmful, particularly in applications with low rated motor current. The proposed waveform correction scheme uses the readily available motor states in shaft-sensorless drives and does not require major computational effort. Experimental results show that the scheme recovers the α-β current waveforms and, as a result, prevent the increase in the sixth harmonic ripple in the d-q currents, which is inherent to the PWM inverter-controlled drives. Consequently, drives with the dc shunt will neither have current signal offset problems nor the need for d-q current signal prefilters with order significantly higher than usual.

57.7.27    Ying-Chun Chuang, "High-Efficiency ZCS Buck Converter for Rechargeable Batteries ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2463 - 2472 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To obtain zero-current-switching (ZCS) operation, this paper develops a novel soft-switching approach for rechargeable batteries. By inserting an auxiliary switch in series with a resonant capacitor, the proposed topology can obtain a novel ZCS buck dc-dc battery charger and significantly decrease the switching losses in active power switches. The proposed ZCS dc-dc battery charger has a straightforward structure, low cost, easy control, and high efficiency. The operating principles and design procedure of the proposed charger are thoroughly analyzed. The optimal values of the resonant components are computed by applying the characteristic curve and electric functions derived from the circuit configuration. Finally, a prototype charger circuit designed for a 12-V 48-Ah lead acid battery is constructed and tested to confirm the theoretical predictions. The maximum charging efficiency of the proposed topology during the overall charging period is 90.3%. Satisfactory performance is obtained from the experimental results.

57.7.28    J.I. Leon, S. Vazquez, J.A. Sanchez, R. Portillo, L.G. Franquelo, J.M. Carrasco, E. Dominguez, "Conventional Space-Vector Modulation Techniques Versus the Single-Phase Modulator for Multilevel Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Space-vector modulation (SVM) is a well-suited technique to be applied to multilevel converters and is an important research focus in the last 25 years. Recently, a single-phase multilevel modulator has been introduced, showing its conceptual simplicity and its very low computational cost. In this paper, some of the most conventional multilevel SVM techniques have been chosen to compare their results with those obtained with single-phase multilevel modulators. The obtained results demonstrate that the single-phase multilevel modulators applied to each phase are equivalent with the chosen well-known multilevel SVM techniques. In this way, single-phase multilevel modulators can be applied to a converter with any number of levels and phases, avoiding the use of conceptually and mathematically complex SVM strategies. Analytical calculations and experimental results are shown, validating the proposed concepts.

57.7.29    S. Rajakaruna, L. Jayawickrama, "Steady-State Analysis and Designing Impedance Network of Z-Source Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2483 - 2491 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: All possible steady states of a Z-source inverter are identified and analyzed with the objective of deriving design guidelines for the symmetrical impedance network. This paper shows that, in addition to the desired three dynamic states, an operating cycle can contain another three static states that do not contribute to the power conversion process. These three static states can be avoided by selecting suitably large capacitors and inductors. By using the equations derived in the steady-state analysis, this paper presents guidelines to design the impedance network accurately for the case where the inverter is operated only in active and shoot-through states. The proposed design method can also be used to predict the critical values of capacitance and inductance below which static states appear during the operating cycle. Computer simulations and laboratory experiments are used to verify the design method and to demonstrate the appearance of static states when the capacitors and inductors are sized lower than their critical values.

57.7.30    R. Lanzafame, S. Nachtmann, M. Rosa-Clot, P. Rosa-Clot, P.F. Scandura, S. Taddei, G.M. Tina, "Field Experience With Performances Evaluation of a Single-Crystalline Photovoltaic Panel in an Underwater Environment ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the electrical and thermal performances of a single-crystalline submerged photovoltaic (PV) solar panel (SP2) is investigated. In particular, due to the presence of water, several phenomena occur such as the modification of solar-radiation spectrum and the reduction of the module operating temperature. These phenomena have different impacts on the global energy performance of the PV module, which depends on the environmental conditions, on the PV technology, and on the water depth. Energy performances of an SP2 module are measured using two different experimental setups in different environmental conditions, with an increase in power ranging from 10% to 15%.

57.7.31    Keun-Ho Rew, Kyung-Soo Kim, "A Closed-Form Solution to Asymmetric Motion Profile Allowing Acceleration Manipulation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2499 - 2506 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new complete closed-form formula for asymmetric motion profiles of long, medium, and short distances, which enables easy manipulation of jerks in arrival time for effectively reducing the acceleration and thus the overshoot. The design parameter named jerk ratio is newly introduced to scale down the jerks during the deceleration period so that the velocity profile is in an asymmetric S-curve. Owing to the jerk ratio, the motion formulas are remarkably simplified in analytic forms for short, medium, and long distances. The effectiveness of the proposed approach will be illustrated with the sledge movement control in an optical data storage system by experiments.

57.7.32    J. Ospina, E. Canuto, A. Molano-Jimenez, Acuñ, W. a-Bravo, "Multilayer Control of an Optical Reference Cavity for Space Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2507 - 2518 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with multilayer and fine thermal control of an optical reference cavity for space applications. The cavity, made of ultralow-expansion glass, must be kept close to the zero-expansion temperature (ZET) of the glass (near room temperature). The target can only be met by active control, while leaving the cavity free of sensors and actuators. This is achieved by applying two concepts: thermal bath and reference thermal sink, the latter allowing the ZET to be reached by heaters in a wide range of the environment. Guidelines for cavity design and thermal control implementation are detailed together with preliminary experimental results.

57.7.33    Lan Yu, T.N. Chang, "Zero Vibration On–off Position Control of Dual Solenoid Actuator ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2519 - 2526 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Solenoids are low-cost high-speed nonlinear actuators commonly used in switching mode. This paper presents a dual-solenoid actuator system for high-speed positioning applications. A novel control method that combines on-off control and input shaping is used to obtain low-vibration smooth transients when compared with traditional proportional and integral control and on-off control. Simulation results and experimental data confirm that this dual-solenoid position actuator with the novel control method is effective and practical.

57.7.34    R.A. Gupta, Mo-Yuen Chow, "Networked Control System: Overview and Research Trends ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2527 - 2535 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Networked control systems (NCSs) have been one of the main research focuses in academia as well as in industry for many decades and have become a multidisciplinary area. With these growing research trends, it is important to consolidate the latest knowledge and information to keep up with the research needs. In this paper, the NCS and its different forms are introduced and discussed. The beginning of this paper discusses the history and evolution of NCSs. The next part of this paper focuses on different fields and research arenas such as networking technology, network delay, network resource allocation, scheduling, network security in real-time NCSs, integration of components on a network, fault tolerance, etc. A brief literature survey and possible future direction concerning each topic is included.

57.7.35    Guozhu Zhang, Jie Chen, Zhiping Li, "Identifier-Based Adaptive Robust Control for Servomechanisms With Improved Transient Performance ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2536 - 2547 , July 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on the adaptive robust control (ARC) for servomechanisms whose dynamic models are subject to unknown parameters, disturbance, and parameter sudden changes. To improve the control performance of the traditional ARC, a novel identifier-based ARC (IFARC) scheme is proposed. In this scheme, an identifier is utilized to accelerate the parameter tuning process and to heighten the accuracy of parameter estimation. A switching logic component based on a given performance index is introduced to select the better parameter estimate vector from those provided by the identifier and the adaptation law. As a result, transient performance can be improved according to the certainty equivalence principle. In addition, the exact reconstruction of the unknown parameters and exponential decay of the tracking error can be achieved under certain conditions. The stability and performance of IFARC are theoretically analyzed. Finally, simulation results show that the IFARC can achieve favorable tracking performance.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 8, August 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.8.1    S. Kouro, M. Malinowski, K. Gopakumar, J. Pou, L.G. Franquelo, Bin Wu, J. Rodriguez, "Recent Advances and Industrial Applications of Multilevel Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel converters have been under research and development for more than three decades and have found successful industrial application. However, this is still a technology under development, and many new contributions and new commercial topologies have been reported in the last few years. The aim of this paper is to group and review these recent contributions, in order to establish the current state of the art and trends of the technology, to provide readers with a comprehensive and insightful review of where multilevel converter technology stands and is heading. This paper first presents a brief overview of well-established multilevel converters strongly oriented to their current state in industrial applications to then center the discussion on the new converters that have made their way into the industry. In addition, new promising topologies are discussed. Recent advances made in modulation and control of multilevel converters are also addressed. A great part of this paper is devoted to show nontraditional applications powered by multilevel converters and how multilevel converters are becoming an enabling technology in many industrial sectors. Finally, some future trends and challenges in the further development of this technology are discussed to motivate future contributions that address open problems and explore new possibilities.

57.8.2    H. Abu-Rub, J. Holtz, J. Rodriguez, Ge Baoming, "Medium-Voltage Multilevel Converters—State of the Art, Challenges, and Requirements in Industrial Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2581 - 2596 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper gives an overview of medium-voltage (MV) multilevel converters with a focus on achieving minimum harmonic distortion and high efficiency at low switching frequency operation. Increasing the power rating by minimizing switching frequency while still maintaining reasonable power quality is an important requirement and a persistent challenge for the industry. Existing solutions are discussed and analyzed based on their topologies, limitations, and control techniques. As a preferred option for future research and application, an inverter configuration based on three-level building blocks to generate five-level voltage waveforms is suggested. This paper shows that such an inverter may be operated at a very low switching frequency to achieve minimum on-state and dynamic device losses for highly efficient MV drive applications while maintaining low harmonic distortion.

57.8.3    T. Chaudhuri, A. Rufer, "Modeling and Control of the Cross-Connected Intermediate-Level Voltage Source Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2597 - 2604 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel inverter applications have become more and more common. Multilevel topologies have now to serve new purposes, and interest is rising in new application fields. Recent multilevel technologies have the potential to significantly reduce the size of passive filters, thus increasing efficiency and power density. With the more stringent regulations concerning harmonic emissions and reliability concerns, more levels are needed to allow filterless operation while keeping a moderate switching frequency and simple structure. In this context, the new topological family of high-density advanced multilevel inverters, called cross-connected intermediate-level voltage source inverter, is introduced in this paper.

57.8.4    G. Waltrich, I. Barbi, "Three-Phase Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Using Power Cells With Two Inverter Legs in Series ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2605 - 2612 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a modular three-phase multilevel inverter specially suited for electrical drive applications is proposed. Unlike the cascaded H-bridge inverter, this topology is based on power cells connected in cascade using two inverter legs in series. A detailed analysis of the structure and the development of design equations for the load voltage with n levels are carried out using pulsewidth-modulation phase-shifted multicarrier modulation. Simulations and experimental results for a 15-kW three-phase system, with nine voltage levels, validate the study presented.

57.8.5    Feng Gao, Poh Chiang Loh, F. Blaabjerg, D.M. Vilathgamuwa, "Five-Level Current-Source Inverters With Buck–Boost and Inductive-Current Balancing Capabilities ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2613 - 2622 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents new five-level current-source inverters (CSIs) with voltage/current buck-boost capability, unlike existing five-level CSIs where only voltage-boost operation is supported. The proposed inverters attain self-inductive-current-balancing per switching cycle at their dc front ends without having to include additional balancing hardware or complex control manipulation. The inverters can conveniently be controlled by using the well-established phase-shifted carrier modulation scheme with only two additional linear references and a mapping logic table needed. Existing modulators can therefore be conveniently retrofitted for controlling the presented inverters. By appropriately coordinating the inverter gating signals, their implementations can be realized by using the least number of components without degrading performance. These enhanced features of the inverters have already been verified in simulation and experimentally using a scaled-down laboratory platform.

57.8.6    N. Vazquez, H. Lopez, C. Hernandez, E. Vazquez, R. Osorio, J. Arau, "A Different Multilevel Current-Source Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2623 - 2632 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: DC/AC converters are widely used in several applications; traditionally, they can be classified in two types: the voltage-source inverters (VSIs) and the current-source inverters (CSIs). Their use depends on their application; however, some of them are common for both types of converters. Another possibility for the dc/ac conversion is the multilevel configuration, and the most analyzed is the VSI. In this paper, a different multilevel CSI is proposed: the paralleled configuration. To control the converter, a different sinusoidal pulse with modulation is employed; it consists of modifying the reference signal instead of using multiple carriers. Additionally, a balancing method for the inductor currents is given. The operation, analysis, and implementation are presented; moreover, simulation and experimental results are shown.

57.8.7    S. Rohner, S. Bernet, M. Hiller, R. Sommer, "Modulation, Losses, and Semiconductor Requirements of Modular Multilevel Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2633 - 2642 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the operation of modular multilevel converter, an emerging and highly attractive topology for medium- and high-voltage applications. A new pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) scheme for an arbitrary number of voltage levels is introduced and evaluated. On the basis of this PWM scheme, the semiconductor losses are calculated, and the loss distribution is illustrated.

57.8.8    Y. Hinago, H. Koizumi, "A Single-Phase Multilevel Inverter Using Switched Series/Parallel DC Voltage Sources ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2643 - 2650 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel multilevel inverter with a small number of switching devices is proposed. It consists of an H-bridge and an inverter which outputs multilevel voltage by switching the dc voltage sources in series and in parallel. The proposed inverter can output more numbers of voltage levels in the same number of switching devices by using this conversion. The number of gate driving circuits is reduced, which leads to the reduction of the size and power consumption in the driving circuits. The total harmonic of the output waveform is also reduced. The proposed inverter is driven by the hybrid modulation method. In this paper, the circuit configuration, theoretical operation, Fourier analysis, simulation results with MATLAB/SIMULINK, and experimental results are shown. The experimental results accorded with the simulation results.

57.8.9    S.R. Minshull, C.M. Bingham, D.A. Stone, M.P. Foster, "Compensation of Nonlinearities in Diode-Clamped Multilevel Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2651 - 2658 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The application of multilevel converters for exciting permanent-magnet machines with low-phase inductance to dc-link voltage ratios facilitates a reduction in high-frequency switching harmonics. However, converter nonlinearities and, in-particular, on-state device voltage drops, create additional low-frequency harmonics. This paper therefore proposes a generic compensation scheme to accommodate the effects of such converter nonlinearities and, in doing so, improve the harmonic quality of the machine phase currents. Experimental results gathered from a prototype five-level diode-clamped converter validate the benefits of the proposed scheme by showing quantitative reductions in low-frequency harmonics.

57.8.10    Baoming Ge, Fang Zheng Peng, A.T. de Almeida, H. Abu-Rub, "An Effective Control Technique for Medium-Voltage High-Power Induction Motor Fed by Cascaded Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2659 - 2668 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For a cascaded neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter applied to the medium-voltage high-power induction-motor (IM) drives, an effective control technique is proposed in this paper. The novel sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (PWM) pulse-rotation-control approach, for a wide range of output voltage, provides a simple way to implement vector control for IM when the cascaded NPC inverter is employed. The proposed method presents great benefits to the cascaded NPC inverter. The output voltages and power of all inverter modules and the two series-capacitor dc voltages of each inverter module are perfectly balanced. Moreover, a low switch frequency of all inverter modules supports a synthesized high-frequency PWM phase voltage. The internal voltage drop of the inverter, due to the cascade structure of many insulated-gate bipolar transistor-diode modules' series connection, is analyzed, which causes the distorted phase voltages and currents at low speeds when the frequency and the output voltage are low. The current closed-loop control compensates the distortion of phase voltages and currents. A rotor-flux-oriented vector control is combined with back-electromotive-force-based model reference adaptive system speed estimation, which results in a speed closed-loop control. The voltage sensors together with the filters of changeable parameters ensure the precision of speed estimation for the whole frequency range. The experimental tests are carried out through an 800-kW 4160-V IM drive fed by the 1-MVA 6000-V 17-level cascaded NPC inverter. The results verify the proposed scheme.

57.8.11    T. Ghennam, E.M. Berkouk, B. Francois, "A Novel Space-Vector Current Control Based on Circular Hysteresis Areas of a Three-Phase Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2669 - 2678 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel space-vector current-control strategy for three-phase neutral-point (NP)-clamped inverters. The main task of this control technique is to force the actual current vector to reach the reference current vector. This original strategy consists in defining three circular hysteresis bands around the error vector. Then, according to the location of this error vector, a selection process of the next applied vector is used to minimize the error vector. The NP voltage is balanced by using the redundant inverter switching states. Simple lookup tables are required for area and sector detection, as well as for vector selection. The performance of the proposed control technique is demonstrated through simulation and experimental investigations.

57.8.12    D.C. Ludois, J.K. Reed, G. Venkataramanan, "Hierarchical Control of Bridge-of-Bridge Multilevel Power Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2679 - 2690 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel converters are among the members of the family of power-converter topologies for realizing higher power levels and better waveform quality. In addition to the established topologies of neutral-point-clamped three-level and cascaded H-bridge converters, novel topologies that offer attractive features, such as ease of modularity and functionality, continue to be introduced. Among these, the bridge-of-bridge multilevel converters have the potential for realizing multimegawatt systems with ease. This paper is aimed at presenting a systematic approach to developing their dynamic and steady-state models, leading to a hierarchical-control approach that is intuitive to realize and versatile in application. This paper presents the dynamic and steady-state models and computer simulations that demonstrate the approach in dc-1φ/ac and 3φ/ac- 3φ/ac power-conversion applications. An experimental validation of the models using a dc-1φ/ac asymmetrical-half-bridge converter is presented.

57.8.13    Corté, P. s, A. Wilson, S. Kouro, J. Rodriguez, H. Abu-Rub, "Model Predictive Control of Multilevel Cascaded H-Bridge Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2691 - 2699 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a model predictive current control algorithm that is suitable for multilevel converters and its application to a three-phase cascaded H-bridge inverter. This control method uses a discrete-time model of the system to predict the future value of the current for all voltage vectors, and selects the vector which minimizes a cost function. Due to the large number of voltage vectors available in a multilevel inverter, a large number of calculations are needed, making difficult the implementation of this control in a standard control platform. A modified control strategy that considerably reduces the amount of calculations without affecting the system's performance is proposed. Experimental results for five- and nine-level inverters validate the proposed control algorithm.

57.8.14    Wenchao Song, A.Q. Huang, "Fault-Tolerant Design and Control Strategy for Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Converter-Based STATCOM ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2700 - 2708 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Cascaded H-bridge multilevel converter (CHMC) is a promising topology for flexible ac transmission systems such as static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) applications. Attention was drawn to the issue of converter reliability due to the large number of power devices used in CHMC applications. This paper proposed an effective fault-tolerant strategy by using H-bridge building block (HBBB) redundancy in CHMC-based STATCOM. The operating principle and the control strategy of the fault tolerance are proposed and discussed. The controller design consideration for the fault-tolerant STATCOM is presented. The proposed fault-tolerant control strategy is implemented on a seven-level CHMC-based STATCOM simulation platform and a five-level CHMC-based STATCOM hardware prototype. Simulation and experimental results are illustrated to verify the feasibility of the proposed fault-tolerant design with the HBBB redundancy.

57.8.15    S. Ceballos, J. Pou, E. Robles, J. Zaragoza, Martí, J.L. n, "Performance Evaluation of Fault-Tolerant Neutral-Point-Clamped Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2709 - 2718 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a study of the fault tolerance capacity of a neutral-point-clamped converter. Different faults in power semiconductors are considered, and the available postfault states of the converter are shown. In regard of the operation limits, two possible solutions are presented. In these solutions, adding a reduced number of additional components, the behavior of the converter when a switch fails improves considerably. Furthermore, an analysis of the neutral-point voltage balancing conditions after a fault and reconfiguration of the system is also evaluated. Experimental results that prove the correct operation of the proposed topologies are shown.

57.8.16    Liang Zhou, K.M. Smedley, "Postfault Control Strategy for the Hexagram Inverter Motor Drive ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2719 - 2729 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the fault tolerance ability of the hexagram inverter motor drive. Due to its unique interconnecting nature, the hexagram inverter can tolerate one leg failure without modifying the power circuit topology. In the event of one leg failure, the control circuit can reconfigure the trigger signals to maintain a smooth torque operation at a reduced power level. When a leg fails within the inner interconnecting loop, no special postfault strategy is needed; the hexagram inverter can still work properly. When a leg fails outside of the interconnecting loop, a new postfault control strategy is initiated, which controls the two remaining phase currents to maintain an operation with smooth torque. The simulation and experimental results have shown that the hexagram inverter can maintain its operation with smooth torque after a fault.

57.8.17    C.R. Baier, J.R. Espinoza, Muñ, J.A. oz, Morá, L.A. n, Melí, P.E. n, "A High-Performance Multicell Topology Based on Single-Phase Power Cells for Three-Phase Systems Operating Under Unbalanced AC Mains and Asymmetrical Loads ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2730 - 2738 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a multicell converter topology composed of N single-phase power cells per phase and a multipulse power transformer. The topology achieves high-power-quality waveforms in three-phase applications under the presence of severe unbalanced ac mains. Moreover, the power cells are properly arranged in order to achieve high-performance ac supply current waveforms under asymmetrical loads. The configuration is based on single-phase power cells that feature a pulsewidth-modulation rectifier in order to achieve an overall unitary displacement power factor and a controlled dc-link voltage at the power-cell level. The configuration is implemented, and different experimental tests are performed where unbalance and distortion indexes are computed.

57.8.18    C. Rizet, J.-P. Ferrieux, P. Le Moigne, P. Delarue, A. Lacarnoy, "A Simplified Resonant Pole for Three-Level Soft-Switching PFC Rectifier Used in UPS ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2739 - 2746 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Efficiency of high-power uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) is a fundamental criterion regarding the permanent use of such a device. A state of the art on soft switching over constraint of UPS application has been made. The principle of auxiliary resonant commutated pole using autotransformer has been identified as the most interesting way to increase efficiency or switching frequency. Its application for multilevel converters has been studied. A simplified resonant pole has been proposed for a three-level rectifier used as power factor corrector. The design criteria have been discussed. A single phase of a 200-kVA three-level rectifier has been realized and qualified in switching mode. To assess the gain of this principle, the switching losses have been measured on the prototype in both hard and soft switching. The switching losses have been divided by two.

57.8.19    J.D. Barros, J.F. Silva, "Multilevel Optimal Predictive Dynamic Voltage Restorer ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2747 - 2760 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an optimal predictive controller for a multilevel converter-based dynamic voltage restorer (DVR), which is able to improve the voltage quality of sensitive loads connected to the electrical power network. The optimal predictive controlled multilevel DVR can restore sags and short interruptions while reducing the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the ac line voltages to values lower than 1%. The DVR is based on a three-phase neutral point clamped converter to dynamically inject a compensation voltage vector in series with the line voltage, through series-connected transformer secondary windings. To assure high-quality voltages for sensitive loads, we devise optimal predictive control laws for the injected compensation ac voltages. A suitable quadratic weighed cost functional is used to choose the voltage vector, minimizing both the ac voltage errors through current injection and the dc side capacitor voltage unbalancing. The performance of the proposed predictive controller is compared to classical proportional integral (PI): synchronous frame and stationary frame (P+resonant) controllers. The line-side filter capacitor topology is compared to the regular converter-side filter capacitor. Obtained experimental results show that the ac voltages are almost sinusoidal in steady-state operation when facing balanced and unbalanced sags and short interruptions with unbalanced loads. Voltage THD is reduced to values lower than 1%; the DVR is behaving also as a series active power filter for the ac voltages.

57.8.20    A. Varschavsky, J. Dixon, M. Rotella, Morá, L. n, "Cascaded Nine-Level Inverter for Hybrid-Series Active Power Filter, Using Industrial Controller ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2761 - 2767 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An industrial controller, specifically designed for two- and three-level converters, was adapted to work on an asymmetrical nine-level active power filter (APF). The controller is now able to make all required tasks for the correct operation of the APF, such as current-harmonic elimination and removal of high-frequency noise. The low switching-frequency operation of the nine-level converter was an important advantage in the application of the industrial controller. In addition, with the nine-level filter, switching losses were significantly reduced. The filter was designed to work as voltage source and operates as harmonic isolator, improving the filtering characteristics of the passive filter. The control strategy for detecting current harmonics is based on the “ p-q theory ” and the phase-tracking system in a synchronous reference frame phase-locked loop. The dc-link voltage control is analyzed together with the effect of controller gain and delay time in the system's stability. Simulations for this application are displayed and experiments in a 1-kVA prototype, using the aforementioned industrial controller, were tested, validating the effectiveness of this new application.

57.8.21    S. Srikanthan, M.K. Mishra, "DC Capacitor Voltage Equalization in Neutral Clamped Inverters for DSTATCOM Application ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2768 - 2775 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter systems are increasingly used in load compensation applications. However, the most significant problem associated with these compensators is the capacitor voltage imbalances and drift due to dc components in the zero sequence current, resulting in degradation of tracking performance of the voltage source inverter. This paper proposes a carrier-based pulsewidth modulation control for an inverter-chopper circuit in order to regulate the capacitor voltages to their reference values. To demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the aforementioned control scheme, a three-phase four-wire three-level NPC compensator system is taken as an example. Detailed simulation has been carried out in PSCAD 4.2.1. Experiments are conducted to validate the proposed control scheme.

57.8.22    K. Sivakumar, A. Das, R. Ramchand, C. Patel, K. Gopakumar, "A Five-Level Inverter Scheme for a Four-Pole Induction Motor Drive by Feeding the Identical Voltage-Profile Windings From Both Sides ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2776 - 2784 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a five-level inverter scheme with four two-level inverters for a four-pole induction motor (IM) drive. In a conventional three-phase four-pole IM, there exists two identical voltage-profile winding coil groups per phase around the armature, which are connected in series and spatially apart by two pole pitches. In this paper, these two identical voltage-profile pole-pair winding coils in each phase of the IM are disconnected and fed from four two-level inverters from four sides of the windings with one-fourth dc-link voltage as compared to a conventional five-level neutral-point-clamped inverter. The scheme presented in this paper does not require any special design modification for the induction machine. For this paper, a four-pole IM drive is used, and the scheme can be easily extended to IMs with more than four poles. The proposed scheme is experimentally verified on a four-pole 5-hp IM drive.

57.8.23    F. Gonzalez-Espin, E. Figueres, G. Garcera, R. Gonzalez-Medina, M. Pascual, "Measurement of the Loop Gain Frequency Response of Digitally Controlled Power Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2785 - 2796 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The study of the loop gain frequency response in a power converter is a powerful tool commonly used for the design of the controllers used in the control stage. As the control of medium- and high-power electronic converters is usually performed digitally, it is useful to find a method to measure the digital loop gains. The purpose of this paper is to present a method for properly measuring the loop gain frequency response of digitally controlled power converters by means of an analog frequency response analyzer (FRA). An analog sinusoidal reference signal generated by the FRA is injected through an analog-to-digital converter into the digital controller, and added to the discrete feedback signal. To obtain the frequency response of the open-loop gain, both feedback and disturbed feedback signals are sent back to the FRA by using the pulsewidth modulation peripherals of the controller.

57.8.24    B.I. Jeftenic, M.Z. Bebic, "Realization of Rewinder With a Reduced Number of Sensors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2797 - 2806 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: When adequately maintained, the mechanical system of rewinders and similar machines in paper industry may have a significantly longer service life than its electrical and control systems. Over the lifetime of the facility, a rewinder may experience several major maintenance cycles, and these generally include significant upgrades to the electrical drive and control system. These upgrades present an opportunity to modify the design of the control system to eliminate some of the sensors or to provide signal redundancy by using state estimation. During such major reconstruction of a paper-board rewinder, it was noticed that the shipping-roll radius and the web tension force can be accurately estimated from the measurements available within the drive's control system. This paper presents the implementation of the two estimators on a commercial production rewinder. Test results from the equipment in service show that the measured signals can be supplemented with the estimated ones to provide an alternative in the event of sensor malfunction or to enable trending of accuracy of calibration. Both applications have an entitlement to reduce the downtime of the rewinder, as the replacement of the faulted sensor can be scheduled for the next planned idle period of the machine.

57.8.25    J. Dudrik, N.-D. Trip, "Soft-Switching PS-PWM DC–DC Converter for Full-Load Range Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2807 - 2814 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved soft-switching full-bridge phase-shifted pulsewidth modulation converter using insulated-gate bipolar transistors with a special auxiliary transformer is presented in this paper. Zero-voltage switching for leading leg and zero-current switching for lagging leg switches in the converter are achieved for full-load range from no load to short circuit by adding an active energy recovery clamp and auxiliary circuits. The new significant feature of the converter consists in suppression of circulating current also in short-circuit conditions. The proposed converter is very attractive for applications where short circuit and no load are the normal states of the converter operation, e.g., arc welding. The principle of operation is explained and analyzed, and experimental results are presented on a 3-kW 50-kHz laboratory converter model.

57.8.26    Tae-Yong Choi, Ju-Jang Lee, "Control of Manipulator Using Pneumatic Muscles for Enhanced Safety ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2815 - 2825 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Safety of humans who work with robots is an important issue. Many studies have addressed related methods, but fundamental limits to meet safety requirements have been encountered owing to the absence of compliance in robot actuators. Pneumatic muscle (PM) is considered to be a basic actuator and offers the advantage of intrinsic elasticity to achieve joint compliance. In this paper, joint compliance actuated by PM is actively utilized to enhance human safety during collisions. To this end, the authors present a novel approach to control compliance and associated positions independently with no cross-performance effects using PMs. The proposed method is verified by experiments using a physical robot. In addition, methods to decrease damage from collisions between robots and humans due to operational faults are evaluated through experiments. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by measuring the impact impulse in collisions.

57.8.27    Hyeonwoo Cho, Sang Woo Kim, "Mobile Robot Localization Using Biased Chirp-Spread-Spectrum Ranging ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2826 - 2835 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a method of mobile robot localization based on chirp-spread-spectrum (CSS) ranging. By using the CSS system, the distances between a mobile robot and CSS nodes fixed at known coordinates can be measured according to the time of flight of radio frequency signals. Based on the measured distances, the coordinates of a mobile robot can be calculated by the method of trilateration. To deal with measurement noise, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) can be applied to estimate the coordinate of the mobile robot. These measured distances, however, are not only noisy but also biased. Therefore, the estimated coordinates of the mobile robot represent inconsistent values. To solve the problem of bias, we define a scaling factor, which corresponds to the change of the magnitude of a measured distance vector that is due to biases. Based on the scaling factor, we develop a new biased measurement model and apply the EKF to our model for estimating the coordinates of a mobile robot. Through localization experiments, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

57.8.28    Jin Gao, Yuwen Hu, "Direct Self-Control for BLDC Motor Drives Based on Three-Dimensional Coordinate System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2836 - 2844 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new control algorithm for brushless dc (BLDC) motor drives is presented. Direct self-control, which has been widely applied on induction motor drives in high-power low-frequency traction, is introduced to BLDC drives. The Cartesian coordinate system is selected with three coordinate axes X, Y, and Z mutually at right angle to each other with three phase axes a, b, and c being movable. A two-phase conduction scheme is selected with the axis of the exciting phase located in the X-Y plane or, otherwise, along the direction of the Z -axis during unexcited (i.e., the unexcited phase axis is always directed along the Z-axis). The tracks of stator flux and voltage vectors are all three-dimensional, as a result of a variable voltage of unexcited phase and commutation every 60 electrical degrees. However, projections on the X-Y plane of these three-dimensional tracks are concise. The projection of flux vector is a hexagonal path, whereas the voltage vector projections are six active vectors. The projection of stator flux is controlled by the projections of voltage vectors. The newly proposed algorithm can be implemented with relatively low cost hardware and concise software, presenting fast torque transient response in 0.1 ms. The sensorless control is also implemented by flux estimation once in one sector. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed scheme are verified with simulated and experimental results.

57.8.29    Kai Yang, "Research and Application of New Inserted Shape Memory Alloy Actuators ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2845 - 2850 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: More and more people prefer a new inserted shape memory alloy actuator (ISMAA) to a traditional SMA actuator because there are some advantages in ISMAA, such as precise control abilities, high response, broad range of performance, and so on. An elastic rod and two SMA wires, which are inserted in parallel with the axis of the rod, make up the actuator. The actuating wire, which is one of the two wires, is superposed along the rod's axis and set to memorize a “U” shape. The restoring wire, which is the other of the two wires, is placed off-axially and memorizes a straight shape. In the actuator, there are also two differential stain meters, which are placed at an apt location referring to the actuator's bending direction. By making use of these two meters, accurate position control comes true. Taking advantage of the coordinating martensite fraction coefficients appropriately, the presence of major and minor hysteresis loops can be explained in detail when the analytical model was established. The actuator can be optimized by combining the analytical model with the experimental results, particularly the structural parameters, such as the wire's recoverable curvature, wire's radius, rod's radius, and offset distance. In order to take into account the basic performance, there is an example of an anthropopathic robot hand, which is composed of six ISMAAs.

57.8.30    Pé, J.P.A. rez, B. Calvo, S. Celma, "A High-Performance CMOS Feedforward AGC Circuit for a WLAN Receiver ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2851 - 2857 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a fast-settling compact feedforward automatic-gain-control (AGC) circuit suitable for use in wireless local-area network receivers with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The use of these signals introduces stringent settling-time constraints which limit the use of traditional closed-loop feedback amplifiers. Furthermore, the amplitude detection of OFDM signals cannot be performed by a typical peak detector (PD) due to their high peak-to-average power ratio; as a consequence, a novel fast-settling PD is employed to solve this task. The AGC has been implemented in a low-cost 0.35-μm CMOS technology. Supplied at 1.8 V, it operates with a power consumption of 2.4 mW at frequencies as high as 100 MHz, while its gain ranges from 0 to 22 dB in 2-dB steps through a 5-b word. The settling time of the circuit is below 2.4 μs (three symbols).

57.8.31    F.A.S. Neves, H.E.P. de Souza, F. Bradaschia, M.C. Cavalcanti, M. Rizo, F.J. Rodriguez, "A Space-Vector Discrete Fourier Transform for Unbalanced and Distorted Three-Phase Signals ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2858 - 2867 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a space-vector discrete-time Fourier transform is proposed for fast and precise detection of the fundamental-frequency and harmonic positive- and negative-sequence vector components of three-phase input signals. The discrete Fourier transform is applied to the three-phase signals represented by Clarke's αβ vector. It is shown that the complex numbers output from the Fourier transform are the instantaneous values of the positive- and negative-sequence harmonic component vectors of the input three-phase signals. The method allows the computation of any desired positive- or negative-sequence fundamental-frequency or harmonic vector component of the input signal. A recursive algorithm for low-effort online implementation is also presented. The detection performance for variable-frequency and interharmonic input signals is discussed. The proposed and other usual method performances are compared through simulations and experiments.

57.8.32    Changliang Xia, Chen Guo, Tingna Shi, "A Neural-Network-Identifier and Fuzzy-Controller-Based Algorithm for Dynamic Decoupling Control of Permanent-Magnet Spherical Motor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2868 - 2878 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a dynamic model of permanent-magnet spherical motor (PMSM) and puts forward a dynamic decoupling control algorithm of the motor, using fuzzy controllers (FCs) and a neural network identifier (NNI). PMSM is a multivariable nonlinear system with strong interaxis couplings. A computed torque method structure is applied to PMSM. There are such uncertainties as estimated errors of the model and external perturbations, which may influence the precision of the control system. A back-propagation algorithm with additional momentum term and self-adaptive learning rate applied to feed-forward neural network can approach nonlinear functions with a learning rate adjusted online, which helps to improve training speed. In this paper, an NNI is applied to identify the uncertainties online. An adaptive-neuro-fuzzy-inference-system-based FC is applied, which has self-adaptive ability and strong robustness. Simulation results preliminarily validate that the algorithm proposed in this paper can eliminate the influences of interaxis nonlinear couplings effectively to actualize dynamic decoupling control. Furthermore, the static and dynamic performances of the control system have been improved greatly with strong robustness to uncertainties. A hypothetical microprocessor system is proposed, and simple experiments of spinning operation are carried out as a foundation for further study.

57.8.33    M. Nemec, K. Drobnic, D. Nedeljkovic, R. Fiser, V. Ambrozic, "Detection of Broken Bars in Induction Motor Through the Analysis of Supply Voltage Modulation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2879 - 2888 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an application of a novel method for the diagnostics of electric and magnetic asymmetries of rotor cage in induction motor (IM) due to broken rotor bars. An increasing anomaly in magnetic field distribution results in degradation of steady-state and dynamic performance of an IM. This degradation can be determined through the analysis of the average duty cycle of the modulated supply voltage. Broken rotor bars would cause torque and speed ripple which is mitigated by an efficient speed-control algorithm. Consequently, specific oscillation in the duty cycle of the modulated stator voltage appears. This effect can be simply detected without additional hardware and therefore provides a correct evaluation of faulty motor performance, which is a very significant part of condition monitoring and diagnostic procedure in modern supervision systems for electrical drives.

57.8.34    Lin Du, Caisheng Wang, Xianzhi Li, Lijun Yang, Yan Mi, Caixin Sun, "A Novel Power Supply of Online Monitoring Systems for Power Transmission Lines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2889 - 2895 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel power supply of online condition monitoring systems for power transmission lines. The proposed power supply obtains energy from the magnetic field induced by transmission-line currents using a specially designed Rogowski coil. The design details of the power supply circuit including the unit for overvoltage and impulse line current protection are given in this paper. The impact to the power supply's reliability caused by abnormal high transmission-line currents is also addressed. Experimental tests, including the short-circuit and impulse-current tests, have been conducted on the power supply to verify its performance under different operating conditions. Test results show that the power supply is capable of providing stable outputs with no saturation and low heat generation for the entire range of line conducting currents and can sustain severe conditions such as abnormal impulse currents.

57.8.35    J.A. Maestro, P. Reviriego, "Energy Efficiency in Industrial Ethernet: The Case of Powerlink ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2896 - 2903 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Industrial Ethernet technology enables real-time reliable communications for industrial environments. One of its key features is the use of Ethernet for the communication infrastructure. This provides a very cost-effective solution, as no communication infrastructure has to be designed ad hoc. In the last years, the efficient use of energy in communications has become an area of growing interest. This has triggered efforts that are now underway to develop new standards, like Energy Efficient Ethernet, with the aim of reducing the energy consumption. The proposed changes to existing Ethernet standards allow setting the links in low-power modes when there is little traffic. These changes, introduced by Energy Efficient Ethernet, will have wide implications for Industrial Ethernet. For example, the time needed to enter or exit the low-power modes may be excessive for some industrial applications. The use of low-power modes will make hubs less energy efficient than switches and may cause manufacturers to abandon the production of these devices. In this paper, the implications of Energy Efficient Ethernet on industrial environments are analyzed, and different alternatives are proposed.

57.8.36    Guohua Zhou, Jianping Xu, Yanyan Jin, "Elimination of Subharmonic Oscillation of Digital-Average-Current-Controlled Switching DC–DC Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2904 - 2907 , August 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Subharmonic oscillations exist in digital-average-current-controlled switching dc-dc converters with trailing- and leading-edge modulations. To eliminate these subharmonic oscillations, a digital-triangle-compensation (DTC) method is proposed in this letter. The DTC method can easily be implemented in digital way without an extra compensation circuit. Experimental results are given to verify the analysis results.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 9, Sept 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.9.1    H. Hannoun, M. Hilairet, C. Marchand, "Design of an SRM Speed Control Strategy for a Wide Range of Operating Speeds ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2911 - 2921 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a speed control strategy for a switched reluctance machine (SRM). Two control strategies are compared to select the most appropriate control that allows the SRM to operate in wide-speed-range operation. The proposed strategy is first designed to control the speed in discontinuous conduction mode and is then extended to operate in continuous conduction mode as well. In this paper, the transition from three different operating modes is detailed, and the experimental results validate the proposed strategy.

57.9.2    C. Mademlis, I. Kioskeridis, "Gain-Scheduling Regulator for High-Performance Position Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2922 - 2931 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of high-precision position control in switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives is investigated in this paper. Advanced proportional-integral and proportional-differential controllers for speed and position controls, respectively, are adopted. A gain-scheduling technique is adopted in the speed controller design for providing high dynamic performance and precise position control. In order to improve the set-point tracking, a low-pass filter is included in the position controller. The proposed four-quadrant control scheme is based on the average torque control method. The turn-on and turn-off angles are online determined through simple formulas so as to reduce the torque ripple at an acceptable level over a wide speed range. This is important since the position precision is highly influenced from the motor torque ripple. Experimental results of the SRM dynamic response are presented to verify the theoretical considerations and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

57.9.3    S.M. Lukic, A. Emadi, "State-Switching Control Technique for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives: Theory and Implementation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2932 - 2938 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Switched reluctance motors (SRMs) exhibit advantageous features such as low inertia, fault tolerance, high efficiency, and simple design. However, its control is fairly complex due to nonlinear characteristics of the magnetic flux linkage seen on the stator windings. Several memory and/or processor intensive solutions have been proposed to deal with the control problem, constraining the use of the motor to high-cost and high-performance applications. The focus of this paper is to develop a simple controller for the SRM based on state-switching digital control. The concept of state-switching digital control is to control the motor state (speed) by applying a high or a low energy pulse-above and below the desired steady state of the motor. Such a controller can be implemented in low-complexity analog circuitry. This paper presents two methods of motor control: one for single-speed applications and another for variable speed applications. In addition, this paper derives the control equations and disturbance rejection response. Simulation and experimental results for various operating modes are presented.

57.9.4    J.O. Fiedler, K.A. Kasper, R.W. De Doncker, "Calculation of the Acoustic Noise Spectrum of SRM Using Modal Superposition ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2939 - 2945 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a method to calculate the harmonic content of stator vibrations and acoustic noise resulting from radial force excitations in switched reluctance machines (SRM). The method is based on a thin cylinder approximation of the stator. The eigen modes are represented by their transmission impedance. The spectral composition of the vibrations can be calculated using superposition of the eigen modes and vibrations caused by all phases of the SRM.

57.9.5    M. van der Giet, E. Lange, Corrê, D.A.P. a, I.E. Chabu, S.I. Nabeta, K. Hameyer, "Acoustic Simulation of a Special Switched Reluctance Drive by Means of Field–Circuit Coupling and Multiphysics Simulation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2946 - 2953 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The approach presented in this paper consists of an energy-based field-circuit coupling in combination with multiphysics simulation of the acoustic radiation of electrical machines. The proposed method is applied to a special switched reluctance motor with asymmetric pole geometry to improve the start-up torque. The pole shape has been optimized, subject to low torque ripple, in a previous study. The proposed approach here is used to analyze the impact of the optimization on the overall acoustic behavior. The field-circuit coupling is based on a temporary lumped-parameter model of the magnetic part incorporated into a circuit simulation based on the modified nodal analysis. The harmonic force excitation is calculated by means of stress tensor computation, and it is transformed to a mechanical mesh by mapping techniques. The structural dynamic problem is solved in the frequency domain using a finite-element modal analysis and superposition. The radiation characteristic is obtained from boundary element acoustic simulation. Simulation results of both rotor types are compared, and measurements of the drive are presented.

57.9.6    K.R. Geldhof, A.P.M. Van den Bossche, J.A. Melkebeek, "Rotor-Position Estimation of Switched Reluctance Motors Based on Damped Voltage Resonance ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2954 - 2960 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a method to obtain the rotor position of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) by means of voltage measurements. It is shown that the combination of a motor and a power-electronic converter defines a resonant circuit, comprising the motor phase inductances and the parasitic capacitance of converter switches, power cables, and motor phase windings. For salient machines, in general, the associated resonance frequency of the circuit depends on the rotor position. In the position-estimation method, an initial voltage distribution is imposed over the impedances of the resonant circuit after which the circuit is let to oscillate freely. During this phase of free oscillation, the induced voltage over a phase winding exhibits a damped oscillatory behavior, from which position information can be retrieved. An overview is given of the different possibilities to trigger the voltage resonance. It is shown that the proposed position-estimation method has favorable characteristics such as measurement of large-amplitude voltages, robustness against temperature deviations of motor and power semiconductors, very high update rates for the estimated position, and absence of sound and disturbance torque. Experimental results are given for a sensorless commutation scheme of an SRM under small load.

57.9.7    Jianing Liang, Dong-Hee Lee, Guoqing Xu, Jin-Woo Ahn, "Analysis of Passive Boost Power Converter for Three-Phase SR Drive ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2961 - 2971 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel passive boost power converter and its analysis for a three-phase switched reluctance (SR) drive. The proposed simple passive circuit adds three diodes and one capacitor to the front end of a conventional asymmetric converter in order to obtain a high negative bias. Based on this passive power network, the terminal voltage of the converter side is at general dc-link voltage level in parallel mode and is up to a double dc-link voltage level in series mode. As a result, it can suppress the negative torque generation from the tail current and improve the output power. Combining a passive circuit with a three-phase asymmetric converter without phase-current overlap, the phase winding obtains the dc-link voltage in the excitation mode and the negative double dc-link voltage in the demagnetization mode. With the phase-current overlap, the dc-link voltage or the double dc-link voltage is dependent on the overlap current. The operation modes of the proposed converter are analyzed with a three-phase SR motor. The selection of the boost capacitor is considered, and a detailed analysis of current-overlap modes is presented. The compared simulation and experiments are done. The results verify the performance of the proposed converter.

57.9.8    Peng Zhang, P.A. Cassani, S.S. Williamson, "An Accurate Inductance Profile Measurement Technique for Switched Reluctance Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2972 - 2979 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machines (SRMs) is necessary in order to achieve satisfactory control performance. Due to their highly nonlinear characteristics, the exact inductance profile for SRMs in one electrical period ought to be obtained. The purpose of this paper is to propose an accurate method to model the SRM magnetization characteristic, representing the accurate inductance profile, in order to achieve higher control performance. Furthermore, the innovative method proposed in this paper addresses a diverse way to minimize overall losses, compared to conventional methods. Instead of using a specific apparatus for measurement, the proposed method directly uses the saturation feature of the phase inductance. This paper discusses the advantages and improvements of the proposed method compared to conventional methods. Finally, the results computed by finite-element analysis are compared with the experimental results in terms of SRM magnetization characteristics.

57.9.9    X. D. Xue, K. W. E. Cheng, T. W. Ng, N. C. Cheung, "Multi-Objective Optimization Design of In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motors in Electric Vehicles ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2980 - 2987 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The method of the optimization design with multi-objectives for switched reluctance motors (SRMs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is proposed in this paper. It is desired that electric motors for EVs have high torque, high efficiency, and high torque density. Thus, the developed optimization function is selected as the correct compromise between the maximum average torque, maximum average torque per copper loss, and maximum average torque per motor lamination volume, by using three weight factors and three base values. The stator and rotor pole arc angles are selected as the optimized variables. Furthermore, the authors also discuss the design requirements and some constraints on the optimization design. The results of the optimization design show that the proposed method meets the requirements of EVs on electric motors well. A prototype of the optimally designed in-wheel SRM for EVs has been manufactured. This paper provides a valuable method to implement the optimal design of SRMs for EVs.

57.9.10    T. Raminosoa, B. Blunier, D. Fodorean, A. Miraoui, "Design and Optimization of a Switched Reluctance Motor Driving a Compressor for a PEM Fuel-Cell System for Automotive Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2988 - 2997 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the design of a high-speed three-phase switched reluctance machine to drive a compressor for the air management of a fuel-cell system for automotive applications. The machine geometry is optimized by means of a finite-element method coupled to a genetic algorithm. The performance of the optimized machine is evaluated, taking into account the iron and air-friction losses. Some theoretical and numerical results are sustained by the measured ones in the same operating conditions.

57.9.11    G.W. Chang, Yu-Jen Liu, V. Dinavahi, Huai-Jhe Su, "On Real-Time Simulation for Harmonic and Flicker Assessment of an Industrial System With Bulk Nonlinear Loads ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2998 - 3009 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents application experiences of real-time simulation (RTS) techniques for harmonic and flicker studies of an industrial power system, where the system and nonlinear loads are properly modeled. A PC-cluster-based real-time parallel simulator is implemented under MATLAB/SIMULINK, where the studied system consists of an ac electric arc furnace, dc and ac motor-drive loads, and the static var compensator. Guidelines for model partition of the studied system and the solver settings under an RTS environment are reported. In addition, the most commonly used offline simulation with variable-step solver and the actual field measurements are included for comparison. Results indicate that the RTS achieves satisfactory solution accuracy within much less execution time and can be applied for more complicated studies such as installing new nonlinear loads with different levels of model complexities or designing/tuning mitigation devices of power-quality disturbances, where the repeated time-consuming analysis is required.

57.9.12    V. Jalili-Marandi, Lok-Fu Pak, V. Dinavahi, "Real-Time Simulation of Grid-Connected Wind Farms Using Physical Aggregation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3010 - 3021 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation of a power system interconnected with wind farms involves such intensive computations that fully digital real-time simulators are among the effective tools for performing such simulations. To practically exploit real-time simulators for the simulation of wind farms with numerous wind turbines, the application of aggregation techniques is inevitable. In this paper, a detailed EMT model of a grid-connected wind farm with ten doubly-fed-induction-generator-based General Electric 1.5-MW wind turbines has been implemented on an advanced PC-Cluster-based real-time simulator. Three levels of physical aggregation methods are presented to reduce the computational efforts of the real-time simulation while maintaining adequate accuracy. A combination of these aggregation methods with parallel processing allowed the real-time simulation to be carried out with a fixed time step of 50 μs and high accuracy. Various fault transient results are provided for all the aggregation levels and compared against results from the detailed wind farm model. The validity of the proposed methods and real-time simulation results has also been confirmed by comparing with offline simulation results in MATLAB/SIMULINK.

57.9.13    Shiyan Yang, Fangang Meng, Wei Yang, "Optimum Design of Interphase Reactor With Double-Tap Changer Applied to Multipulse Diode Rectifier ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3022 - 3029 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the optimum turns ratio of an interphase reactor (IPR) with a double-tap changer is presented with mathematical analysis. The relation between the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input current and the turns ratio is introduced, and based on the relation, the optimum turns ratio when the THD is minimal is obtained. Via another relation between the ripple coefficients of the output voltage and the turns ratio, the optimum turns ratio is derived when the ripple coefficient is minimal. Meanwhile, using the optimum turns ratio, a new formula to calculate the critical value of IPR is written. Some computer simulation results and experiments are included to support the theoretical analysis of optimum design.

57.9.14    Wanmin Fei, Xiaoli Du, Bin Wu, "A Generalized Half-Wave Symmetry SHE-PWM Formulation for Multilevel Voltage Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3030 - 3038 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Half-cycle symmetry selective-harmonic-elimination pulsewidth-modulation (SHE-PWM) problems may have a large number of valid solutions, which are beneficial to the optimization design. This paper proposes a novel generalized formulation of half-cycle symmetry SHE-PWM problems for multilevel inverters. The advantages of the proposed formulation include simplicity in format, flexibility in PWM waveforms, and a broad solution space. A method to obtain initial values for the SHE-PWM equations according to the reference modulation index M and the initial phase angle of output fundamental voltage is proposed and investigated thoroughly. Take a five-level inverter with M = 0.75 as an example; six sets of solutions for two typical initial phase angles of 0° and 90° are presented. Simulations and experiments are carried out. It is demonstrated that the experimental results agree well with simulated ones, which proves the validity and practicability of the new method proposed.

57.9.15    Y. Pannatier, B. Kawkabani, C. Nicolet, J.-J. Simond, A. Schwery, P. Allenbach, "Investigation of Control Strategies for Variable-Speed Pump-Turbine Units by Using a Simplified Model of the Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3039 - 3049 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the modeling, simulation, and analysis of the dynamic behavior of a fictitious 2 × 320 MW variable-speed pump-turbine power plant, including a hydraulic system, electrical equipment, rotating inertias, and control systems. The modeling of the hydraulic and electrical components of the power plant is presented. The dynamic performances of a control strategy in generating mode and one in pumping mode are investigated by the simulation of the complete models in the case of change of active power set points. Then, a pseudocontinuous model of the converters feeding the rotor circuits is described. Due to this simplification, the simulation time can be reduced drastically (approximately factor 60). A first validation of the simplified model of the converters is obtained by comparison of the simulated results coming from the simplified and complete models for different modes of operation of the power plant. Experimental results performed on a 2.2-kW low-power test bench are also compared with the simulated results coming from both complete and simplified models related to this case and confirm the validity of the proposed simplified approach for the converters.

57.9.16    Shuo Wang, Y.Y. Maillet, Fei Wang, Rixin Lai, Fang Luo, D. Boroyevich, "Parasitic Effects of Grounding Paths on Common-Mode EMI Filter's Performance in Power Electronics Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3050 - 3059 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High-frequency common-mode (CM) electromagnetic-interference (EMI) noise is difficult to suppress in electronics systems. EMI filters are used to suppress CM noise, but their performance is greatly affected by the parasitic effects of the grounding paths. In this paper, the parasitic effects of the grounding paths on an EMI filter's performance are investigated in a motor-drive system. The effects of the mutual inductance between two grounding paths are explored. Guidelines for the grounding of CM EMI filters are derived. Simulations and experiments are finally carried out to verify the theoretical analysis.

57.9.17    J.C.C. Rodriguez, J.V. Lopez, C.C. Olay, S.M. Fernandez, R.V. Garcia, S.M. Garcia, "Dual-Tap Chopping Stabilizer With Subcyclic AC Soft Switching ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3060 - 3074 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: AC voltage and phase regulators based on tap changers implemented with silicon-controlled rectifiers and triacs are widely used due to their robustness. Tap changing is achieved under natural commutation of semiconductors during the zero crossing of current, so that the response time exceeds the half cycle of the mains. High-power transistors and gate turn-off thyristor switches make new and faster tap commutation techniques possible to achieve several tap changes in one half cycle. This paper analyzes and synthesizes a dual-tap chopping stabilizer with a compensating transformer, with a pulsewidth-modulation frequency of about 5 kHz and a new soft-switching technique achieved by two auxiliary small-power branches. Unlike other supercyclic ac soft-switching solutions, the new commutating method allows zero current turn-off, several times in a half cycle, for any sign combination of voltage and current, thus reducing the electrical stress in the switches and the electromagnetic emission. Zero-crossing current detection is not needed. A technical study and an evaluation of the power of the required components are done on the commutation techniques that extend the application field of tap changers to the reduction of the fast perturbations of the mains as flicker, voltage harmonics, voltage oscillations, etc. Experimental results with insulated-gate bipolar transistor switches are obtained in a 1 kVA prototype.

57.9.18    Wei Chen, Ping Rong, Zhengyu Lu, "Snubberless Bidirectional DC–DC Converter With New CLLC Resonant Tank Featuring Minimized Switching Loss ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3075 - 3086 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A bidirectional DC-DC converter (BDC) with a new CLLC-type resonant tank, which features zero-voltage switching (ZVS) for the input inverting choppers and zero-current switching (ZCS) for the output rectifier switches, regardless of the direction of the power flow, is proposed in this paper. Possessing the very optimal ZVS +ZCS soft-switching feature, this proposed converter will have a minimized switching loss if all of the main switches are implemented with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, and thereby, the proposed converter is fully soft switched and totally snubberless. The detail operation principles, as well as the design considerations, are presented. The methodologies to develop a unidirectional ZVS+ZCS dc-dc converter for the corresponding pulsewidth modulation and frequency modulation converters are proposed. The approach on how to construct a fully soft-switched BDC has also been proposed and analyzed. Finally, a topology extension is made, and another fully soft-switched BDC is derived. A prototype, which interfaces the 400-48-V dc buses for the uninterrupted power supply system with a power rating of 500 VA, was developed to verify the validity and applicability of this proposed converter. The highest applicable conversion efficiencies for the bidirectional operational modes are exceeding 96%.

57.9.19    A.I. Ribic, Z.V. Despotovic, "High-Performance Feedback Control of Electromagnetic Vibratory Feeder ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3087 - 3094 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a high-performance feedback controller for an electromagnetic vibratory feeder is proposed. An electromagnetic actuator is driven by a switching circuit with pulsewidth as the control variable. The controller structure consists of a proportional-integral controller combined with a state observer. The controlled variable is the resonant frequency vibration amplitude obtained in real time from the state observer. The use of the state observer allows fast disturbance rejection and reference tracking in both directions (amplitude increase and decrease). Simulations and experimental results from the real device are presented.

57.9.20    J.I. Rodriguez, S.B. Leeb, "Nonresonant and Resonant Frequency-Selectable Induction-Heating Targets ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3095 - 3108 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper examines a scheme for developing frequency-selectable induction-heating targets for stimulating temperature-sensitive polymer gels. The phrase “frequency selectable” implies that each target has a frequency at which it heats preferentially in the presence of other targets. Targets using both nonresonant and resonant designs are discussed. In the case of nonresonant targets, single-turn conductors whose critical dimensions are small compared to their associated skin depth (over the frequency range of interest) are examined. One way to achieve frequency selectivity with these nonresonant targets is by designing each to have the same self-inductance while forcing the resistance of each target to differ from the previous one by a specified factor (α). In this way, a target driven at its R/L break-point frequency will heat by at least a factor of (α2 + 1)/(2 α) more than the remaining targets. In the resonant-target case, RLC circuits that are inductively coupled to a primary induction coil are examined. Frequency selectivity in resonant targets is achieved by designing each target to have a different resonant frequency. When such a target is driven at its resonant frequency, it will heat preferentially compared to the remaining targets.

57.9.21    Shuo Wang, F.C. Lee, "Analysis and Applications of Parasitic Capacitance Cancellation Techniques for EMI Suppression ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3109 - 3117 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reviews and analyzes five parasitic capacitance cancellation methods. Critical parameters and constraints determining the cancellation frequency ranges are identified, and the effective frequency range for each cancellation method is derived based on these constraints. Due to these constraints, each method has specific advantages for certain applications. The cancellation techniques, which all make use of either mutual capacitance or mutual inductance, are applied to different applications based on their advantages, and the experiments are carried out to verify the analysis.

57.9.22    S.V. Araujo, P. Zacharias, R. Mallwitz, "Highly Efficient Single-Phase Transformerless Inverters for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3118 - 3128 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Driven by worldwide demand for renewable sources, the photovoltaic market saw in the last years a considerable amount of innovations regarding the construction and operation of inverters connected to the grid. One significant advance, among some that will be here discussed is, for example, the abolition of the galvanic isolation in inverters installed in Germany. There, transformerless topologies, like the H5 and Heric, can reach very high levels of efficiency and allow the best cost-benefit ratio for low-power grid-tied systems. This paper will follow this direction and propose a single-phase transformerless inverter circuit being composed of the association of two step-down converters. Each one modulates a half-wave of the output current, as the correct polarity of the connection to the grid is provided by low-frequency switches. Due to its straightforward design, reduced amount of semiconductors, and simple operation, it is possible to achieve a high level of efficiency and reliability. These and some other characteristics will be benchmarked against other existing circuits, being followed by a theoretical analysis on the properties of the proposed solution. The project of a laboratory prototype will be presented, along with a discussion about the obtained experimental results.

57.9.23    O. Lopez-Lapena, M.T. Penella, M. Gasulla, "A New MPPT Method for Low-Power Solar Energy Harvesting ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3129 - 3138 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a new maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) method focused on low-power (<; 1 W) photovoltaic (PV) panels. The static and dynamic performance is theoretically analyzed, and design criteria are provided. A prototype was implemented with a 500-mW PV panel, a commercial boost converter, and low-power components for the MPPT controller. Laboratory measurements were performed to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. Tracking efficiency was higher than 99.6%. The overall efficiency was higher than 92% for a PV panel power higher than 100 mW. This is, in part, feasible due to the low power consumption of the MPPT controller, which was kept lower than 350 μW. The time response of the tracking circuit was tested to be around 1 s. Field measurements showed energy gains higher than 10.3% with respect to a direct-coupled solution for an ambient temperature of 26°C. Higher gains are expected for lower temperatures.

57.9.24    A. M. Pernia, S. A. Menendez, M. J. Prieto, J. A. Martinez, F. Nuno, I. Villar, V. Ruiz, "Power Supply Based on Carbon Ultracapacitors for Remote Supervision Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The capacity to store energy in ultracapacitors or double-layer capacitors is about two orders of magnitude greater than that of ordinary capacitors. Also, their capability to receive and transfer power is greater than that of batteries in the same order of magnitude. These characteristics, together with their long life cycle ( $>$ 500 000) and their lack of maintenance work, make them a suitable choice in replacing batteries in pulsed or discontinued power consumption systems. This paper tries to evaluate the possibility to replace batteries with ultracapacitors in Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-based remote supervision systems using photovoltaic panels as main power source.

57.9.25    Kuo-Kai Shyu, Juu-Kuh Lin, Van-Truong Pham, Ming-Ji Yang, Te-Wei Wang, "Global Minimum Torque Ripple Design for Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3148 - 3156 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a simple but effective method to reduce the torque ripple for direct torque control (DTC) of induction motor drives. The proposed DTC provides a global minimum torque ripple, which satisfies the root-mean-square (rms) criteria of torque ripple. Such a global minimum torque ripple DTC has not been derived before. The proposed global minimum torque ripple DTC is a two-step design. The first step drives the torque error to zero at the end of the control period. Then, the second step reduces the torque bias and rms ripple by modifying the asymmetry switching patterns of the applied voltage vectors of the first step into symmetry ones. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the torque ripple of the proposed DTC is a global minimum rms ripple. Furthermore, to verify the effectiveness of this study, a DSP-based experimental induction motor DTC drive system is built. Simulation and experimental results verify that the torque ripple performance has been improved.

57.9.26    F.F.M. El-Sousy, "Hybrid {\rm H}^{\infty } -Based Wavelet-Neural-Network Tracking Control for Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Servo Drives ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3157 - 3166 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a hybrid H-based wavelet-neural-network (WNN) position tracking controller as a new robust motion-control system for permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) servo drives. The combinations of both WNN and H controllers would insure the robustness and overcome the uncertainties of the servo drive. The new controller combines the merits of the H control with robust performance and the WNN control (WNNC) which combines the capability of NNs for online learning ability and the capability of wavelet decomposition for identification ability. The online trained WNNC is utilized to predict the uncertain system dynamics to relax the requirement of uncertainty bound in the design of the H controller. The WNNC generates an adaptive control signal to attain robust performance regardless of parameter uncertainties (PU) and load disturbances. Systematic methodology for both controllers' design is provided. A computer simulation is developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed WNN-based H controller. An experimental system is established to validate the effectiveness of the drive system. All control algorithms are implemented in a TMS320C31 DSP-based control computer. The simulated and experimental results confirm that the new motion controller grants robust performance and precise dynamic response regardless of load disturbances and PMSM PU.

57.9.27    Quy Ngoc Le, Jae-Wook Jeon, "Neural-Network-Based Low-Speed-Damping Controller for Stepper Motor With an FPGA ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3167 - 3180 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present a low-speed-damping controller for a stepper motor using artificial neural networks (ANNs). This controller is designed to remove nonlinear disturbance at low speeds. The proposed controller improves the stepper motor performance at less than the resonance speed of the stepper motor system. Due to its ability to learn, the proposed controller can adapt to different resonant speed ranges without any identification process for system parameters. Conversely, we also introduce the implementation of an ANN-based controller, online backpropagation learning, and a microstep driver on a single field-programmable gate array. An implementation and experimental results are conducted to verify the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

57.9.28    A. J. Moradewicz, M. P. Kazmierkowski, "Contactless Energy Transfer System With FPGA-Controlled Resonant Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3181 - 3190 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Power supply based on an inductive coupled contactless energy transfer system is presented in this paper. The energy is transferred using a rotatable transformer and a power electronic converter. To minimize total losses of the system, a series resonant compensation circuit is applied assuring zero-current switching condition for insulated-gate bipolar transistors. The analytical expression of the transfer dc voltage gain is presented and discussed. The novelty of the system lies in the application of a fully digital field-programmable-gate-array-based controller and a protection system. The resonant frequency is adjusted by a primary peak current regulator. Some simulation and experimental results illustrating the operation of the developed 3-kW 60-kHz laboratory prototype are given. Although the presented power supply with a rotatable transformer is constructed mainly for robotics and manipulators, the described design and control methodology has general validity and can be applied for a wide class of contactless power supply with core or coreless transformers.

57.9.29    Y. Oonishi, Sehoon Oh, Y. Hori, "A New Control Method for Power-Assisted Wheelchair Based on the Surface Myoelectric Signal ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3191 - 3196 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we design a new controller for power-assisted wheelchairs. Conventional power-assist controllers only focus on the amplification of the human input force using torque sensor. Our proposed controller does not use a torque sensor but an electromyogram sensor to estimate the driver's intention. We also use a disturbance observer to compensate for the lack of propelling torque information since it is difficult to simply regard the myoelectric signals as propelling torque. Then, we decide assist torque by combining the filtered myoelectric signals and the estimated human torque signal calculated by the disturbance observer. Experimental results show that the proposed power-assist method realizes fast, stable, and smooth acceleration.

57.9.30    Jae Sung Bang, Hyungbo Shim, Sang Kyun Park, J.H. Seo, "Robust Tracking and Vibration Suppression for a Two-Inertia System by Combining Backstepping Approach With Disturbance Observer ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3197 - 3206 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we consider the problem of designing a robust controller for a two-inertia system which contains arbitrarily large (but bounded) model uncertainties and disturbances. The research is motivated by the fact that a two-inertia system represents most of an industrial robot arm system that has a flexible joint, for which vibration suppression and robust control against model uncertainties and external disturbances are very important. The proposed controller consists of two parts: the outer-loop controller designed by the backstepping approach and the inner-loop controller by the new partial disturbance observer (DOB). The DOB is responsible for compensating the input-matched uncertainties and disturbances, while the backstepping controller is designed for dealing with the rest. The proposed controller makes tracking error and vibration of the system suppressed within an arbitrarily small bound during operation time when full states are measured. The results are verified by simulations and experiments with a Luenberger observer.

57.9.31    Yu-Che Yang, Shey-Shi Lu, "A Single-VCO Fractional- N Frequency Synthesizer for Digital TV Tuners ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3207 - 3215 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A single-voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) fractional-N frequency synthesizer is designed for Advanced Television Systems Committee, Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, and Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial digital television tuners. This frequency synthesizer can cover all the frequency bands for all three standards with only one VCO, and thus, the chip area as well as the power consumption can be greatly reduced. Different channel spacing requirements can be fulfilled by fractional synthesis. A dynamic frequency calibration loop is also used to automatically choose the coarse setting of the VCO. The synthesizer was fabricated in a standard 0.13-μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process and draws 14 mA from a 1.2-V supply. The measured phase noise is lower than -80 dBc/Hz from 1 to 100 kHz offset and -100 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The active area of the frequency synthesizer is smaller than 0.54 mm2.

57.9.32    T. Celik, H. Kusetogullari, "Solar-Powered Automated Road Surveillance System for Speed Violation Detection ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3216 - 3227 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a real-time solar-powered road surveillance system is proposed to detect and report moving vehicles that violate the speed limit. The system is designed to operate as a standalone with no connection to the main power line and the wired communication networks. It is powered by a battery array that is charged through solar panels. The data communication with the authorized remote station is achieved via wireless communication technology. A dedicated digital signal processing chip is used to exploit computationally inexpensive image-processing techniques over the video sequence captured from the fixed position video camera for estimating the speed of the moving vehicles. The moving vehicles are detected by analyzing the binary image sequences that are constructed from the captured frames by employing the interframe difference or the background subtraction techniques. A novel adaptive thresholding method is proposed to binarize the outputs from the interframe difference and the background subtraction techniques. The detected moving vehicles are tracked to estimate their speeds. The images of the speeding vehicles are further analyzed to detect license plate image regions according to the predefined color information of the license plates in Northern Cyprus. The detected license plate image regions are reported to the authorized remote station.

57.9.33    B. Yalcin, K. Ohnishi, "Stable and Transparent Time-Delayed Teleoperation by Direct Acceleration Waves ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3228 - 3238 , Sept 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For time-delayed bilateral teleoperation systems, this paper presents a novel structure to considerably improve performance in terms of transparency and perception bandwidth, which are extremely low for passive systems, as well as force-position and velocity tracking on which delay control systems suffer both necessity for provision of identical initial conditions and drift problem. Performance improvement is carried out in three steps. The first step is the utilization of a four-channel wave-transmission structure that provides direct force and velocity feedbacks to each robot by asymmetric damping. Since the common dimension of wave variables is acceleration, the second step is the conversion of wave data into acceleration terms and the employment of acceleration control. The third step is the scaling of both the force- and position-based acceleration dimensions. Perception-bandwidth-limiting filters are used neither in wave space nor in control space. We showed the validity by experiments and superiority to previous systems by various comparative analyses.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 10, Oct 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.10.1    J.J. Rodriguez-Andina, L. Gomes, S. Bogosyan, "Current Trends in Industrial Electronics Education ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3245 - 3252 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Technology development creates many challenges in the education of industrial-electronics (IE)-related subjects. At the same time, it allows new educational paradigms to be implemented. The main contribution of this paper is to initiate a discussion for the needs and challenges of IE education both at university level and in lifelong learning, in order to meet the requirements of the emerging technologies of the 21st century. Educational challenges and opportunities are first identified and analyzed. Afterward, an overview of state-of-the-art learning methodologies and tools is presented. New educational paradigms and future directions are also identified.

57.10.2    Yuliang Qiao, Guo-Ping Liu, Geng Zheng, Wenshan Hu, "NCSLab: A Web-Based Global-Scale Control Laboratory With Rich Interactive Features ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3253 - 3265 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces the Networked Control System Laboratory (NCSLab) at http://www.ncslab.net, which provides a complete Web-based solution for users to carry out experiments on experiment devices located globally. A scalable architecture is proposed, which is composed of Web browsers, central Web server, MATLAB servers, regional experiment servers, control units, and experiment devices. Based on the architecture, many novel features, including visual algorithm designing, simulation, compilation, visual monitor configuration, and real-time monitoring and supervisory control, are designed and implemented by a combination of state-of-the-art technologies such as Web 2.0, Java 2 Enterprise Edition, and MATLAB. Users can enjoy all these rich interactive features with a simple Web browser from anywhere at any time. The issues of device safety, network security, and instability are also tackled in NCSLab.

57.10.3    G. Farias, R. De Keyser, S. Dormido, F. Esquembre, "Developing Networked Control Labs: A Matlab and Easy Java Simulations Approach ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3266 - 3275 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The new information technologies provide great opportunities in control education. One of them is the use of remote control labs to teach the behavior of control systems through a network. In this paper, a new approach to create interactive networked control labs is described. Two main software tools are used: Matlab and Easy Java Simulations. The first one is a widely used tool in the control community, whereas the second one is an authoring tool, designed to build interactive applications in Java without special programming skills. The remote labs created by this approach give to students the opportunity to face the effects of network delays on the controlled system and also to specify on the fly their own control algorithm.

57.10.4    A.G. Vicente, Muñ, I.B. oz, J.L.L. Galilea, P.A.R. del Toro, "Remote Automation Laboratory Using a Cluster of Virtual Machines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3276 - 3283 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a remote laboratory for industrial automation comprising different programmable logic controller (PLC) manufacturers. This facility provides an environment for remote users to learn many automation topics while using different PLCs together with several types of sensors, actuators, and industrial communication networks. The laboratory architecture that makes up the remote automation laboratory (RAL) is based on a Moodle-server master PC (MPC), which also manages the booking system of PLC benches available in the laboratory. There exist a cluster of virtual machines (VMs) running on several slave PCs (SPCs), four VMs per SPC. Each VM can manage a type of PLC bench of the automation laboratory. The MPC server balances the load of SPCs allowing the implementation and easy upgrading of the RAL offering different PLCs at the same time within the same remote interface. The remote laboratory has Internet protocol cameras providing a view of the real environment of each PLC bench to the remote user. The authentication system and management of remote users and PLC benches are made via Moodle plug-ins and hypertext preprocessor (PHP) scripts. Two external/internal routers dynamically configure the remote users' access to a particular PLC bench. RAL architecture can be applied to other e-learning areas.

57.10.5    C.A. Ramos-Paja, J.M.R. Scarpetta, L. Martinez-Salamero, "Integrated Learning Platform for Internet-Based Control-Engineering Education ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3284 - 3296 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes an integrated learning platform intended to support Internet-based control-engineering education. Four environments have been developed, namely, remote experimentation, mathematical analysis, dynamic simulation, and self-learning. The learning platform is a virtual support for problem-based education in control engineering. The reported development allows multiple users the access to concepts and both experimental and computational resources through an intuitive and powerful user interface that only requires a Web browser, a low-bandwidth Internet connection, and low user-side technical specifications. The server side is scalable and reproducible since it is based on general public license (GPL) Linux operating system and a Matlab license. The integration of the proposed theoretical, computational, and experimental tools improves previous experiences in Internet-based control education.

57.10.6    Martí, P. , M. Velasco, J.M. Fuertes, A. Camacho, G. Buttazzo, "Design of an Embedded Control System Laboratory Experiment ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3297 - 3307 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a prototype laboratory experiment to be integrated in the education of embedded control system engineers. The experiment, a real-time control of a dynamical system, is designed to drive students to a deeper understanding and integration of the diverse theoretical concepts that often come from different disciplines such as real-time systems and control systems. Rather than proposing the experiment for a particular course within an embedded system engineering curriculum, this paper describes how the experiment can be tailored to the needs and diverse background of both undergraduate and graduate students education.

57.10.7    F.J. Azcondo, A. de Castro, Brañ, C. as, "Course on Digital Electronics Oriented to Describing Systems in VHDL ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3308 - 3316 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new orientation for a multidisciplinary industrial engineering program course on digital electronics is proposed. Students are trained to describe complete systems in very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL). These systems have been previously modeled with Matlab/Simulink, including both continuous and discrete components. Digital controllers based on concurrent hardware are designed for these systems in the same framework. After developing and simulating the behavioral model of the system or plant, the controller is redescribed under the synthesis constraints and implemented in a field-programmable gate array evaluation board for verification, along with the system under control. In this way, the course is not only intended for digital electronics specialists but also for students with diverse engineering backgrounds.

57.10.8    L. Ribas-Xirgo, "Yet Another Simple Processor (YASP) for Introductory Courses on Computer Architecture ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3317 - 3323 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Subjects that include short introductions to computer architecture are usually taught in the first year of electronic engineering and computer science degrees. To enable students to acquire practical skills in this topic, simple computers can be used. These computers are usually microcontrollers or education-specific machines. In this paper, we present a machine based on a simple processor that also has some of the characteristics of microcontrollers, such as integrated input/output ports. In addition, this machine is accompanied with a tool suite intended for educational purposes that includes several simulators, assemblers, and debuggers that have been gradually introduced since the academic year 1999-2000. Results show that students are satisfied with the integrated development environment and with the machine as an example of how actual computers work.

57.10.9    G. Sziebig, B. Takarics, P. Korondi, "Control of an Embedded System via Internet ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3324 - 3333 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents our experience with a complete multimedia educational program of dc servo drives for distant learning. The program contains three parts: animation, simulation, and Internet-based measurement. The animation program helps to understand the operation of dc motors as well as its time- and frequency-domain equations, transfer functions, and the theoretical background necessary to design a controller for dc servo motors. The simulation model of the dc servo motor and the controller can be designed by the students based on the animation program. The students can also test their controllers through the Internet-based measurement, which is the most important part from an engineering point of view. Students can then perform various exercises such as programming the D/A and A/D cards in the embedded system and designing different types of controllers. First, a simple PI controller can be designed, but advanced students can also design more sophisticated controllers such as the sliding mode controller. After the measurements are executed, the students can download the measured data and compare them to the simulation results.

57.10.10    Cheng-I Chen, G.W. Chang, "Virtual Instrumentation and Educational Platform for Time-Varying Harmonic and Interharmonic Detection ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3334 - 3342 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Selection of a suitable method among various techniques for assessment of harmonic and interharmonic components of a measured voltage or current waveform is not an easy task for the students. A good start is to understand the relationship between the analysis techniques and the measured parameters. In this paper, several commonly used methods for time-varying harmonic and interharmonic detection of measured waveforms are reviewed and implemented in an integrated virtual instrumentation. Compared from the aspect of frequency identification for the reviewed methods, general guidelines for performing harmonic and interharmonic detection are also developed for the educational purpose.

57.10.11    A. Rojko, D. Hercog, K. Jezernik, "Power Engineering and Motion Control Web Laboratory: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Mechatronics Course ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3343 - 3354 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: During the E-learning Distance Interactive Practical Education project, 13 partners from 11 European countries joined together to build a power engineering and motion control remote laboratory, which would offer 18 complete online courses with remote experiments and high-quality documentation, to students from the universities of all participating partners. The major benefit of this project is the possibility of sharing expensive equipment and lessening the burdens of technical and organizational problems. This paper outlines the project's goals, organization, and, as an example, realization of one of the project's modules. The described module is a mechatronics motion control course, which explains the most important aspects of motion control design, from modeling, simulations, control design, experimental validation, and comparison between various controllers. The technical solutions, educational strategy, and realization details are given for the module. The pilot testing of the module was performed to assess the module and find out what the students' personal attitude concerning e-learning and remote experiments. The results of testing are presented and discussed.

57.10.12    R. Casanueva, Brañ, C. as, F.J. Azcondo, Dí, F.J. az, "Teaching Resonant Converters: Properties and Applications for Variable Loads ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3355 - 3363 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper summarizes a lesson on resonant converters included in the new course, Advanced Power Conversion Techniques, within the M.Sc. program in electrical engineering at the University of Cantabria, Spain. The course has recently received the National Accreditation for official programs. The M.Sc. program, along with the Ph.D. thesis, forms a Ph.D. program in industrial engineering. The contents motivate the students to find suitable resonant converter applications of industrial interest. A new approach to teaching resonant converters is presented that focused on their properties at certain frequencies, such as for voltage sources, current sources, or sink and power source operation with very variable loads. The analysis of the converters enables the identification of these operating points and, by means of a sensitivity analysis with respect to the components of the resonant tank, explains the robustness of their behavior. Using as a starting point the fulfillment of the desired property, we propose that the students develop open-loop designs, with stable behavior, or closed-loop designs, with very small variation in the operating point. Two practical application examples are shown: electronic ballasts for high-intensity discharge lamps and power supplies for electrical discharge machining.

57.10.13    S. Rahmani, N. Mendalek, K. Al-Haddad, "Experimental Design of a Nonlinear Control Technique for Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3364 - 3375 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a nonlinear control technique for a three-phase shunt active power filter (SAPF). The method provides compensation for reactive, unbalanced, and harmonic load current components. A proportional-integral (PI) control law is derived through linearization of the inherently nonlinear SAPF system model, so that the tasks of current control dynamics and dc capacitor voltage dynamics become decoupled. This decoupling allows us to control the SAPF output currents and the dc bus voltage independently of each other, thereby providing either one of these decoupled subsystems a dynamic response that significantly slower than that of the other. To overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method, a computational control delay compensation method, which delaylessly and accurately generates the SAPF reference currents, is proposed. The first step is to extract the SAPF reference currents from the sensed nonlinear load currents by applying the synchronous reference frame method, where a three-phase diode bridge rectifier with R-L load is taken as the nonlinear load, and then, the reference currents are modified, so that the delay will be compensated. The converter, which is controlled by the described control strategy, guarantees balanced overall supply currents, unity displacement power factor, and reduced harmonic load currents in the common coupling point. Various simulation and experimental results demonstrate the high performance of the nonlinear controller.

57.10.14    Min-Fu Hsieh, You-Chiuan Hsu, D.G. Dorrell, "Design of Large-Power Surface-Mounted Permanent-Magnet Motors Using Postassembly Magnetization ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3376 - 3384 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reports the design process for the manufacture of higher-power rare-earth permanent-magnet (PM) motors using postassembly magnetization. Difficulties can be encountered in production using normal manufacturing processes due to the high intensity of rare-earth magnets that are premagnetized. Postassembly magnetization utilizes the stator windings of a PM motor to magnetize the magnets after assembly. With this method, some parameters, such as slot-fill factor, number of turns, wire diameter, etc., must be considered for the magnetization and motor operation. In this paper, a design process that incorporates the design considerations for postassembly magnetization (for complete magnetization) together with the design requirements is described for successful motor operation. A 6-kW surface-mounted PM (SPM) motor is designed using the proposed process as a demonstration, which is verified using finite-element analysis. Another 400-W SPM motor is also designed for experimental purpose. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

57.10.15    Meng Yeong Lee, P. Wheeler, C. Klumpner, "Space-Vector Modulated Multilevel Matrix Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3385 - 3394 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A matrix converter is an ac-ac power converter topology that has received extensive research attention as an alternative to traditional ac-dc-ac converter. A matrix converter is able to convert energy from an ac source to an ac load without the need of a bulky and limited-lifetime energy-storage elements. The indirect three-level sparse matrix converter (I3SMC) is a new topology from this family that can synthesize three-level voltage in order to improve the output performance in terms of reduced harmonic content. This paper discusses the operating principles and a space-vector-modulation scheme for this topology. Simulation and experimental results are shown to prove the ability of this topology to generate multilevel output voltages as well as to maintain a set of sinusoidal balanced input currents. The performance of the converter is compared with the conventional matrix converter and an alternative multilevel matrix-converter topology in order to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of the I3SMC.

57.10.16    Kai Sun, Qing Wei, Lipei Huang, K. Matsuse, "An Overmodulation Method for PWM-Inverter-Fed IPMSM Drive With Single Current Sensor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3395 - 3404 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to lower the cost and expand the working range of pulsewidth modulation (PWM)-inverter-fed interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drives, the control methods under the overmodulation mode with only a dc-link current sensor are investigated. The space vector modulation of the PWM inverter is analyzed in detail, and an adjustment scheme for the reference voltage vectors is developed to fulfill the requirements by phase current reconstruction under overmodulation. Furthermore, in order to simplify the control process and reduce the control errors, a specified overmodulation method based on the superposition principle is proposed for the PWM inverter with phase current reconstruction, which overcomes the shortcoming of the PWM adjustment scheme. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed control method, which realizes the single current sensor overmodulation control with maximum voltage transfer ratio.

57.10.17    C. Ekkaravarodome, A. Nathakaranakule, I. Boonyaroonate, "Single-Stage Electronic Ballast Using Class-DE Low- {d} \upsilon /{d}t Current-Source-Driven Rectifier for Power-Factor Correction ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3405 - 3414 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A single-stage high-power-factor electronic ballast with a Class-DE low-dv/dt rectifier as a power-factor corrector is proposed in this paper. The power-factor corrector is achieved by using a bridge rectifier that acts as the Class-DE low-dv/dt rectifier. The Class-DE low-dv/dt rectifier is driven by a high-frequency current source, which is obtained from the square-wave output voltage of the Class-D parallel resonant inverter through an LC -series circuit. By using this topology, the conduction angle of the bridge rectifier diode current is increased, and a low line-current harmonic is obtained. A prototype ballast is implemented to drive a 36-W fluorescent lamp. The switching frequency is fixed at about 84 kHz. Experimental results verify the theoretical analysis. The designed electronic ballast has a power factor of 0.99, a total harmonic distortion of 1.3%, a lamp current crest factor of 1.42, and 90% efficiency at full power.

57.10.18    Grbović, P.J. , P. Delarue, P. Le Moigne, P. Bartholomeus, "A Bidirectional Three-Level DC–DC Converter for the Ultracapacitor Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3415 - 3430 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, which are well known as ultracapacitors, have intensively been used in power conversion applications such as controlled electric drives, active filters, power conditioners, and uninterruptible power supplies. The ultracapacitor is employed as the energy storage device that can be fully charged/discharged within a few seconds. To achieve better flexibility and efficiency, the ultracapacitor is connected to the power conversion system via an interfacing dc-dc power converter. Various topologies are used as the dc-dc power converter: nonisolated two-level single-phase or multiphase interleaved converters and many varieties of isolated soft-switched dc-dc converters. A three-level nonisolated dc-dc converter as a candidate for ultracapacitor applications is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The topology is theoretically analyzed, and design guidelines are given. The modeling and control aspects are discussed. A 5.5-kW prototype was designed, and the proposed topology was experimentally verified on a general-purpose controlled electric drive. Experimental results are presented and discussed.

57.10.19    S.K. Mazumder, R.K. Burra, Rongjun Huang, M. Tahir, K. Acharya, "A Universal Grid-Connected Fuel-Cell Inverter for Residential Application ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3431 - 3447 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a universal fuel-cell-based grid-connected inverter design with digital-signal-processor-based digital control. The inverter has a direct power conversion mechanism with a high-frequency zero-voltage-switched dc/ac primary-side converter followed by a pair of ac/ac cycloconverters that operates either in parallel or in series to simultaneously address the issues of universal output and high efficiency. The critical design issues focus on the impact and optimization of transformer leakage inductance with regard to effectiveness of zero voltage switching of a primary-side converter, duty-cycle loss, resonance, and voltage spike that has effect on the breakdown voltage rating of the cycloconverter devices. An additional concept of dynamic transformer tapping has been explored to address the impact of varying input voltage on secondary-side voltage spike and inverter efficiency. Finally, detailed grid-parallel and grid-connected results are presented that demonstrate satisfactory inverter performances.

57.10.20    Tsao-Tsung Ma, "Quantitative Design of Active Anti-Islanding Controllers for Power-Converter-Based Distributed Generators ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3448 - 3455 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel voltage-shift acceleration control scheme for anti-islanding of power-converter-based distributed generators (DGs). The proposed control objective is achieved by a voltage positive-feedback loop properly designed in the synchronous d-q frame. In this paper, the overall power flow control scheme of the studied DG is first described. Then, a quantitative design methodology of an adaptive voltage-shift acceleration gain based on small-signal stability and step-input response is developed. The proposed control approach is intended to achieve reliable detection with quasi-zero nondetection zone, noncompromised power quality, and easy implementation without additional sensing devices or equipment. Performances on constant-power and constant-current control modes are investigated. Both simulation and experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed anti-islanding scheme and the gain design approach.

57.10.21    Tat Luat Nguyen, Kay-Soon Low, "A Global Maximum Power Point Tracking Scheme Employing DIRECT Search Algorithm for Photovoltaic Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3456 - 3467 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a maximum power point tracking approach for a photovoltaic system using the dividing rectangles algorithm. The new approach overcomes some weaknesses of the existing methods such as the perturb and observe method as it is capable of searching for global maximum. This is particularly important for a system that is partially shaded. To validate the performance of the proposed scheme, experimental studies have been conducted. The results have shown that the proposed approach is robust and possesses a fast tracking speed.

57.10.22    A.S. Samosir, A.H.M. Yatim, "Implementation of Dynamic Evolution Control of Bidirectional DC–DC Converter for Interfacing Ultracapacitor Energy Storage to Fuel-Cell System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3468 - 3473 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An electric vehicle powered by fuel cells (FCs) gives far more promising performance. An FC is a clean energy source and has a high energy-storage capability. However, an FC has a slow dynamic response. A secondary power source is needed during start-up and transient conditions. An ultracapacitor can be used as a secondary power source to improve the performance and efficiency of the overall system. Several methods have been devised to connect an energy-storage device to an FC. This paper presents a converter system for connecting an ultracapacitor as secondary energy storage to an FC electric-vehicle system. A bidirectional dc-dc converter is used for interfacing ultracapacitor energy storage to an FC system. The controller of the converter system was designed and implemented based on dynamic evolution control. The performance of the proposed dynamic evolution control is tested through simulation and experiment. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed techniques are suitable for controlling bidirectional dc-dc converters.

57.10.23    M. Defoort, T. Murakami, "Correction to “Sliding-Mode Control Scheme for an Intelligent Bicycle” [Sep 09 3357-3368] ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3474 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the above titled paper (ibid., vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 3357-3368, Sep. 09), the authors mistakenly did not include a reference in the final print. The reference is presented here and proper credit is given.

57.10.24    Hungsun Son, Kok-Meng Lee, "Open-Loop Controller Design and Dynamic Characteristics of a Spherical Wheel Motor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3475 - 3482 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a control system design for a particular form of variable-reluctance spherical motors, referred to here as a spherical wheel motor (SWM). The method decoupling the spin from the inclination offers a means to control, in open loop (OL), the inclination of a continuously rotating shaft. Specifically, the OL controller presented in this paper combines a multispeed switching control law for controlling the spin motion and a dynamic model-based control law for regulating the rotor inclination of an SWM. The concept feasibility of the OL-controlled SWM (consisting of permanent magnets in a rotor and electromagnets in a stator) has been experimentally demonstrated. The experimental study not only demonstrates the design procedure but also provides intuitive insights into the effects of key operation parameters on the SWM dynamics. The results presented here will serve as a basis for developing feedback controllers for increasing accuracy and robustness for disturbance rejection.

57.10.25    Tingna Shi, Yuntao Guo, Peng Song, Changliang Xia, "A New Approach of Minimizing Commutation Torque Ripple for Brushless DC Motor Based on DC–DC Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3483 - 3490 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Brushless dc motor still suffers from commutation torque ripple, which mainly depends on speed and transient line current in the commutation interval. This paper presents a novel circuit topology and a dc link voltage control strategy to keep incoming and outgoing phase currents changing at the same rate during commutation. A dc-dc single-ended primary inductor converter (SEPIC) and a switch selection circuit are employed in front of the inverter. The desired commutation voltage is accomplished by the SEPIC converter. The dc link voltage control strategy is carried out by the switch selection circuit to separate two procedures, adjusting the SEPIC converter and regulating speed. The cause of commutation ripple is analyzed, and the way to obtain the desired dc link voltage is introduced in detail. Finally, simulation and experimental results show that, compared with the dc-dc converter, the proposed method can obtain the desired voltage much faster and minimize commutation torque ripple more efficiently at both high and low speeds.

57.10.26    Guangzhu Wang, Yun Wei Li, "Parabolic PWM for Current Control of Voltage-Source Converters (VSCs) ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3491 - 3496 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel parabolic carrier pulsewidth modulation (PWM) method is proposed in this paper for direct current control in a voltage-source converter (VSC). This method employs a pair of parabolic PWM carriers (a positive one and a negative one) to determine the switching states of the two switches in a converter phase leg while limiting the current tracking error within a nonlinear hysteresis band. Similar to the hysteresis PWM method, the proposed parabolic PWM can regulate both dc current and ac current with excellent and accurate dynamic response. Furthermore, as a carrier-based PWM method, the proposed parabolic PWM can maintain a constant switching frequency by the automatic peak current error adjustment through the PWM process. In this paper, the basic operation principle of the proposed PWM method is discussed, and its implementation scheme is presented. Simulation and experimental results based on a single-phase VSC with bipolar PWM implementation are provided.

57.10.27    Ming Qin, Jianping Xu, "Multiduty Ratio Modulation Technique for Switching DC–DC Converters Operating in Discontinuous Conduction Mode ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3497 - 3507 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multiduty ratio (MDR) modulation, a novel modulation technique for switching dc-dc converters, is proposed and studied in this paper. MDR modulation technique achieves output voltage regulation by generating a control pulse train made up of control pulses with different duty ratios. MDR control needs only comparators, triggers, and some simple logic devices without an error amplifier and its corresponding compensation circuit; thus, the MDR modulation scheme is easy to realize, benefits with great robustness, and offers great transient performance. The principle and the operation of the MDR modulation scheme are introduced; simulation and experimental results are presented to show that an MDR-controlled converter has much better transient performance than a traditional pulsewidth modulation converter and has much lower output voltage ripple than a pulse-regulation converter.

57.10.28    Jeen-Shing Wang, Yu-Liang Hsu, Jiun-Nan Liu, "An Inertial-Measurement-Unit-Based Pen With a Trajectory Reconstruction Algorithm and Its Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3508 - 3521 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an inertial-measurement-unit-based pen (IMUPEN) and its associated trajectory reconstruction algorithm for motion trajectory reconstruction and handwritten digit recognition applications. The IMUPEN is composed of a triaxial accelerometer, two gyroscopes, a microcontroller, and an RF wireless transmission module. Users can hold the IMUPEN to write numerals or draw simple symbols at normal speed. During writing or drawing movements, the inertial signals generated for the movements are transmitted to a computer via the wireless module. A trajectory reconstruction algorithm composed of the procedures of data collection, signal preprocessing, and trajectory reconstruction has been developed for reconstructing the trajectories of movements. In order to minimize the cumulative errors caused by the intrinsic noise/drift of sensors, we have developed an orientation error compensation method and a multiaxis dynamic switch. The advantages of the IMUPEN include the following: 1) It is portable and can be used anywhere without any external reference device or writing ambit limitations, and 2) its trajectory reconstruction algorithm can reduce orientation and integral errors effectively and thus can reconstruct the trajectories of movements accurately. Our experimental results on motion trajectory reconstruction and handwritten digit recognition have successfully validated the effectiveness of the IMUPEN and its trajectory reconstruction algorithm.

57.10.29    I. Morgan, Honghai Liu, B. Tormos, A. Sala, "Detection and Diagnosis of Incipient Faults in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3522 - 3532 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new methodology for detecting and diagnosing faults found in heavy-duty diesel engines based upon spectrometric analysis of lubrication samples and is compared against a conventional method, the redline limits, which is utilized in a number of major laboratories in the U.K. and across Europe. The proposed method applies computational power to a well-known maintenance technique and consists of an improved method of preprocessing to form a derivative tuple, which extracts further information from the measured elemental concentrations. To identify incipient faults, the distance in vector space is calculated using a Gaussian contour, generated from prior data, as the zero crossing, which enables novel samples to be classified as normal or abnormal. This information is utilized as the input to a probabilistic directed acyclic graph in the form of a belief network. This network provides a prognosis for the mechanism as well as suggesting possible actions that could be taken to rectify the diagnosed problem, supported with confidence probabilities. The proposed method is evaluated for both accuracy in detecting a fault as well as the duration of time that is provided before the event occurs, with significant improvements in both metrics demonstrated over the conventional method.

57.10.30    Ming-Dou Ker, Cheng-Cheng Yen, "New Transient Detection Circuit for On-Chip Protection Design Against System-Level Electrical-Transient Disturbance ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3533 - 3543 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new transient detection circuit for on-chip protection design against system-level electrical-transient disturbance is proposed in this paper. The circuit function to detect positive or negative electrical transients under system-level electrostatic-discharge (ESD) and electrical-fast-transient (EFT) testing conditions has been investigated by HSPICE simulation and verified in silicon chip. The experimental results in a 0.18-μm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process have confirmed that the new proposed on-chip transient detection circuit can successfully memorize the occurrence of system-level electrical-transient disturbance events. The output of the proposed on-chip transient detection circuit can be used as a firmware index to execute the system recovery procedure. With hardware/firmware codesign, the transient disturbance immunity of microelectronic products equipped with CMOS integrated circuits under system-level ESD or EFT tests can be significantly improved.

57.10.31    C.F. Silva, Quintá, C. ns, A. Colmenar, M.A. Castro, E. Mandado, "A Method Based on Petri Nets and a Matrix Model to Implement Reconfigurable Logic Controllers ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3544 - 3556 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a method to implement reconfigurable logic controllers (RLCs) using a new matrix model to describe Petri nets (PNs). The method obtains the general equations and directly translates them into a hardware description language (HDL) to configure a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). To achieve a generalized model in a comprehensible way, several PN examples including timers, counters, and hierarchical subnets are described in detail. The working principles and robustness of the method are validated by simulating each example and by their practical implementation in an RLC.

57.10.32    V.C. Gungor, Bin Lu, G.P. Hancke, "Opportunities and Challenges of Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Grid ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3557 - 3564 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The collaborative and low-cost nature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) brings significant advantages over traditional communication technologies used in today's electric power systems. Recently, WSNs have been widely recognized as a promising technology that can enhance various aspects of today's electric power systems, including generation, delivery, and utilization, making them a vital component of the next-generation electric power system, the smart grid. However, harsh and complex electric-power-system environments pose great challenges in the reliability of WSN communications in smart-grid applications. This paper starts with an overview of the application of WSNs for electric power systems along with their opportunities and challenges and opens up future work in many unexploited research areas in diverse smart-grid applications. Then, it presents a comprehensive experimental study on the statistical characterization of the wireless channel in different electric-power-system environments, including a 500-kV substation, an industrial power control room, and an underground network transformer vault. Field tests have been performed on IEEE 802.15.4-compliant wireless sensor nodes in real-world power delivery and distribution systems to measure background noise, channel characteristics, and attenuation in the 2.4-GHz frequency band. Overall, the empirical measurements and experimental results provide valuable insights about IEEE 802.15.4-compliant sensor network platforms and guide design decisions and tradeoffs for WSN-based smart-grid applications.

57.10.33    Rui Wang, Guo-Ping Liu, Wei Wang, D. Rees, Yun-Bo Zhao, " H_{\infty } Control for Networked Predictive Control Systems Based on the Switched Lyapunov Function Method ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3565 - 3571 , Oct 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the problem of H control for a class of networked control systems (NCSs) with time-varying delay in both forward and backward channels. Combined with the switched Lyapunov function technique, an improved predictive controller design strategy is proposed to compensate for the delay and data dropout to achieve the desired control performance. Based on these methods, the controllers can be designed to guarantee that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable with an H-norm bound in terms of nonlinear matrix inequalities. An iterative algorithm is presented to solve these nonlinear matrix inequalities to obtain a suboptimal minimum disturbance attenuation level. Numerical simulations and a practical experiment are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 11, Nov 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.11.1    D. Dietrich, D. Bruckner, G. Zucker, P. Palensky, "Communication and Computation in Buildings: A Short Introduction and Overview ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3577 - 3584 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Building automation (BA) and smart homes (SHs) have traditionally not been a unified field but varied by their origins, legal foundations, different applications, different goals, and national funding programs for basic research. Only within the last years that an international common focus appeared. The following overview gives not only an introduction into the topic of BA but also the distinction to other areas of automation, in which networks of the field level (the sensor and actuator level) play an important role. Finally, the scientific challenges will be mentioned. SHs are referred to when the differences to BA have to be explicitly stressed. This paper is an introduction for the special IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics section on BA and shall introduce the reader to this new topic. BA not only has a huge economic potential but also is of significant academic interest today.

57.11.2    T. Sauter, "The Three Generations of Field-Level Networks—Evolution and Compatibility Issues ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3585 - 3595 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Field-level networks have been one of the keys to modern automation systems. Be it in factory, process, or building automation, networks allow for horizontal and vertical integration of distributed devices and functions. This paper reviews the evolution of field-level networks comprising fieldbus systems, industrial Ethernet, and recent industrial wireless networks. The main focus is on demonstrating the continuity in the development of the three generations that ensured backward compatibility at the expense of radical innovation. Given the wide set of modern communication technologies, this paper then discusses how architectures for future automation networks might look. Particular emphasis is put on hybrid architectures for combined wired/wireless networks. A generic concept for integration of multiple wireless segments will be presented that supports seamless roaming for mobile nodes in industrial environment.

57.11.3    Xianghui Cao, Jiming Chen, Yang Xiao, Youxian Sun, "Building-Environment Control With Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks: Centralized Versus Distributed ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3596 - 3605 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper considers joint problems of control and communication in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) for building-environment control systems. In traditional control systems, centralized control (CC) and distributed control (DC) are two major approaches. However, little work has been done in comparing the two approaches in joint problems of control and communication, particularly in WSANs serving as components of control loops. In this paper, we develop a CC scheme in which control decisions are made based on global information and a DC scheme which enables distributed actuators to make control decisions locally. We also develop methods that enable wireless communications among system devices compatible with the control strategies, and propose a method for reducing packet-loss rate. We compare the two schemes using simulations in many aspects. Simulation results show that the DC can achieve a comparable control performance of the CC, while the DC is more robust against packet loss and has lower computational complexity than the CC. Furthermore, the DC has shorter actuation latency than the CC under certain conditions.

57.11.4    H. Dibowski, J. Ploennigs, K. Kabitzsch, "Automated Design of Building Automation Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3606 - 3613 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design of large building automation systems (BASs) with thousands of devices is a laborious task with a lot of recurrent works for identical automated rooms. The usage of prefabricated off-the-shelf devices and design patterns simplifies this task nowadays but creates new interoperability problems. As a result, the selection of devices is essential for a good system design but is often limited by a lack of information. This paper introduces a novel automatic design approach for large BASs that covers the device selection, interoperability evaluation, and composition of BASs. It follows a continuous top-down design with different levels of abstraction starting at requirement engineering and ending at a fully developed and industry-spanning BAS design.

57.11.5    T. Novak, A. Gerstinger, "Safety- and Security-Critical Services in Building Automation and Control Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3614 - 3621 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A building automation and control system (BACS) is used to integrate different kinds of services into a single system to provide automated combined services and, consequently, ease maintenance and save costs. Typical services are heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, as well as lighting and shading. Later on, security-critical services and, in recent times, safety-critical ones have also been integrated into the BACS. Today, the two last-mentioned types of services are realized by closed subsystems as part of the BACS. Such an approach makes the management and maintenance of the BACS less efficient and does not allow combined security- and safety-critical (s&s) services. This paper presents a common approach on how to engineer a safety- and security-related building automation technology. It shall be the basis of a BACS that is able to provide combined s&s and standard services. Hence, closed subsystems in the BACS can be avoided, and new services can be offered. Such a new service is delineated, taking existing application standards into consideration.

57.11.6    W. Granzer, F. Praus, W. Kastner, "Security in Building Automation Systems ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3622 - 3630 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Building automation systems are traditionally concerned with the control of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, as well as lighting and shading, systems. They have their origin in a time where security has been considered as a side issue at best. Nowadays, with the rising desire to integrate security-critical services that were formerly provided by isolated subsystems, security must no longer be neglected. Thus, the development of a comprehensive security concept is of utmost importance. This paper starts with a security threat analysis and identifies the challenges of providing security in the building automation domain. Afterward, the security mechanisms of available standards are thoroughly analyzed. Finally, two approaches that provide both secure communication and secure execution of possibly untrusted control applications are presented.

57.11.7    Seung Ho Hong, Songjun Lee, "Design and Implementation of Fault Tolerance in the BACnet/IP Protocol ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3631 - 3638 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digital communication networks have become a core technology in advanced building automation systems. The building automation and control network (BACnet) is a standard data communication protocol designed specifically for building automation and control systems. BACnet provides the BACnet/IP (B/IP) protocol for data communication through the Internet. Every B/IP device uses a B/IP broadcast management device (BBMD) to deliver remote or global BACnet broadcast messages. In this paper, we propose a fault-tolerant BBMD for the B/IP protocol. The fault-tolerant BBMD improves the connectivity of B/IP networks because a backup BBMD automatically inherits the role of a defective primary BBMD. The fault-tolerant BBMD was designed to provide backward compatibility with existing B/IP devices. In this paper, we implemented the fault-tolerant BBMD and examined its validity using an experimental model.

57.11.8    Xiaoli Li, C.P. Bowers, T. Schnier, "Classification of Energy Consumption in Buildings With Outlier Detection ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3639 - 3644 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose an intelligent data-analysis method for modeling and prediction of daily electricity consumption in buildings. The objective is to enable a building-management system to be used for forecasting and detection of abnormal energy use. First, an outlier-detection method is proposed to identify abnormally high or low energy use in a building. Then a canonical variate analysis is employed to describe latent variables of daily electricity-consumption profiles, which can be used to group the data sets into different clusters. Finally, a simple classifier is used to predict the daily electricity-consumption profiles. A case study, based on a mixed-use environment, was studied. The results demonstrate that the method proposed in this paper can be used in conjunction with a building-management system to identify abnormal utility consumption and notify building operators in real time.

57.11.9    R. Velik, G. Zucker, "Autonomous Perception and Decision Making in Building Automation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3645 - 3652 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: System complexity has reached a level where it is hard to apply existing information analysis methods to automatically derive appropriate decisions. Building automation is on the verge of being unable to extract relevant information and control a building accordingly. Many different industries in today's automation could provide information by means of different sensors, but the ability to integrate this information is missing. This paper describes approaches on how to cope with increased complexity by introducing models for perception and decision making that are based on findings in neuroscience and psychoanalysis, scientific disciplines that are far-off from engineering but nevertheless promise valuable contributions to intelligent automation.

57.11.10    D. Bruckner, R. Velik, "Behavior Learning in Dwelling Environments With Hidden Markov Models ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3653 - 3660 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Building automation systems (BASs) have seen widespread distribution also in private residences over the past few years. The ongoing technological developments in the fields of sensors, actuators, as well as embedded systems lead to more and more complex and larger systems. These systems allow ever-better observations of activities in buildings with a rapidly growing number of possible applications. Unfortunately, control systems with lots of parameters, which would be normally utilized, are hard to describe and-from a context-deriving view-hard to understand with standard control engineering techniques. This paper presents an approach to how statistical methods can be applied to (future) BASs to extract semantic and context information from sensor data. A hierarchical model structure based on hidden Markov models is proposed to establish a framework. The lower levels of the model structure are used to observe the sensor values themselves, whereas the higher levels provide a basis for the semantic interpretation of what is happening in the building. Ultimately, the system should be able to give a condensed overview of the daily routine of a sensor or the process that the sensor observes. While knowing the context of the sensor, a human operator can easily interpret the result.

57.11.11    R. Velik, H. Boley, "Neurosymbolic Alerting Rules ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3661 - 3668 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Future building automation will require complex (humanlike) perception and decision-making processes not being feasible with classical approaches. In this paper, we address both the perception and the decision-making process and present an alerting model that reacts to perceived situations in a building with decisions about possible alerts. Perception is based on the neurosymbolic information-processing model, which detects candidate alerts. Integrated with perception, decision making is based on the rule model of the Rule Markup Language, which computes alerts to relevant building occupants about current opportunities and risks. A general model of neurosymbolic alerting rules is developed and exemplified with a use case of building alerts.

57.11.12    D. De, V. Ramanarayanan, "A DC-to-Three-Phase-AC High-Frequency Link Converter With Compensation for Nonlinear Distortion ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3669 - 3677 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on a new high-frequency (HF) link dc-to-three-phase-ac power converter. The least number of switching devices among other HF link dc-to-three-phase-ac converters, improved power density due to the absence of devices of bidirectional voltage-blocking capability, simple commutation requirements, and isolation between input and output are the integral features of this topology. The commutation process of the converter requires zero portions in the link voltage. This causes a nonlinear distortion in the output three-phase voltages. The mathematical analysis is carried out to investigate the problem, and suitable compensation in modulating signal is proposed for different types of carrier. Along with the modified modulator structure, a synchronously rotating reference-frame-based control scheme is adopted for the three-phase ac side in order to achieve high dynamic performance. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has been investigated and verified through computer simulations and experimental results with 1-kVA prototype.

57.11.13    H. Taghizadeh, M.T. Hagh, "Harmonic Elimination of Cascade Multilevel Inverters with Nonequal DC Sources Using Particle Swarm Optimization ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3678 - 3684 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the elimination of harmonics in a cascade multilevel inverter by considering the nonequality of separated dc sources by using particle swarm optimization is presented. Solving a nonlinear transcendental equation set describing the harmonic-elimination problem with nonequal dc sources reaches the limitation of contemporary computer algebra software tools using the resultant method. The proposed approach in this paper can be applied to solve the problem in a simpler manner, even when the number of switching angles is increased and the determination of these angles using the resultant theory approach is not possible. Theoretical results are verified by experiments and simulations for an 11-level H-bridge inverter. Results show that the proposed method does effectively eliminate a great number of specific harmonics, and the output voltage is resulted in low total harmonic distortion.

57.11.14    R. Turner, S. Walton, R. Duke, "Stability and Bandwidth Implications of Digitally Controlled Grid-Connected Parallel Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3685 - 3694 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The increasing use of grid-connected inverter systems is resulting in a desire for parallel-connected inverters that offer greater power capacity while maintaining the high control bandwidth achieved by individual inverters. This paper demonstrates that, in addition to the traditional stability and bandwidth limitations of digitally controlled inverters, further stability and bandwidth limitations occur when LCL inverters with a common set point are connected in parallel to a grid. This paper provides detailed discrete-time derivations for parallel grid-connected inverters and uncovers stability and bandwidth limitations that only occur in grid-connected applications and are not apparent if the system is studied in continuous time. This paper demonstrates that, in a typical application, the voltage bandwidth of an LCL parallel inverter array is 25% lower than a single module or LC parallel configuration. Both simulations and hardware demonstrations on a 105-kVA parallel three-module grid-connected system confirm the findings.

57.11.15    L. Zarri, M. Mengoni, A. Tani, G. Serra, D. Casadei, "Minimization of the Power Losses in IGBT Multiphase Inverters with Carrier-Based Pulsewidth Modulation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3695 - 3706 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays, there is an increasing interest toward multiphase drives, particularly for medium- and high-power applications. In this paper, some modulation strategies for multiphase voltage-source inverters are compared and the modulation strategy with the minimum switching losses is determined. If the switching devices of the inverter are insulated-gate bipolar transistors or bipolar junction transistors, this modulation strategy turns out to be the one with the minimum total power losses. Simulation and experimental results confirm the validity of the analytical approach and the feasibility of the proposed modulation strategy.

57.11.16    K. Sivakumar, A. Das, R. Ramchand, C. Patel, K. Gopakumar, "A Hybrid Multilevel Inverter Topology for an Open-End Winding Induction-Motor Drive Using Two-Level Inverters in Series With a Capacitor-Fed H-Bridge Cell ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3707 - 3714 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new five-level inverter topology for open-end winding induction-motor (IM) drive is proposed. The open-end winding IM is fed from one end with a two-level inverter in series with a capacitor-fed H-bridge cell, while the other end is connected to a conventional two-level inverter. The combined inverter system produces voltage space-vector locations identical to that of a conventional five-level inverter. A total of 2744 space-vector combinations are distributed over 61 space-vector locations in the proposed scheme. With such a high number of switching state redundancies, it is possible to balance the H-bridge capacitor voltages under all operating conditions including overmodulation region. In addition to that, the proposed topology eliminates 18 clamping diodes having different voltage ratings compared with the neutral point clamped inverter. On the other hand, it requires only one capacitor bank per phase, whereas the flying-capacitor scheme for a five-level topology requires more than one capacitor bank per phase. The proposed inverter topology can be operated as a three-level inverter for full modulation range, in case of any switch failure in the capacitor-fed H-bridge cell. This will increase the reliability of the system. The proposed scheme is experimentally verified on a four-pole 5-hp IM drive.

57.11.17    S. Sayeef, G. Foo, M.F. Rahman, "Rotor Position and Speed Estimation of a Variable Structure Direct-Torque-Controlled IPM Synchronous Motor Drive at Very Low Speeds Including Standstill ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3715 - 3723 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performance of a speed sensorless variable structure direct-torque-controlled interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drive at very low speeds including standstill is investigated in this paper. The rotor position and speed are estimated using a high-frequency (HF) signal injection algorithm at low speeds and a sliding observer at medium to high speeds. The changeover between these two algorithms is performed using a weighting function which smoothly hands over the estimated rotor position information for stator flux and torque estimation purposes. Experiments were performed to test the effectiveness of the proposed HF signal injection algorithm, and results show that the sensorless drive is capable of accurately estimating the position and speed at very low speeds including standstill. The implementation of the changeover algorithm to switch between the two observers at low and high speeds has enabled sensorless operation of the drive from zero to base speed.

57.11.18    A. Agarwal, V. Agarwal, "Design of Delta-Modulated Generalized Frequency Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3724 - 3729 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel power electronic application, which is an IGBT-based frequency converter that performs the function of both cycloconverter and cycloinverter by changing the 2-b input parameter. It finds its application in speed control of induction motor, induction heating, fluorescent lighting, ballast, high-frequency power supplies, and so many other applications. A methodology is developed to generate the trigger signals for various IGBTs used in frequency converters such that the circuit is not restricted to a particular value of output frequency but it can produce any output frequency that is an integer multiple of the input supply frequency. The output of the converter has been improved using delta-modulation technique. Hardware design is obtained using readily available ICs and other components. The trigger circuit has been tested qualitatively by observing waveforms on CRO. The operation of the proposed system has been found to be satisfactory.

57.11.19    M.K.H. Cheung, M.H.L. Chow, C.K. Tse, "Design and Performance Considerations of PFC Switching Regulators Based on Noncascading Structures ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3730 - 3745 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper systematically explores the performances of power-factor-correction (PFC) switching regulators based on noncascading structures in terms of efficiency, input-current harmonic distortion, and load voltage regulation. The investigation begins with simplified power-flow diagrams, which represent the noncascading PFC switching regulators and describe the essential features of the noncascading PFC switching regulators to achieve PFC and voltage regulation. Based on these diagrams, the noncascading PFC switching regulators can be classified into three categories, each offering a different set of performances. The first category permits a tradeoff between the efficiency and the input-current harmonic distortion, the second permits a tradeoff between the efficiency and the size of the storage element for the load voltage regulation, and the third allows a tradeoff among all the performances. With detailed analyses through analytical approaches, simulation results illustrate the performances of these three categories of noncascading PFC switching regulators. An experimental prototype of the third category has been built to validate the analyses.

57.11.20    C. Larouci, M. Boukhnifer, A. Chaibet, "Design of Power Converters by Optimization Under Multiphysic Constraints: Application to a Two-Time-Scale AC/DC–DC Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3746 - 3753 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present an optimization-under-constraints approach to design power converters. In fact, the time-domain simulation is very useful to evaluate the performances of power converters when the design solution area of the studied converter is much reduced due to the designer's experience and when only few design aspects are considered. However, the design of today's power converters is more and more complicated because it needs to consider multiphysic and multidomain constraints. In this context, a design approach using optimization under constraints allows exploring a large solution area by considering the multiphysic aspect and a high number of optimization parameters. In this way, this paper proposes the use of analytical models to carry out a compromise between the model accuracy and the computing time when optimizing power converters under volume, electromagnetic compatibility, efficiency, thermal, and control constraints. This approach is applied to optimize a two-time-scale flyback converter. The optimized converter is implemented, and the proposed approach is validated by measurements.

57.11.21    C.A. Gallo, F.L. Tofoli, J.A.C. Pinto, "Two-Stage Isolated Switch-Mode Power Supply With High Efficiency and High Input Power Factor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3754 - 3766 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the conception and analysis of a switch-mode power supply (SMPS) with desirable characteristics of high-frequency isolation, high input power factor, low harmonic distortion, and high efficiency. Nearly unity input power factor can be obtained by using an interleaved boost converter associated with a nondissipative snubber, as high efficiency of the ac-dc front-end stage results. Additionally, a soft-switching full-bridge topology performs the dc-dc conversion, providing isolation to the SMPS by using a high-frequency transformer. By cascading both stages, the aforementioned characteristics are achieved. Theoretical background on each one of the converters is presented, and experimental results obtained from a laboratory prototype are presented and discussed in order to validate the proposal. In addition, the evaluation tests demonstrate the operation with nearly unity power factor, high efficiency, and good dynamic response over a wide load range.

57.11.22    An Luo, Xianyong Xu, Lu Fang, Houhui Fang, Jingbing Wu, Chuanping Wu, "Feedback-Feedforward PI-Type Iterative Learning Control Strategy for Hybrid Active Power Filter With Injection Circuit ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3767 - 3779 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the configuration characteristic of Hybrid active power filter (APF) with injection circuit (IHAPF) is analyzed, as well as its current closed-loop control model is established. Because of the character of reperiod of current harmonics in steady-load power system, the iterative learning control algorithm based on the PI-type learning law is presented. The systemic robustness is enhanced by using a forgetting factor. In order to improve the dynamic performance of a control system, a feedforward based on the D-type learning law of referenced current error by fuzzy reasoning is proposed. The system of the IHAPF with the proposed control strategy has been applied in a steel plant in Guangxi, China. Simulation and industrial application results show that the IHAPF with the proposed control method is not only easy to calculate and implement but also very effective in improving the performance of the filter. Meanwhile, IHAPF shows great promise in reducing harmonics and improving power factor with a relatively low capacity of APF.

57.11.23    Rong-Jong Wai, Chun-Yu Lin, "Active Low-Frequency Ripple Control for Clean-Energy Power-Conditioning Mechanism ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3780 - 3792 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on the design of an active low-frequency ripple control for a clean-energy power-conditioning mechanism with an aim to protect clean-energy sources (e.g., solar photovoltaics, fuel cells, etc.) from the severe damage of current-ripple propagation to expand their life span. First, a simplified circuit for representing the current-ripple phenomenon inside a general power conditioner including a dc/dc converter and a dc/ac inverter is derived, and the dynamic model of the active low-frequency ripple-control circuit is analyzed. Moreover, an adaptive linear neural network is taken as a neural filter to generate the compensation current command, and a total sliding-mode controller is designed to manipulate the ripple-control circuit for injecting a suitable compensation current into the high-voltage bus of the conditioner. In addition, the effectiveness of the proposed active low-frequency ripple-control scheme is verified by numerical simulations and experimental results. Its superiority is indicated in comparison with a conventional high-pass filter and a proportional-integral controller.

57.11.24    A.J. Mehta, B. Bandyopadhyay, A. Inoue, "Reduced-Order Observer Design for Servo System Using Duality to Discrete-Time Sliding-Surface Design ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3793 - 3800 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a design method of a discrete-time reduced-order observer using the duality to discrete-time sliding-surface design. First, the duality between the coefficients of the discrete-time reduced-order observer and the sliding-surface design is established, and then, the design method for the observer using the Riccati equation is explained. A discrete-time sliding-mode controller based on the proposed observer is designed and tested on a laboratory-type experimental servo system. The results show the efficacy of the reduced-order observer designed by the duality concept.

57.11.25    Wenke Lu, Changchun Zhu, "Solving Three Key Problems of Wavelet Transform Processor Using Surface Acoustic Wave Devices ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3801 - 3806 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Abstract-In this paper, we present the bulk acoustic wave (BAW), the sound-electricity reclamation (SER), and the insertion loss as the three key problems of a wavelet transform processor using surface acoustic wave devices. The solutions to these problems are achieved in this study. The more the number of electrode pairs for the interdigital transducer (IDT) is, the weaker the excited BAW is, so the BAW can be eliminated when the number of electrode pairs for IDT is large enough. The substrate material of a small electromechanical coupling coefficient (ECC) k2 and the low-impedance load of IDT can eliminate SER. When the output ends of the wavelet transform processors are respectively connected to the amplifiers, their insertion losses can be compensated. X-112oY LiTaO3 (small ECC k2) is used as a substrate material to fabricate the wavelet transform processor.

57.11.26    T. Kosaka, M. Sridharbabu, M. Yamamoto, N. Matsui, "Design Studies on Hybrid Excitation Motor for Main Spindle Drive in Machine Tools ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3807 - 3813 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid excitation motor for a main spindle drive in end- and face-milling tools, which is operated with a high speed of 50 000 r/min. The proposed motor has not only a permanent magnet but also the field coil which makes field-weakening and field-strengthening controls possible with taking no notice of the permanent magnet demagnetization. In addition, the sum of iron and copper losses of the motor at the end-milling operation is significantly reduced by the field-weakening control. The 3-D finite-element-method-based design studies on the proposed motor for the target application are demonstrated.

57.11.27    C.H. da Silva, R.R. Pereira, L.E.B. da Silva, G. Lambert-Torres, B.K. Bose, S.U. Ahn, "A Digital PLL Scheme for Three-Phase System Using Modified Synchronous Reference Frame ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3814 - 3821 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop (PLL) control strategy to synthesize unit vector using the modified synchronous reference frame (MSRF) instead of the traditional synchronous reference frame. The unit vector is used for vector rotation or inverse rotation in vector-controlled three-phase grid-connected converting equipment. The developed MSRF-PLL is fast in transient response compared to standard PLL technique. The performance is robust against disturbances on the grid, voltage wave with harmonic distortion, and noise. The proposed algorithm has been analyzed in detail and was fully implemented digitally using digital signal processor TMS320F2812. The experimental evaluation of the MSRF-PLL in a shunt active power filter confirms its fast dynamic response, noise immunity, and applicability.

57.11.28    V. Delli Colli, R. Di Stefano, F. Marignetti, "A System-on-Chip Sensorless Control for a Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3822 - 3829 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates a system-on-programmable-chip permanent-magnet synchronous-motor drive speed and position sensorless control. The proposed approach exploits two field-programmable gate-array capabilities, namely, the fast computation and the hosting of long finite-impulse response filters. Such filters allow an accurate reconstruction of the position signal by means of phase compensation and lead to an improved speed estimation based on the zero-crossing detection of the commutation signals. This paper presents the design flow and confirms the feasibility of the approach by means of hardware-in-the-loop simulations and experimental tests.

57.11.29    Jaechan Lim, Daehyoung Hong, "Cost Reference Particle Filtering Approach to High-Bandwidth Tilt Estimation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3830 - 3839 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, cost reference particle filter (CRPF) approach in estimating 1-D “tilt” of a vehicle attitude is proposed. CRPF has a couple of advantageous features compared to standard particle filtering; particularly, it does not require noise statistics in its application. H_ filter (HF) has common features as that of CRPF. The extended HF (EHF) is employed, which uses the approximate linearization of the nonlinear measurement function as the extended Kalman filter is extended. The performance of both approaches is investigated and compared in this paper. Low-cost “accelerometer” and “gyroscope” sensors are cooperatively employed instead of inclinometer in measuring the tilt. Simulation results show that CRPF outperforms EHF in estimating the tilt due to its robustness against the nonlinearity of the measurement equation, whereas EHF outperforms CRPF in estimating the tilt rate whose measurement equation is linear. Notably, an efficient CRPF outperforms EHF in tracking the tilt with just ten particles.

57.11.30    B. Veselic, B. Perunicic-Drazenovic, C. Milosavljevic, "Improved Discrete-Time Sliding-Mode Position Control Using Euler Velocity Estimation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3840 - 3847 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a design of digitally controlled positional systems with Euler velocity estimation within the framework of the discrete-time sliding mode (DSM). The effects of quantization and simple velocity estimation on DSM quality are analyzed. It is shown that the introduced and amplified quantization noise degrades sliding motion into the quasi-sliding mode and threatens to provoke chattering. Furthermore, a new DSM control algorithm is proposed, featuring a two-scale reaching law and a supplemental integral action. This algorithm avoids chattering and provides excellent performance. The developed DSM controller has been experimentally tested in an induction motor position control.

57.11.31    Yinsong Wang, Xinghuo Yu, "New Coordinated Control Design for Thermal-Power-Generation Units ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3848 - 3856 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A nonlinear model combining boiler-turbine-generator dynamic characteristics for a thermal-power-generation unit is first introduced. Based on the nonlinear model, a new coordinated control design is proposed using the backstepping method incorporating the coordinated passivation approach that considers the entire boiler-turbine-generator system as a whole. The control design consists of three subcontrollers, namely, a main steam valve controller, an excitation controller, and a fuel flow controller. It is shown that the proposed coordinated control design can ensure asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system and improve the electric power regulation performance. Simulation results based on a practical thermal-power-plant model are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control design.

57.11.32    S.R.M. Canovas, C.E. Cugnasca, "Implementation of a Control Loop Experiment in a Network-Based Control System With LonWorks Technology and IP Networks ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 3857 - 3867 , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Considering the increasing popularity of network-based control systems and the huge adoption of IP networks (such as the Internet), this paper studies the influence of network quality of service (QoS) parameters over quality of control parameters. An example of a control loop is implemented using two LonWorks networks (CEA-709.1) interconnected by an emulated IP network, in which important QoS parameters such as delay and delay jitter can be completely controlled. Mathematical definitions are provided according to the literature, and the results of the network-based control loop experiment are presented and discussed.

57.11.33    Seong-eun Yoo, Poh Kit Chong, Daeyoung Kim, Yoonmee Doh, Minh-Long Pham, Eunchang Choi, Jaedoo Huh, "Guaranteeing Real-Time Services for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks With IEEE 802.15.4 ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. , Nov 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Industrial applications of wireless sensor networks require timeliness in exchanging messages among nodes. Although IEEE 802.15.4 provides a superframe structure for real-time communication, a real-time message-scheduling algorithm is still required to schedule a large number of real-time messages to meet their timing constraints. We propose a distance-constrained real-time offline message-scheduling algorithm which generates the standard specific parameters such as beacon order, superframe order, and guaranteed-time-slot information and allocates each periodic real-time message to superframe slots for a given message set. The proposed scheduling algorithm is evaluated and analyzed extensively through simulations. In addition, a guaranteed time service is implemented in a typical industrial sensor node platform with a well-known IEEE 802.15.4-compliant transceiver CC2420 and ATmega128L to verify the feasibility of the guaranteed time service with the schedule generated by the proposed scheduling algorithm. Through experiments, we prove that the real system runs accurately according to the schedule calculated by the proposed algorithm.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 

Volume 57,  Number 12, Dec 2010           Access to the journal on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




57.12.1    S. Vazquez, S.M. Lukic, E. Galvan, L.G. Franquelo, J.M. Carrasco, "Energy Storage Systems for Transport and Grid Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3881 - 3895 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESSs) are enabling technologies for well-established and new applications such as power peak shaving, electric vehicles, integration of renewable energies, etc. This paper presents a review of ESSs for transport and grid applications, covering several aspects as the storage technology, the main applications, and the power converters used to operate some of the energy storage technologies. Special attention is given to the different applications, providing a deep description of the system and addressing the most suitable storage technology. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the subject and to give an updated reference to nonspecialist, academic, and engineers in the field of power electronics.

57.12.2    C. Abbey, Wei Li, Joó, G. s, "An Online Control Algorithm for Application of a Hybrid ESS to a Wind–Diesel System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3896 - 3904 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Energy storage systems (ESSs) can be applied to mitigate some of the negative impacts associated with a variable power generation source such as wind energy. The control of ESS power must be accomplished over numerous time frames to meet system objectives and respect ESS capacity constraints. This paper proposes a two-level ESS control structure for use with a wind-diesel system, which is suitable for online implementation. The control is developed to coordinate power delivered from the two ESS levels in order to minimize diesel fuel consumption and limit up/down rates of the diesel plant. Different control modes are evaluated by simulation, and a subset of the results are validated using a hardware-in-the-loop representation. The controller that combines all three functionalities-minimizing dump load, limiting intrahour diesel ramp rates, and maximizing ESS utilization-demonstrates superior performance as measured by defined metrics and is proven to work online.

57.12.3    He Zhang, F. Mollet, C. Saudemont, B. Robyns, "Experimental Validation of Energy Storage System Management Strategies for a Local DC Distribution System of More Electric Aircraft ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3905 - 3916 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The local DC power distribution system of More Electric Aircraft is one of the cores of the electric power transmission. Because the mechanical source (turbine engine) is unidirectional, the system is not totally reversible. Some storage and dissipation systems are necessary to store or/and dissipate the returned energy to maintain the dc bus voltage. Different power-management strategies are proposed and compared. The development of experimental test benches is necessary to validate these strategies. In this paper, we present a 3-kW test bench, emulating a unidirectional source that supplies a bidirectional load with the help of a hybrid system using supercapacitors and a dissipation system. The experimental validation of the power-management strategies is presented in this paper, too.

57.12.4    K.J. Dyke, N. Schofield, M. Barnes, "The Impact of Transport Electrification on Electrical Networks ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3917 - 3926 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to satisfy the growing expectation for energy-efficient ecofriendly transportation, a number of vehicle concepts have emerged, including the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and battery electric vehicle. Vehicle dynamics necessitate careful sizing of onboard energy storage systems. As the penetration of electric vehicles, in both the public and private sector increases, the requirement to facilitate and utilize them becomes paramount. A particular class of vehicle, the plug-in HEV also poses a greater challenge to existing terrestrial-based electrical supply systems. This paper establishes a series of well-defined electric vehicle loads that are subsequently used to analyze their electrical energy usage and storage in the context of more electrified road transportation. These requirements are then applied to a European Union residential load profile to evaluate the impact of increasing electrification of private road vehicles on local loads and the potential for vehicle and residential load integration in the U.K.

57.12.5    Fu-Sheng Pai, Jiun-Ming Lin, Shyh-Jier Huang, "Design of an Inverter Array for Distributed Generations With Flexible Capacity Operations ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3927 - 3934 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an inverter array structure for the distributed generation is proposed. In the method, the inverter array is organized by basic and extended units, in which basic units are grouped to evenly share the capacity of primary energy source while extended units are designated for online redundant services. Through this design, it is not only beneficial to improve the reliability of energy production but also owns high flexibility of capability extension. To validate the effectiveness of this method, both simulations and hardware realizations have been made and evaluated. Test results help support the proposed approach for grid-connected operations.

57.12.6    E. Sanchis, E. Maset, A. Ferreres, J.B. Ejea, V. Esteve, Jordá, J. n, Garrigó, A. s, "High-Power Battery Discharge Regulator for Space Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new solution for a battery discharge regulator for high-power space applications (power-per-module ≥ 5 kW) using a high-efficiency step-up converter. Basic requirements are efficiency that is higher than 97%, mass that is lower than 2.5 kg, no galvanic isolation necessary, and a high mean time between failures. By taking into account all these parameters, the selected topology has been two interleaved boost converters with passive soft switching. Small-signal analysis of these two interleaved boost converters is also presented.

57.12.7    A. Shahin, M. Hinaje, J.-P. Martin, S. Pierfederici, S. Rael, B. Davat, "High Voltage Ratio DC–DC Converter for Fuel-Cell Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3944 - 3955 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Employing fuel cell (FC) as main source requires increasing and regulating its output voltage. In this paper, nonisolated dc-dc converter with high voltage ratio is proposed to interface between the FC and high-voltage dc bus. To take into account the low-voltage-high-density characteristics of power sources, a cascaded structure composed of two subconverters in cascade has been chosen and allows obtaining high voltage ratio. The choice of each subconverter is based on source requirements and its performances. Consequently, in this paper, a converter consisting of two-interleaved boost converter is chosen as first subconverter and a three-level boost converter is chosen as second subconverter. Control of the whole system is realized by energy trajectory planning based on flatness properties of the system. The design of trajectories is explained and allows respecting the fuel-cell constraints as main power source. To ensure correct design of the energy trajectories, a noninteger power-law function is used to model the static characteristic of the FC. This law allows investigating the effect of humidity and temperature on the dynamics of the proposed system. The control of both current and voltage balance across the output serial capacitors of the three-level boost converter is ensured by nonlinear controllers based on a new nonlinear model.

57.12.8    P.A. Cassani, S.S. Williamson, "Design, Testing, and Validation of a Simplified Control Scheme for a Novel Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Cell Equalizer ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3956 - 3962 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to meet cost targets for hybrid electric (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV), and all-electric vehicles (EV), an improvement in the battery life cycle and safety is essential. Recently, lithium batteries, in the form of lithium-ion, lithium-polymer, or lithium iron phosphate have been explored. Despite research initiatives, lithium-based batteries have not yet been able to meet steep energy demands, long lifetime, and low cost of vehicular propulsion applications. One practical approach to improve performance is to use power electronics intensive cell voltage equalizers, in conjunction with on-board energy storage devices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a simplified control scheme, based on open-circuit voltage estimation, for a novel cell equalizer configuration, with the potential to fulfil expectations of the following: 1) low cost; 2) large currents; and 3) high efficiency. Issues, such as the limitations on maximum and minimum cell voltage, noise, and quantization errors, are explored. Finally, a comprehensive comparison between the theoretical test results and practical equalization test results is presented.

57.12.9    Yi-Hwa Liu, Yi-Feng Luo, "Search for an Optimal Rapid-Charging Pattern for Li-Ion Batteries Using the Taguchi Approach ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3963 - 3971 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries are playing important roles as energy storage solutions for portable devices, automotive electronics, and renewable energy systems. In order to maximize the performance of lithium-ion batteries, an advanced rapid-charging pattern is required. In this paper, a Taguchi-based algorithm is presented. Orthogonal arrays are implemented to determine the optimal rapid-charging pattern for multistage constant-current (CC)-charging method. Experimental results show that the obtained rapid-charging pattern is capable of charging lithium-ion batteries to 75% capacity in 40 min. The obtained pattern also provides 60% more cycle life than the conventional CC-constant-voltage method.

57.12.10    A. Hammar, P. Venet, R. Lallemand, G. Coquery, G. Rojat, "Study of Accelerated Aging of Supercapacitors for Transport Applications ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3972 - 3979 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One important part of the electrical transportation systems is the energy-storage system. This can be based, for example, on supercapacitors. In this paper, we propose to study its behavior under constraints similar to their uses in power and railway-traction systems. We define an adequate measurement protocol for accelerated aging which is applied to supercapacitors according to two accelerated factors: effective current and temperature. We model the supercapacitors for different states of health. The modeling gives a good estimation of the variation of electrical parameters of the supercapacitor at different states. We reveal general indicators of the supercapacitor's aging, and we discuss about its life cycle.

57.12.11    N. Rizoug, P. Bartholomeus, P. Le Moigne, "Modeling and Characterizing Supercapacitors Using an Online Method ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3980 - 3990 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, different modeling approaches representing the behavior of supercapacitors are presented. A hybrid modeling approach is developed to improve the characterization of classical supercapacitor models proposed in the literature. This approach uses various representations (frequency and temporal results) of the same cycling test to extract easily and with a good precision the parameters of the models. Then, it is applied for studying the ageing of this component, which mainly depends on the temperature and cycling process.

57.12.12    N. Bertrand, J. Sabatier, O. Briat, J. Vinassa, "Embedded Fractional Nonlinear Supercapacitor Model and Its Parametric Estimation Method ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 3991 - 4000 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with a supercapacitor (SC) onboard model and its online identification procedure for embedded applications. To take into account its nonlinear behavior, the strategy used in this paper consists, as the first step, in the application of the porous electrode theory to the SC and the approximation of the resulting model. A set of fractional linear systems which are represented by a differential equation involving fractional derivatives is then obtained. Each element of this set represents the behavior of the SC only around one operating voltage. A global nonlinear model is then deduced through an integration method. An online identification procedure has been developed for this nonlinear model. This time identification is based on the mean least square method. Its time behavior has been compared with that of an SC cell for a specific current profile with different levels.

57.12.13    Allè, A.-L. gre, A. Bouscayrol, P. Delarue, P. Barrade, E. Chattot, S. El-Fassi, "Energy Storage System With Supercapacitor for an Innovative Subway ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4001 - 4012 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new energy storage system (ESS) is developed for an innovative subway without supply rail between two stations. The ESS is composed of a supercapacitor bank and a braking resistor. An inversion-based control of the ESS is deduced from the Energetic Macroscopic Representation of the entire system. This control scheme requires a distribution criterion in order to allow the energy to be shared between the supercapacitors and the braking resistor. Different cases are evaluated via a Hardware-In-the-Loop simulation using a reduced-power ESS. The suggested control enables the energy recovery to be maximal and secure the supercapacitor in real time for different track configurations.

57.12.14    P. Garcia, L.M. Fernandez, C.A. Garcia, F. Jurado, "Energy Management System of Fuel-Cell-Battery Hybrid Tramway ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4013 - 4023 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the configuration, modeling, and control of a fuel cell (FC)-battery-powered hybrid system for the Metro Centro tramway in Seville, Spain. The proposed hybrid system presents a polymer electrolyte membrane FC as the primary energy source and a nickel-metal hydride cell battery as the secondary energy source, which supplements the output of the FC during tramway acceleration or whenever else needed and cruise and for energy recovery during braking. The tramway presents a traction system which is composed of four traction induction motor drives. The hybrid system also supplies the power for the auxiliary services. The power conditioning system is composed of two converters: 1) a boost-type unidirectional dc/dc converter for the FC and 2) a boost-type bidirectional dc/dc converter for the battery. The energy management system (EMS) of the hybrid tramway determines the reference signals for the electric motor drives, FC, and power converters in order to regulate accurately the power from the two electrical sources. EMS also determines the reference signal for energy dissipation in braking chopper when required during regenerative braking. In this paper, the proposed hybrid system is evaluated for the real driving cycle of the tramway. The results demonstrate the hybrid system capability to meet appropriate driving cycle.

57.12.15    T. Azib, O. Bethoux, G. Remy, C. Marchand, E. Berthelot, "An Innovative Control Strategy of a Single Converter for Hybrid Fuel Cell/Supercapacitor Power Source ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4024 - 4031 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an innovative control strategy for hybrid power sources dedicated to automotive applications is detailed. First, an analysis of classical hybrid architectures using fuel cell (FC)/supercapacitors is presented. Then, an analysis of load requirements for automotive applications is proposed. A new control strategy of a single converter, based on a cascaded control loop with a decoupling strategy in the frequency domain, is fully explained. Finally, experimental results on a Ballard proton exchange membrane FC are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

57.12.16    R.K. Gupta, K.K. Mohapatra, A. Somani, N. Mohan, "Direct-Matrix-Converter-Based Drive for a Three-Phase Open-End-Winding AC Machine With Advanced Features ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4032 - 4042 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes how matrix converters (MCs), one at each side of a three-phase open-end-winding ac machine, achieve the following features simultaneously: 1) machine phase voltage up to 1.5 times the input phase voltage in the linear modulation mode, therefore extending the rated torque operation region to 150% of the rated speed of the machine; 2) peak voltage stress across the slot insulation which is limited to the peak of input phase voltage, i.e., a factor of at least √3 lower as compared to the conventional back-to-back converter; 3) controllable grid power factor to be leading, lagging, or unity; and 4) elimination of the instantaneous common-mode voltage at the machine terminals, therefore eliminating the bearing current due to switching common-mode voltage and reduction in the conducted electromagnetic interference. To simultaneously achieve the aforementioned capabilities, a space vector pulsewidth modulation technique is described in which the MCs are modulated using only rotating space vectors. A hardware prototype of the drive system is built. Experimental results from this hardware prototype verify the operation and claims of the drive system.

57.12.17    T.A. Jankowski, F.C. Prenger, D.D. Hill, S.R. O'Bryan, K.K. Sheth, E.B. Brookbank, D.F.A. Hunt, "Development and Validation of a Thermal Model for Electric Induction Motors ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A transient lumped-parameter thermal model of an induction motor is developed. The energy balances and the expressions for the appropriate node couplings representing conduction and convection heat transfer between nodes, as well as the expressions for the heat capacity of each node, are presented. We also present expressions used in a Second Law analysis to calculate the entropy generation and exergy destruction rates at each node. An overall Second Law efficiency for heat transfer through the motor is then defined. The model is validated by comparing calculated temperatures with experimental data for a motor driving an electric submersible pump, showing that the lumped-parameter approximation is sufficient to accurately calculate temperature distributions in the motor and to capture temperature changes during warm-up and cooldown. Finally, the Second Law analysis is used to determine which components in the motor are contributing most to the inefficiency of the heat transfer process, providing a diagnostic tool for identification of areas in the motor where potential heat transfer enhancements would be most beneficial.

57.12.18    Chunhua Liu, K.T. Chau, J.Z. Jiang, "A Permanent-Magnet Hybrid Brushless Integrated Starter–Generator for Hybrid Electric Vehicles ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4055 - 4064 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new permanent-magnet (PM) hybrid brushless (PMHB) machine is proposed and implemented as the integrated starter-generator (ISG) for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It has the advantages of higher torque density than other PMHB machines and much wider speed range than other PM brushless machines. The key is to tune its dc-field winding current in such a way that three major modes of ISG system operation for HEVs, namely, engine cranking, battery charging, and torque boosting, can be achieved effectively. The finite-element method is employed to simulate its steady-state and dynamic performances. Finally, a 2-kW prototype is constructed and tested to experimentally verify the simulation results and the validity of the proposed ISG system.

57.12.19    R. Raute, C. Caruana, C.S. Staines, J. Cilia, M. Sumner, G.M. Asher, "Analysis and Compensation of Inverter Nonlinearity Effect on a Sensorless PMSM Drive at Very Low and Zero Speed Operation ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4065 - 4074 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It has been well established in the literature that inverter nonlinearity effects afflict saliency-based sensorless drives. The inverter nonlinearity leads to the generation of signals that corrupt the useful position information. The resulting effect differs depending on the injection approach utilized in the drive. Various compensation techniques to overcome this effect have been published in the literature. This paper is concerned with the zero-vector current-derivative technique. The effect of the varying ON-state resistance of the inverter power devices on the position signal is investigated in detail. Knowledge of the source of the corrupting signals facilitates compensation and determines its applicability. Two approaches for inverter nonlinearity compensation are compared. The first approach utilizes a lookup table from offline-processed data, while the second one is a simpler approach based on the current-dependent resistance characteristic of the inverter switching devices. Experimental performance under sensorless condition is shown for both approaches.

57.12.20    I.S. de Freitas, C.B. Jacobina, E.R.C. da Silva, T.M. Oliveira, "Single-Phase AC–DC–AC Three-Level Three-Leg Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4075 - 4084 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a three-level three-leg ac-dc-ac converter for single-phase applications is investigated. The operating principles and control strategies for the topology are presented. It is shown that dc-link voltage balancing and its reduction are important objectives in the system design. The proposed pulsewidth modulation (PWM) strategy permits the dc-link capacitor voltage balance and also its reduction. The three-level converter is compared to the two-level converter in terms of rms switch currents, harmonic distortion, losses, and costs. Experimental and simulation results are presented to validate the theoretical studies.

57.12.21    Sungkeun Lim, Jiwei Fan, A.Q. Huang, "Transient-Voltage-Clamp Circuit Design Based on Constant Load Line Impedance for Voltage Regulator Module ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4085 - 4094 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A transient-voltage-clamp (TVC) circuit acts as a replacement of bulk capacitors, which is required for voltage regulator (VR) module (VRM) to clamp output voltage spikes. With the TVC circuit, VRM size is greatly reduced with similar transient performance. This paper presents a new TVC circuit. This TVC circuit is designed based on the constant load line impedance which is recently given by Intel's VRM11.0. The TVC circuit works in parallel with VR decoupling capacitors to achieve faster voltage regulation. The impedances of the VR, output capacitors, and the proposed TVC circuit are analyzed. The TVC circuit design procedure is described, and the transient performance and power consumption are discussed. The theoretical analysis is verified by simulation results. Moreover, the proposed TVC circuit is fabricated with a 0.6-μm CMOS process, and experimental results verify the simulation results and theoretical analysis.

57.12.22    Shu-Kong Ki, D.D.-C. Lu, "Implementation of an Efficient Transformerless Single-Stage Single-Switch AC/DC Converter ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4095 - 4105 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A transformerless single-stage single-switch ac/dc converter is presented in this paper. The converter allows a portion of the input power to be processed once only, resulting in enhanced conversion efficiency. Additionally, due to the absence of a transformer, the size and manufacturing cost of the converter can be reduced. The intermediate bus voltage is well kept below 400 V while maintaining high power factor even at light load and high line-input conditions. Extended experimental results on a 100-W hardware prototype for universal input-voltage range (90-270 Vrms) are given to confirm the theoretical analysis and performance of the proposed converter.

57.12.23    P. Channegowda, V. John, "Filter Optimization for Grid Interactive Voltage Source Inverters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4106 - 4114 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Higher order LCL filters are essential in meeting the interconnection standard requirement for grid-connected voltage source converters. LCL filters offer better harmonic attenuation and better efficiency at a smaller size when compared to the traditional L filters. The focus of this paper is to analyze the LCL filter design procedure from the point of view of power loss and efficiency. The IEEE 1547-2008 specifications for high-frequency current ripple are used as a major constraint early in the design to ensure that all subsequent optimizations are still compliant with the standards. Power loss in each individual filter component is calculated on a per-phase basis. The total inductance per unit of the LCL filter is varied, and LCL parameter values which give the highest efficiency while simultaneously meeting the stringent standard requirements are identified. The power loss and harmonic output spectrum of the grid-connected LCL filter is experimentally verified, and measurements confirm the predicted trends.

57.12.24    C. Cecati, F. Ciancetta, P. Siano, "A Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems With Fuzzy Logic Control ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4115 - 4125 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Converters for photovoltaic (PV) systems usually consist of two stages: a dc/dc booster and a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter. This cascade of converters presents efficiency issues, interactions between its stages, and problems with the maximum power point tracking. Therefore, only part of the produced electrical energy is utilized. In this paper, the authors propose a single-phase H-bridge multilevel converter for PV systems governed by a new integrated fuzzy logic controller (FLC)/modulator. The novelties of the proposed system are the use of a fully FLC (not requiring any optimal PWM switching-angle generator and proportional-integral controller) and the use of an H-bridge power-sharing algorithm. Most of the required signal processing is performed by a mixed-mode field-programmable gate array, resulting in a fully integrated System-on-Chip controller. The general architecture of the system and its main performance in a large spectrum of practical situations are presented and discussed. The proposed system offers improved performance over two-level inverters, particularly at low-medium power.

57.12.25    Yaow-Ming Chen, Yung-Chu Chen, Tsai-Fu Wu, "Feedforward Delta Modulation for Power Converters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4126 - 4136 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to propose a feedforward delta modulation (FDM) control for switching-mode power converters. The operation principle and mathematical derivation for both the conventional delta modulation (CDM) and the FDM are presented. The proposed FDM uses the control signal to generate the variable integrating slope to obtain better control ability. By comparing to the CDM, the proposed FDM can improve the performance of the dc-ac inverter. The advantages include the following features: 1) wider switching frequency range with smaller electromagnetic interference; 2) larger fundamental component with less harmonics; 3) higher duty-ratio linearity; and 4) elimination of asymmetrical operation. In addition, the proposed FDM can be applied to the dc-dc converter, which cannot be done by using the CDM. It can achieve the fast transient response with voltage-mode control. The FDM controller design strategy for the dc-dc converter is given in this paper, followed by a design example. Finally, experimental results are shown to verify the performance of the proposed FDM for both the dc-dc inverter and the dc-dc converter.

57.12.26    P.K.W. Abeygunawardhana, T. Murakami, "Vibration Suppression of Two-Wheel Mobile Manipulator Using Resonance-Ratio-Control-Based Null-Space Control ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4137 - 4146 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A two-wheel mobile manipulator has the potential to become a multiskilled robot in the field of robotics, and it is already implemented by using inverted pendulum control. The center of gravity (COG) position is controlled to achieve the balancing of the robot. Since the vibrations of manipulator arms affect the COG positions of the inverted pendulum, balancing of the robot deteriorates. Therefore, the vibration control of manipulator arms of the two-wheel mobile manipulator is proposed in this paper. The virtual double-inverted pendulum is modeled using a “4-DOF” manipulator, and it is controlled in work space and null space. Resonance ratio control is utilized for vibration-suppression control. The resonance ratio of a system can be determined arbitrarily by the feedback of reaction torque, and reaction torque observers are implemented for each and every manipulator motor. The feedback signal for vibration suppression is introduced to the null space of the manipulator. Simulations and experiments were carried out to check the validity of the proposed method, and results prove the effectiveness of the proposed vibration controller.

57.12.27    R. H. Abiyev, O. Kaynak, "Type 2 Fuzzy Neural Structure for Identification and Control of Time-Varying Plants ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4147 - 4159 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In industry, most dynamical plants are characterized by unpredictable and hard-to-formulate factors, uncertainty, and fuzziness of information, and as a result, deterministic models usually prove to be insufficient to adequately describe the process. In such situations, the use of fuzzy approaches becomes a viable alternative. However, the systems constructed on the base of type 1 fuzzy systems cannot directly handle the uncertainties associated with information or data in the knowledge base of the process. One possible way to alleviate the problem is to resort to the use of type 2 fuzzy systems. In this paper, the structure of a type 2 Takagi–Sugeno–Kang fuzzy neural system is presented, and its parameter update rule is derived based on fuzzy clustering and gradient learning algorithm. Its performance for identification and control of time-varying as well as some time-invariant plants is evaluated and compared with other approaches seen in the literature. It is seen that the proposed structure is a potential candidate for identification and control purposes of uncertain plants, with the uncertainties being handled adequately by type 2 fuzzy sets.

57.12.28    M.A.S.K. Khan, M.A. Rahman, "Implementation of a Wavelet-Based MRPID Controller for Benchmark Thermal System ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4160 - 4169 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a comparative analysis of the intelligent controllers for temperature control of a benchmark thermal system. The performances of the proposed wavelet-based multiresolution proportional-integral derivative (PID) (MRPID) controller, which can also be stated as a multiresolution wavelet controller, are compared with the conventional PID controller and the adaptive neural-network (NN) controller. In the proposed MRPID temperature controller, the temperature error of actual and command temperatures of a thermal system is decomposed into different frequency components at various scales of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The wavelet-transformed coefficients of temperature error at different scales of the DWT are scaled by their respective gains and then are added together to generate the control signal for the thermal system. The performances of these intelligent controllers are investigated in both simulation and experiments for different operating conditions of the thermal system. The performances of the wavelet-based MRPID controller are found superior to the conventional PID and adaptive NN controllers for temperature control of the thermal systems.

57.12.29    R. D'hulst, T. Sterken, R. Puers, G. Deconinck, J. Driesen, "Power Processing Circuits for Piezoelectric Vibration-Based Energy Harvesters ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4170 - 4177 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The behavior of a piezoelectric vibration-driven energy harvester with different power processing circuits is evaluated. Two load types are considered: a resistive load and an ac-dc rectifier load. An optimal resistive and optimal dc-voltage load for the harvester is analytically calculated. The difference between the optimal output power flow from the harvester to both load circuits depends on the coupling coefficient of the harvester. Two power processing circuits are designed and built, the first emulating a resistive input impedance and the second with a constant input voltage. It is shown that, in order to design an optimal harvesting system, the combination of both the ability of the circuit to harvest the optimal harvester power and the processing circuit efficiency needs to be considered and optimized. Simulations and experimental validation using a custom-made piezoelectric harvester show that the efficiency of the overall system is 64% with a buck converter as a power processing circuit, whereas an efficiency of only 40% is reached using a resistor-emulating approach.

57.12.30    M. Charkhgard, M. Farrokhi, "State-of-Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Neural Networks and EKF ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4178 - 4187 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a method for modeling and estimation of the state of charge (SOC) of lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries using neural networks (NNs) and the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The NN is trained offline using the data collected from the battery-charging process. This network finds the model needed in the state-space equations of the EKF, where the state variables are the battery terminal voltage at the previous sample and the SOC at the present sample. Furthermore, the covariance matrix for the process noise in the EKF is estimated adaptively. The proposed method is implemented on a Li-Ion battery to estimate online the actual SOC of the battery. Experimental results show a good estimation of the SOC and fast convergence of the EKF state variables.

57.12.31    J. Jamaludin, N.A. Rahim, Wooi Ping Hew, "An Elevator Group Control System With a Self-Tuning Fuzzy Logic Group Controller ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4188 - 4198 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new group controller's adaptation mechanism with fuzzy logic for elevator group control system (EGCS) applications. Instead of depending heavily on the predicted passenger traffic pattern for adaptation, the fuzzy logic group controller (FLGC) adjusts itself to suit the system's environment through a self-tuning scheme. The average-waiting-time data that reflect the measured performance results of the EGCS are exploited to tune the membership functions of the input parameters and to modify the fuzzy rule sets employed by the FLGC, thus leading to better controller's performance and improved EGCS service quality. Computer simulation shows satisfactory improvements made in passenger waiting time and passenger riding time as compared to the performance of the conventional group controllers in three traffic peaks. The hardware implementation of the self-tuning FLGC on a TMS320C6416T digital signal processor further demonstrates its practicality.

57.12.32    Mariñ, P. o, F. Poza, S. Otero, Domí, M.A. nguez, "Reconfigurable Industrial Sensors for Remote Condition Monitoring and Modeling ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4199 - 4208 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The objective of this paper is the development of a software architecture to ease access and management of data for applications with variable and configurable data sources. The purpose of this architecture is to build a configurable and flexible system where acquisition tasks are decoupled from data-access tasks. To accomplish this, the authors have implemented what they have called virtual acquisition cards , which provide a reconfigurable and dynamic view during runtime of the data required by the user applications. These data can be used by different kind of applications from diverse knowledge areas (meteorological, industrial, medical, and so on) for the analysis of behavioral models or condition monitoring. This paper introduces the architecture of the system proposed with its involved parts. Then, it details the most important parts of the system and how they work. Next, several real working applications, using the proposed architecture, are shown. A discussion about other existing commercial systems is made, and finally, future works and conclusions are presented.

57.12.33    GuoYing Gu, LiMin Zhu, ZhenHua Xiong, Han Ding, "Design of a Distributed Multiaxis Motion Control System Using the IEEE-1394 Bus ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4209 - 4218 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a distributed multiaxis motion control system based on the IEEE-1394 bus. In the system design, the Unified Modeling Language is employed to illustrate interactions of the objects required in the system. The developed system consists of a set of smart distributed control nodes connected one by one through the IEEE-1394 bus. Each smart node contains four modules, i.e., an IEEE-1394 interface module, a digital signal processor module, a field-programmable gate array module, and a digital-to-analog converter module. It accomplishes its own control task and coordinates with the others through information exchanges, sampling sensor signals, and controlling actuators. A scheduled communication protocol is proposed according to the criteria in terms of bounded time delay and guaranteed transmission. Time delays arising from data processing and message transmission are analyzed. A platform is built, and experiments are conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the developed distributed control system for real-time communication and synchronous tracking control, which are required for multiaxis applications. The results verify the feasible application of the IEEE-1394 bus to distributed motion control.

57.12.34    Jiming Chen, Xianghui Cao, Peng Cheng, Yang Xiao, Youxian Sun, "Distributed Collaborative Control for Industrial Automation With Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4219 - 4230 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) bring many benefits to industrial automation systems. When a control system is integrated by a WSAN, and particularly if the network scale is large, distributed communication and control methods are quite necessary. However, unreliable wireless and multihop communications among sensors and actuators cause challenges in designing such systems. This paper proposes and evaluates a new distributed estimation and collaborative control scheme for industrial control systems with WSANs. Extensive results show that the proposed method effectively achieves control objectives and maintains robust against inaccurate system parameters. We also discuss how to dynamically extend the scale of a WSAN with only local adjustments of sensors and actuators.

57.12.35    S. Rahmani, N. Mendalek, K. Al-Haddad, "Correction to “Experimental Design of a Nonlinear Control Technique for Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filter” ," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 4231 , Dec 2010.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the above titled paper (ibid., vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3364-3375, Oct. 10), the lower part of Fig. 4 contained incorrect references to equations in the paper. The correct references are provided here.