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1    "2002 28th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Seciety," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 0_1- xlii, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

2    I. Deslauriers, N. Avdiu, Boon-Teck Ooi, "Naturally sampled triangle carrier PWM bandwidth limit and output spectrum," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 1- 5 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper first presents a general theory predicting harmonic components in naturally sampled pulse width modulation (PWM) output signals, so that any input signal with a Fourier series representation may be handled. This theory provides a basis for the mathematical analysis of PWM systems, such as converters transmitting a main signal and a broadband of feedback or feedforward signals. Ultimately, the results of this theory are applied to the concrete problem of determining reasonable conditions on the carrier frequency such that an input consisting of a main signal and a bandwidth of small feedback or feedforward signals may be recovered through active filtering or similar methods, and conditions similar to the Nyquist theorem are derived. This research has been based on the premise that the results obtained will provide valuable insight into the general behaviour of PWM systems, and provide a supporting theory for concrete systems utilizing signals of this kind, such as PWM converters whose purpose is to ensure a dominant sinusoidal waveform along with a broadband frequency channel for small feedback signals.

3    L. Terron, F. Barrero, J.A. Sanchez, A. de la Torre, M. Perales, L.G. Franquelo, M. Barranco, "Incremental SVM of controlled full-bridge rectifiers to allow IEC 61000-3-2 enforcement in power grid connection of modern elevator systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 6- 11 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is the study of different power converters and control techniques to allow power grid connection of modern vertical operation systems, verifying IEC 61000-3-2. We focus on the harmonic current analysis produced by the industrial standard AC/DC/3-phase AC machines system. Different AC/DC converters and control techniques have been compared to determine the one that minimizes low frequency harmonic current production. An incremental space vector modulator to regulate power grid current flow in electrical reference frame with a full-bridge controlled rectifier has been proven as the best power grid connection system. A general purpose test rig has been designed to evaluate the different power grid interface policies. Experimental results have been provided to show the effectiveness of the method.

4    F. Botteron, R.F. de Camargo, H.P.H.A. Grundling, J.R. Pinheiro, H.L. Hey, "On the space vector modulation and limiting algorithms for three-phase four-leg voltage source inverter in abc coordinates," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 12- 17 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes two limiting algorithms for three-phase four-leg voltage source inverters to constrain the command vector inside the dodecahedron defined by the boundaries of the inverter linear operating range in abc coordinates. The first algorithm uses an inscribed ellipsoid on the dodecahedron, and the second one is based on the dodecahedron boundary planes. A detailed description, with the key points required for a digital implementation of space vector and limiting algorithms, is given. In addition, the output voltages controlled by means of MIMO controller in abc coordinates. This controller is designed using optimal discrete linear quadratic regulator technique, which ensures stability for the system. In order to provide smooth transitions among the different modes of operation, nonlinear MIMO anti-windup algorithm is proposed to dynamically update the controller variables. Finally, simulation and experimental results on a 15 kVA PWM inverter controlled by a DSP TMS320F241 are presented to validate the proposed algorithm and demonstrate the performance of the overall system.

5    M. Lamich, J. Balcells, D. Gonzalez, "New method for obtaining SV-PWM patterns following an arbitrary reference," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 18- 22 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new method for the generation of SV-PWM patterns (space vector pulse width modulation) for three phase inverters, following an arbitrary reference. Instead of using the classical /spl alpha//spl beta/ reference axis, the method is based on a vector split up in two nonorthogonal axes, forming a 60/spl deg/ angle and coinciding with the fundamental state vectors of inverter. The method can be implemented by the use of a specific hardware circuit based on a PLD plus some analog circuitry (analog adders and comparators), or it can be used in fully digital controllers, based on digital processing techniques. The main advantage in both cases is the very fast response and the extremely low processor resources employed due to the simplification of transform matrix to convert the three phase system into a two component state vector. Such features allow the use of the method to obtain SV-PWM to generate arbitrary power waveforms with an extended bandwidth. The method is especially suitable for parallel active filter controllers. Simulated and experimental results obtained with a specific hardware circuit are presented in order to show the features of the method in high frequency applications.

6    H. Pinheiro, F. Botteron, C. Rech, L. Schuch, R.F. Camargo, H.L. Hey, H.A. Grundling, J.R. Pinheiro, "Space vector modulation for voltage-source inverters: a unified approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 23- 29 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a unified approach of the space vector modulation for voltage-source inverters. To demonstrate the proposed unified approach, five fundamental inverters topologies are analyzed: single-phase full-bridge, three-phase three-wire, three-phase four-wire, three-phase four-leg and three-phase three-level inverters. Switching vectors, separation and boundary planes in the inverter output space as well as decomposition matrices and possible switching sequences are derived for each one of these inverters. Experimental results are shown to validate the proposed unified approach.

7    K. Matsui, I. Yamamoto, T. Kishi, M. Hasegawa, H. Mori, F. Ueda, "A comparison of various buck-boost converters and their application to PFC," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 30- 36 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The conventional boost converters are generally used for rectifier circuits with power factor correction, and as a result the output voltage becomes limited. To expand the controlled voltage range, buck-boost or Cuk converter types should be utilized. This paper presents a circuit configuration with power factor correction by a third type of buck boost converter, termed a 'CSC, canonical switching cell'. Single-phase power factor correction using a buck boost converter can control the output voltage over a wide range, because it has the ability to step-up and step-down the output voltage. Firstly, this paper compares the mechanisms of the power transmission and the characteristics based on total stored energy. Secondly, CSC converter is applied to the single-phase power factor correction. It is presented that this converter is suitable for power factor correction.

8    P.L. Miribel-Catala, M. Puig-Vidal, J. Samitier i Marti, P. Goyhenetche, Xuan-Quan Nguyen, "An integrated digital PFM DC-DC boost converter for a power management application: a RGB backlight LED system driver," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 37- 42 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper is presented a system that has been designed in the frame of a co-operation between the ON Semiconductor Microelectronics Company, at its Toulouse (France) Design Centre and the Electronics Department of the University of Barcelona (SIC Group). The system that has been designed is a high efficiency boost converter to supply and drive multicolour LEDs (light emitting diodes). The paper presents the switching power DC/DC boost converter performances, based on a current peak PFM (pulse frequency modulation) system, with the objective to design this system for in low-voltage portable applications. The DC/DC converter is able to source an output current up to 300 mA, and it presents good performances for very low load conditions (100 /spl mu/A), for an input battery of 3.6 V (nominal value). It needs an external inductor of 10 /spl mu/H. From an external micro-controller the output voltage value can be programmed to either two values of 4 V or 5 V. LED's brightness is controlled by a digital pulse width modulation (PWM) procedure.

9    C.Y. Inaba, Y. Konishi, H. Iyomori, M. Nakaoka, "Performance evaluations of coupled inductor-assisted high frequency PWM chopper type DC-DC converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 43- 48 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an advanced two quadrant PWM chopper type DC-DC power converter with low switch peak voltage stress for parallel processing type small scale UPS applications and utility interactive new energy interface distributed power supplies is presented. In addition, a coupled inductor-assisted soft switching PWM boost chopper type DC-DC converter is also proposed. These two circuit topologies are evaluated and compared on the basis of simulation and experimental results by a 1 kW, 50 kHz breadboard setup. Moreover, some modified circuit topologies of the soft switching boost chopper with coupled inductors are also discussed in this paper.

10    M.J. Prieto, J. Diaz, J.A. Martin, F.F. Linera, F. Nuno, "Design guidelines for DC/DC converter using piezoelectric transformer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 49- 54 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Piezoelectric transformers (PTs) have lately been looked upon as an attractive solution to reduce size and weight in AC/DC converters. This paper presents a topology that includes such a device while minimizing the number of additional components required for an adequate performance. An 8 Watt AC/DC adapter (110 V/sub AC/, 12 V/sub DC/) operating at frequencies around 500 kHz is obtained using this topology.

11    G. Papafotiou, N. Margaris, "H/sub /spl infin// discrete time control for the buck DC-DC converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 55- 61 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a discrete time approach for the control of the buck converter is presented. This approach is based on the use of sample and hold circuits and of an analog circuit error amplifier. The error amplifier is designed by application of the H/sub /spl infin// norm to the system's complementary sensitivity function, suggesting an alternative method to deal with robust control design.

12    G. Bossio, C. De Angelo, G. Garcia, J. Solsona, M. Ines Valla, "A 2D-model of the induction motor: an extension of the modified winding function approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 62- 67 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a method to calculate the inductances of an induction machine with axial nonuniformity is presented. The analyzed axial nonuniformities are skew and rotor eccentricities. The inductance calculation is based on an extension of the modified winding function approach. Theoretical fundaments of this extension are presented. The coupled magnetic circuits approach has been used for modeling the induction machine. Experimental results that validate the proposal are also presented.

13    J. Llaquet, D. Gonzalez, E. Aldabas, L. Romeral, "Improvements in high frequency modelling of induction motors for diagnostics and EMI prediction," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 68- 71 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper shows that it is possible to apply in on-line conditions a proposed procedure to diagnosis induction motors or predict the EMI due to them. This procedure is based in high frequency measurements to obtain a high frequency model whose parameters are linked with some characteristics of the motors (ball bearing performance and others). The authors have been exploring the use of measurements of common mode impedance up to 30 MHz to adjust a Z/sub CM/ expression and identify the parameters of that model. Two different measuring methods have been described in former papers and the obtained results showed the reliability of that procedure. In this paper, measurements of common mode impedance obtained by using a third method (simply, by using standard instrumentation: an impedance analyzer working in a range of only up to 1 MHz) are presented. Firstly, these results confirm the former ones. Secondly, motor speed influence is analyzed. Being the procedure for adjusting Z/sub CM/ based on knowing resonance maximum frequencies, measurements of frequency of a particular resonance maximum for different motor speeds have been made. Results show that motor speed does not affect the frequency of this resonance maximum in the considered range of speed. Thirdly, on-line measurements of high frequency data show a strong impact of EMI from the environment. This paper shows how this noise can be filtered in an efficient way. In conclusion this paper shows that the proposed procedure to diagnose the induction motor or predict the EMI due to that load could be applied in on-line conditions.

14    C.C.M. Cunha, F.B.R. Soares, P.S. Oliveira, B.J.C. Filho, "A new method to simulate induction machines with rotor asymmetries," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 72- 76 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The need for detection of rotor faults at an earlier stage, so that maintenance can be planned ahead, has pushed the development of monitoring methods with increasing sensitivity and noise immunity. An important issue in such effort is the modelling of the induction machine including rotor bar and end-ring faults, with a minimum of computational complexity. This paper introduces a new and simpler approach for the modelling and computer simulation of induction machines with rotor asymmetries. This approach is based on the well known dq transient model of the symmetrical machine, with rotor asymmetries introduced through a linear transformation of the extended rotor current vector. Simulation and practical results previously presented in the literature are reproduced to support the proposed approach.

15    M. Hinkkanen, "Analysis and design of full-order flux observers for sensorless induction motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 77- 82 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the flux estimation for sensorless induction motor drives. The linearized model of the speed-adaptive full-order flux observer is applied to help choosing the observer gain and the speed-adaptation gains. It is shown that the linearized model reveals potential instability problems that are difficult to find by other means. An observer gain and a method to vary the speed-adaptation gains in the field-weakening region are proposed. Experimental results show stable operation in a very wide speed range.

16    M. Hasegawa, K. Matsui, "Robust adaptive full-order observer design with novel adaptive scheme for speed sensorless vector controlled induction motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 83- 88 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel design of a robust adaptive full-order observer for sensorless vector controlled induction motors. The adaptive full-order observer is known to become unstable in a major part of the low speed and regenerating region and this prevents the sensorless vector controller from operating an induction motor successfully. In this paper, the error system of the adaptive full-order observer is considered again, a novel adaptive scheme for the speed identification is proposed in order to stabilize an adaptive full-order observer. Moreover, the observer gain design is also proposed for robust stability improvement against the speed identification error (delay) and the stator resistance variation. Finally, several simulations verify feasibility of the proposed strategy.

17    T. Noguchi, H. Kodachi, I. Saito, "High-speed current vector control of PWM inverter minimizing current error at every sampling point," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 89- 94 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel digital current control technique of a PWM inverter. The key feature of this method is minimization of a current error vector norm at every sampling point with no predetermined current error tolerance, such as a spatial circular area or hysteresis bands. In order to make the current vector trajectory until the next sampling point as close as possible to a predicted current command vector, one of the six nonzero-voltage vectors is appropriately selected in the inverter A zero-voltage vector is inserted once a sampling period to adjust the current vector velocity and to move the current vector to the closest position to the predicted current command vector. Although manipulating variables in the current loop during the sampling period are limited by the discrete voltage vectors as described above, the proposed method achieves a dead-beat response in a two-dimensional space without the predetermined current error tolerance. Also, on-line identification of a load inductance is introduced to the system to overcome degradation of the response caused by the parameter mismatch. Resultant data obtained from computer simulations and experiments prove the feasibility of the proposed technique.

18    K. Miyashita, H. Hara, S. Shimogata, T. Yokoyama, "Multirate deadbeat control for PWM inverters using FPGA based hardware controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 95- 100 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach for real time digital feedback control of PWM inverter is proposed, in which a deadbeat control combined with the multirate sampling method is realized using FGPA (field programmable gate array) based hardware controller. Deadbeat control ensures the state variables matches at each sampling instants for every sampling period. Also it is reported that the multirate sampling method improve the controllability when the nominal system is sensitive to the parameter variations. The capacity of the output LC filter component occupies ineligible area for the cost performance of the inverter system for the UPS applications. If the capacity of the output LC filter is too small, the output voltage waveforms tends to oscillate between the sampling period when the deadbeat control is applied to the inverter system. In this paper, a novel approach to solve such phenomenon is proposed, which is the deadbeat control method combined with the multirate sampling method as capacitor current compensation, using FPGA based hardware controller. Adopting the multirate sampling method, the sampling frequency of the inverter becomes half of the carrier frequency, and it is suitable to implement for higher carrier frequency. Also the FPGA based control hardware enables to realize almost ideal real time feedback controller because of its capability to realize very fast calculation of the control method within a few /spl mu/s. Design concept and hardware implementation of the FPGA based hardware controller for the inverter is presented. From the view point of UPS applications, the advantages and the disadvantages are discussed though simulations and experiments, the superiority of the proposed control law is verified.

19    J. Miret, J.L.G. de Vicuna, J.M. Guerrero, J. Matas, M. Castilla, "Discrete nonlinear control of a PWM inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 101- 104 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a discrete nonlinear control scheme for PWM inverters. Based on the dynamic model of the PWM inverter a control algorithm is deduced by imposing a desired linear dynamics in the output voltage. The proposed scheme has shown its robustness on low voltage distortion, excellent voltage regulation and it is insensitive to load and input voltage variations. A simple and fast digital algorithm, that could be implemented on a low-cost DSP, carries out the discrete control.

20    Li Jian, Kang Yong, Chen Jian, "A hybrid fuzzy-repetitive control scheme for single-phase CVCF inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 105- 110 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a hybrid fuzzy-repetitive control scheme for single-phase CVCF inverters is presented. The performance of CVCF inverters is evaluated in terms of output voltage waveform distortion with linear or nonlinear loads and transient response due to sudden changes in the load. The fuzzy PD controller is used to improve transient performance whenever the system exhibits an oscillatory or overshoot behavior. It preserves the simple linear structure of the conventional PD controller yet enhances its self-tuning control capability. However, fuzzy PD controller cannot provide good small-signal response. So repetitive control is applied to generate high-quality sinusoidal output voltage in steady state. Repetitive control can be regarded as a simple learning control because the control input is calculated using the information of the error signal in the preceding periods. The repetitive controller is synthesizing to minimize low-order harmonic distortion. Thus, the fuzzy PD controller and repetitive controller can be combined to take advantage of their positive attributes. The control scheme is implemented using a TI TMS320F240 DSP in a 400 Hz 6 kW prototype. Simulation and experimental results prove that the proposed control scheme can achieve not only low THD during steady-state operation but also fast transient response subject to load step change.

21    R. Ramos, D. Biel, F. Guinjoan, E. Fossas, "Distributed control strategy for parallel-connected inverters. Sliding mode control approach and FPGA-based implementation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 111- 116 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents the design of a circular chain control (CCC or 3C) sliding-mode control scheme for a modular inverter system composed by N parallel-connected buck-based single inverters. AC output voltage regulation and balanced current-sharing among the single inverters is achieved by means of a set of switching surfaces and the corresponding sliding control laws. These control laws have been implemented by means of a FPGA. Additionally a power management strategy determining which inverters are turned on/off according to the power demand, has been also embedded into the FPGA. Simulation and experimental results for three parallel-connected inverters are provided to illustrate the features of the proposed design.

22    I.C. Albuquerque, R.P.S. Leao, "Evaluation of the behavior of switch mode power supply and voltage stabilizer under voltage variations of short duration," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 117- 122 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The sensitivity of the digital equipments to the voltage variations of short duration has raised studies and evaluations that seek a better understanding of the electric and magnetic compatibility between supply and load. To guarantee a normal operation of the personal computers, it is a common practice among individuals and companies the installation of voltage regulators just before the computers. The switch power supplies in the personal computers are sensitive to voltage variations of short duration, and the voltage regulators are adopted as additional equipment for protection of the computers against the electric disturbances. However, the voltage regulators and the switch power supplies present a similar tolerance level to voltage variations of short duration. This paper presents the results of computer simulation and experimental tests of the voltage response for switch power supplies and voltage regulators when submitted to voltage sags and interruptions of short duration. The tests were accomplished based on the international standard of IEC 61000-4-11 that defines methods of immunity test and preferential range of values for electric and/or electronic equipments connected to the low voltage of a distribution network. The behaviour of the tested equipments offers subsidies to corroborate the practical use of personal computers associated to the voltage regulators.

23    V.A. Bonfa, P.J.M. Menegaz, J.L.F. Vieira, D.S.L. Simonetti, "Multiple alternatives of regenerative snubber applied to Sepic and Cuk converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 123- 128 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents several topological alternatives for using a magnetically coupled regenerative turn-on and turn-off snubber configuration applied to the Sepic and Cuk converters operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The proposed snubber uses the main core of the DC-DC converter to build the resonant inductor. In addition to reducing the stresses in the switch, providing soft transitions in its turn-off voltage and turn-on current, it transfers the energy stored in the snubber capacitor to the output (load) or input. An analytical study of the converters is presented. Experimental results are shown for a proposed structure.

24    R. Giral, E. Arango, J. Calvente, L. Martinez-Salamero, "Inherent DCM operation of the asymmetrical interleaved dual buck-boost," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 129- 134 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fifth order DC/DC converter based on the asymmetric connection of two buck-boost cells with complementary activation of their switches is presented. In steady state, the new converter inherently operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). With a duty cycle greater than 38%, the asymmetrical interleaved dual buck-boost (AIDBB) behaves like an inverting boost converter. The AIDBB exhibits some benefits of interleaving cells without the need for specific control strategies to distribute the input current between the buck-boost cells. Mainly, the converter input current and output voltage ripples are significantly smaller than their average values. Due to the DCM operation, the system presents three operation intervals whose duration is independent of the converter parameters.

25    Cheul-U Kim, Feel-Soon Kang, Jang-Hwan Cho, Won-Sik Yoon, "An efficient AC-PDP sustain driver employing boost-up function," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 135- 139 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The sustain driver for AC plasma display panel should provide alternating high voltage pulses to ignite plasma and recover the energy discharged from the intrinsic capacitance between the scanning and sustaining electrodes inside the panel. In this paper, an efficient sustain circuit employing boost-up function is proposed to achieve a faster rise-time in order to be suitable to widely use the address display period separated (ADS) driving method. The proposed circuit improves the recovery efficiency, regardless of the variation of the panel capacitance. The principle of operation, features, and simulated results are illustrated and verified on a 7.5-inch diagonal panel at 200 kHz operating frequency based on experimental prototype.

26    J. Matas, L.G. de Vicuna, J.M. Guerrero, J. Miret, O. Lopez, "A discrete sliding mode control of a buck-boost inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 140- 145 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes the design of a discrete sliding control of a buck-boost inverter. The sliding control surfaces are designed by imposing a desired dynamic behavior on the system, which allows us to determine the main parameters of the sliding mode controller, and is specially interesting in tracking problems. This procedure leads to discrete-time switching surfaces, which provide robustness with regard to external disturbances, and a good dynamic response of the output voltage.

27    B. Pryymak, J.A. Moreno-Eguilaz, J. Peracaula, "Neural network based efficiency optimization of an induction motor drive with vector control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 146- 151 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper an efficient optimization controller for a vector control induction motor drive is studied using a neural network. A 2-5-7-1 neural network has been designed to estimate the optimum rotor flux for the motor. The network has been trained using a complete motor loss model, taking into account the magnetic deviations of the motor parameters. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the validity of the proposed methods.

28    Won Seok Oh, B.K. Bose, Kyu Min Cho, Hee Jun Kim, "Self tuning neural network controller for induction motor drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 152- 156 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, recurrent artificial neural network (RNN) based self tuning speed controller is proposed for the high performance drives of induction motor. RNN provides a nonlinear modeling of motor drive system and could give the information of the load variation, system noise and parameter variation of induction motor to the controller through the on-line estimated weights of corresponding RNN. Thus, proposed self tuning controller can change gains of the controller according to system conditions. The gains are composed with the weights of R-NN. For the on-line estimation of the weights of RNN, extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is used. Self tuning controller that is adequate for the speed control of induction motor is designed. The availability of the proposed controller is verified through the MATLAB simulation with the comparison of conventional PI controller.

29    R. Leidhold, G. Garcia, M.I. Valla, "Maximum efficiency control for variable speed wind driven generators with speed and power limits," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 157- 162 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A control strategy for the maximization of energy capture in variable-speed wind driven turbines is presented. This strategy allows following an operating trajectory with three different parts: maximum efficiency (normal operation), power and speed limitations. These limitations are introduced when there is more available energy than the consumed one or when the wind speed exceeds a certain value. Simulation results that confirm the feasibility of the proposed strategy are presented.

30    Junha Kim, Kwanghee Nam, "Dual inverter control strategy for high speed operation of EV induction motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 163- 168 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: ISA (integrated starter/alternator) will be used for cars soon with 42 volt system. ISA is a multi-functional integrated device that functions as starting motor, generator, flywheel, or torque assist to a combustion engine. But, other than thermal and cost problem, there is an inherent difficulty in the design of motor-inverter system. Specifically, it should produce 150 Nm starting torque and also generate electricity while engine is running 6000 rpm. To produce the required torque, ISA has normally as many as 12 poles. A great problem is that the generated voltage must be limited to under 42 volt even when 12 pole ISA is running 6000 rpm. Hence, the ISA design shows that it has as much as 10:1 speed range, i.e., the field weakening operation should be extended to 10 times higher than the rated speed. In this work, we are considering the use of induction machine instead of permanent synchronous machine. As an idea for solving the voltage limit problem, we are utilizing two inverters. Sharing the voltage requirements by dual inverters is the main idea. But, the secondary inverter only takes care of the reactive voltage component which grows very large in high speed operation. Therefore, the secondary inverter does not require the use of extra voltage source. A capacitor bank suffices the purpose of the secondary inverter. Finally, both simulation and experiment for confirmation are presented.

31    F. Martinez Rodrigo, J.M. Ruiz Gonzalez, J.A. Dominguez Vazquez, L.C. Herrero de Lucas, "Sensorless control of a squirrel cage induction generator to track the peak power in a wind turbine," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 169- 174 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This communication deals with the study and the control of a squirrel cage induction generator intended to produce electrical energy in an autonomous or grid connected small wind generator. Small turbines use a permanent magnet synchronous machine without any system to produce the peak power for every wind speed. This paper proposes two generator control algorithms to track the peak power without wind and machine speed sensors. The application field are small wind power generators, which do not use this kind of sensors to reduce the cost. The system uses rotor flux oriented control of the induction machine. The first peak power control algorithm measures generated power and increases or decreases the torque reference to track the peak power. The second algorithm measures generated power too, but it modifies the speed reference to track the peak power. Simulation plots are included to prove the excellent performance with constant and variable wind power.

32    Chen Xiyou, Yan Bin, Gao Yu, "The engineering design and optimisation of inverter output RILC filter in AC motor drive system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 175- 180 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an engineering method in VVVF (variable voltage variable frequency) output filter design. This methodology is based on the harmonic characteristics of some commonly used modulation techniques, filter equivalent circuit in high frequency and low frequency. The influence of the filter on motor is taken into consideration. The effect of switching time lag and overmodulation on filter design is discussed. Filter parameters obtained from this design procedure are optimized using fuzzy optimization in consideration of cost factor and elastic constraints. This design method is applied to a VVVF-motor system as an instance. Simulation and experimental results validate the practicability of the proposed method.

33    A.B. Rey, J.M. Ruiz, S. de Pablo, "Novel current source control strategies for 3-phase DC/AC power conditioners," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 181- 186 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Classical pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques are replaced by current source sliding mode control (SMC) computing the status for the three-phase power switches in real time. Synchronization with the mains and inverter management are guaranteed by Park vector transformation. Three novel sliding strategies for current source inverters are described, and the existing equivalence between the control of phase currents and phase to phase currents is shown. Several simulations show the performance of the inverter control.

34    R.P. Burgos, E.P. Wiechmann, J. Holtz, "Complex state variables modeling and nonlinear control of PWM voltage- and current-source rectifiers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 187- 192 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes the use of complex state variables to model and control PWM voltage- and current-source rectifiers, a technique originally developed for AC machines based on space vector theory. This technique employs complex signal flow graphs to model systems of differential equations, hence rendering them intelligible by visual inspection. Moreover, it allows nonlinear control laws to be directly obtained from converter models, further simplifying the control system design. Feedback linearization is herein used, a nonlinear strategy of great simplicity and intuitiveness. Under the proposed control schemes both rectifiers attained fully decoupled d-q axes dynamics, thus enabling them as VAr compensators, and also achieved a constant dynamic response totally independent from the drive operating point. The latter is highly desirable for high-performance drives featuring continual accelerations and decelerations. The paper includes a detailed modeling and nonlinear control law design-procedure for both PWM rectifiers, together with experimental results from 10 kVA TMS320C32 DSP-based laboratory prototypes used for evaluation purposes.

35    A. Santolaria, J. Balcells, D. Gonzalez, "Theoretical and experimental results of power converter frequency modulation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 193- 197 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Most of the power converters are controlled by a PWM signal based on a constant frequency and variable duty-cycle. A very large harmonic is expected at this frequency, spreading itself to the rest of the system. This paper is dedicated to spread spectrum clock generation (SSCG) theory applied to the reduction of EMI when a carrier or controlling constant frequency signal is present. SSCG is used to modulate square clock lines, PWM signals in a converter or data frames in a communication system to reduce EMI emissions. Instead of maintaining a constant frequency, SSCG systems modulate the switching (or clock) frequency following certain modulation profiles. Two goals are intended in the paper: (a) review the theoretical fundamentals of SSCG; and (b) compare the results of theoretical simulation with experimental tests to evaluate the possibilities of the method. For the experimental part, a "pure" sinusoid was modulated following several modulation profiles by using an arbitrary signal generator. The results were analyzed with an EMI compliant spectrum analyzer.

36    M. Malinowski, M.P. Kamierkowski, "DSP implementation of direct power control with constant switching frequency for three-phase PWM rectifiers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 198- 203 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel and simple direct power control scheme for three-phase PWM rectifiers operated at constant switching frequency using space vector modulation (DPC-SVM). The active and reactive power is used as the pulse width modulated (PWM) control variables instead of the three-phase line currents usually used. Moreover, a line voltage sensors are replaced by virtual flux (VF) estimator. Theoretical principle of this method is discussed. The steady state and dynamic results of DPC-SVM scheme that illustrates the operation and performance of the proposed system are presented. It is shown that DPC-SVM exhibits several features as: simple algorithm, good dynamic response, constant switching frequency and particularly provide low THD sinusoidal line current when supply voltage is no ideal. Simulated and experimental results have proven excellent performances and verify the validity of the proposed system.

37    N. Bhiwapurkar, M. Rathi, N. Mohan, "Power factor correction circuit for faster dynamics and zero steady state error using dual voltage controllers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 204- 208 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyzes dual voltage controllers for single-phase power factor correction circuits which use boost topology. The slower voltage controller with a low bandwidth operates during the steady state condition, keeping the THD within the required limits and maintaining the DC-bus voltage at its reference value. The faster voltage controller with high bandwidth operates only during disturbances. Faster response to disturbances necessitates less energy storage in the DC-bus capacitor, hence a smaller capacitance value resulting in a compact and a light-weight circuit. The comparative study between the proposed scheme and the conventional PFC circuit is carried out. The experimental results for the proposed model are presented.

38    M. Orabi, T. Ninomiya, Chunfeng Jin, "Novel developments in the study of nonlinear phenomena in power factor correction circuits," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 209- 215 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Boost power factor correction (PFC) converter with average current mode control is a nonlinear system due to the effects of the multiplier and a large variation of the duty ratio. Although stability analysis must be studied depending on nonlinear model, most prior researches attempted to put some assumptions to force this nonlinear system to be linear. As a result the practical dynamics and the nonlinear phenomena were disregarded. In this paper, two nonlinear phenomena are detected in the prior stable regions: period-doubling bifurcation and chaos. Stability maps are introduced at different loads to clarify the power factor and also the instability regions. It is made clear that instability regions enlarge as the operation moves toward light loads. A novel method to judge the system stability is introduced depending on the phase plane trajectory where the horizontal axis is the input line current and the vertical axis is the output voltage or its ripple. The symmetry around the vertical axis in the phase plane curve assures the system stability. On the other hand, the symmetry around the horizontal axis improves the system power factor. Therefore, period-doubling bifurcation can be known by two asymmetrical loops around the vertical axis in the phase plane trajectory. Chaos can be known by multi loops in the phase plane trajectory. The dynamics of period-doubling instability is understood from the instantaneous power behavior. Stability can be judged from the first transient cycles of the instantaneous powers waveforms. Bifurcation map is developed to determine the accurate minimum output capacitance value that assures the system stability at all cases. Experimental results confirm the simulated and analytical results with a very good matching.

39    Fanbin Wang, Jianping Ying, Teng Liu, Dehua Zhang, "A family of high performance power-factor-correction circuit for actively clamped resonant DC link inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 216- 219 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new family of high performance power-factor-correction circuit for actively clamped resonant DC link inverter. Only by adding a snubber inductor and a clamp diode, the circuit effectively alleviates the reverse recovery of rectifier diode with simple control and low voltage stress. The operation principle of this converter is given in detail, and system control and design considerations are discussed. A prototype was developed rated at 1.6 kW, input AC voltage of 220 V/sub rms/, output DC voltage of 400 V, and operating at 100 kHz. The measured efficiency at full load is 96%.

40    A. Prodic, Jingquan Chen, R.W. Erickson, D. Maksimovic, "Self-tuning digital comb filter for PFC applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 220- 225 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Design and implementation of a self-tuning digital comb filter for power factor correction (PFC) rectifier applications are described. The comb filter enables fast response to load transients in universal input rectifiers and consequently more optimal design of the PFC power stage and a downstream DC/DC converter. The design is based on a modification of a conventional comb filter and implementation of frequency selector logic. The filter is used to eliminate the second and higher harmonic components from the voltage loop, while the frequency selector logic provides automatic adjustments of the filter characteristics and correct operation for different input line frequencies. Experimental results obtained on a 200 W universal-input boost PFC prototype are demonstrated.

41    A. Pandey, B. Singh, D.P. Kothari, "A novel DC bus voltage sensorless PFC rectifier with improved voltage dynamics," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 226- 228 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel DC bus voltage estimation algorithm with inherent cancellation of feedback voltage ripple is presented in this work. Design issues are discussed and simulation results are presented. Apart from reduction of output voltage sensor, the proposed estimation algorithm also eliminates twice the line frequency ripple from the feedback path allowing a voltage controller bandwidth comparable to line frequency, suitable for most front-end power factor corrected (PFC) converter applications.

42    Jin Zhao, B.K. Bose, "Evaluation of membership functions for fuzzy logic controlled induction motor drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 229- 234 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, different types of membership functions are evaluated in the fuzzy control of an induction motor drive. The general membership functions under consideration are triangular, trapezoidal, Gaussian, bell, sigmoidal and polynomial types. In the beginning, fuzzy controller sensitivity has been analyzed and compared for different membership functions with the triangular function as the base. The performance of fuzzy control is then evaluated with each type of membership function for a speed-controlled induction motor drive with indirect vector control in the inner loop.

43    Lixin Tang, Limin Zhong, F. Rahman, "Modeling and experimental approach of a novel direct torque control scheme for interior permanent magnet synchronous machine drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 235- 240 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel DTC control scheme for interior permanent magnet synchronous machine is proposed in this paper, which features in low torque and flux ripple and almost fixed switching frequency, by means of space vector modulation (SVM). The torque and flux ripples have been significantly reduced, compared with those of the basic DTC reported in the literature.

44    F.A.S. Neves, E.B.S. Filho, J.M.S. Cruz, R.P. Landim, Z.D. Lins, A.G.H. Accioly, "Single-phase induction motor drives with direct torque control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 241- 246 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Although many techniques for high performance torque and flux control in three-phase induction motors are already available, most of them were not generalized for application in single-phase induction motor drives. In this paper some high performance single-phase induction motor drive systems are investigated. A stator fixed reference frame dq model is used to develop a direct torque control scheme for single-phase machines having main and auxiliary windings. A stator flux oriented reference frame control scheme is also proposed. In both strategies presented no speed or position signal for the torque control is necessary. Simulation results are provided to show the techniques effectiveness.

45    R. Pena, R. Cardenas, R. Blasco-Gimenez, C. Henriquez, "DC link voltage control of a PWM excited induction generator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 247- 250 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A DC link voltage control strategy of a vector controlled, PWM inverter fed, induction generator supplying a DC bus bar is presented. The DC link voltage is controlled using a nonlinear approach and a fuzzy logic based interpolation of PI controllers. The strategy meets noise considerations in steady state, while keeping an excellent performance during transients. Experimental validation of the strategy using a 2.5 kW prototype is shown.

46    S. Kwak, H.A. Toliyat, "A matrix converter for fault tolerant strategies and two-phase machine drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 251- 256 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Novel control schemes for continuous, fault-tolerant operations of matrix converters are presented. The proposed algorithms based on both Venturini method and SVM method can be applied to the indirect matrix converter as well as the conventional matrix converter topologies. By initiating the proposed control schemes in the event of fault occurrence, continuous and disturbance-free operation can be obtained. The control methods for two-phase motor drives are also presented with minor modification. Theoretical analyses and the derivation of computational relations are described using two modulation methods. Simulation results are provided to verify their feasibilities.

47    J.M. Guerrero, L. Garcia de Vicuna, J. Miret, J. Matas, M. Castilla, "A nonlinear feed-forward control technique for single-phase UPS inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 257- 261 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a nonlinear feed-forward controller applied to single-phase uninterruptible power supplies (UPS). The controller was conceived by using a one-cycle based PWM generator and an output-current feedforward, in order to cancel input-voltage disturbances and nonlinear load currents, respectively. It also includes an external control loop to ensure good output-voltage tracking. The controller design is based on a large-signal approach, introduced to achieve good transient response and stability in a wide range of parameter variations. Besides, in spite of the nonlinear nature of the controller, we obtain a linear average output-voltage dynamic response. The proposed control provides the following features: fast transient response, low THD sine-wave output-voltage, fixed switching frequency, and high robustness against load and line step changes. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control technique for inverters in UPS applications, especially when nonlinear loads must to be supplied and UPS DC-link has large undesirable ripple.

48    N.M. Abdel-Rahim, A. Latif Elshafei, "Hierarchical fuzzy-logic control for a single-phase voltage-source UPS inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 262- 267 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fuzzy logic controllers (FLCs), in general, have the potential of operating successfully under a wide range of load variation since their working principles do not require precise knowledge of the load parameters. However, they are computationally intensive, thus requiring a very powerful processor for real-time implementation. Nonetheless, hierarchical FLCs are much less computationally demanding than standard FLCs without compromising the controller performance. This paper proposes the application of hierarchical fuzzy logic controllers to UPS applications. The proposed control scheme comprises two fuzzy controllers implemented in a nested fashion to form two control loops. The first fuzzy logic controller employs the actual filter capacitor voltage, its reference waveform, and the output signal of a soft start circuit. The inputs of the second fuzzy logic controller are the output of the first fuzzy logic controller, the reference waveform of the capacitor current, and its actual value. Simulation results of the proposed control scheme show that the system has fast dynamic response and is capable of producing sinusoidal load voltage with low harmonic content.

49    Che-Hung Lai, Ying-Yu Tzou, "DSP-embedded UPS controller for high-performance single-phase on-line UPS systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 268- 273 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a DSP-controlled transformerless common-neutral single-phase on-line UPS with balanced charging/discharging control. All the control functions for an on-line UPS, which includes power-on start-up control, input stage power factor control, battery charging and boosting control, output stage AC voltage regulation, and shut-down control, were realized by using a single-chip DSP controller. A multiple rate digital controller generates all the PWM control signals for the power stage by using a set of detected feedback signals. Software current control scheme with nonlinear pulsewidth compensation has been developed to eliminate the nonlinearity caused by the dead-lock protected PWM converters. A nonlinear digital control scheme with lower switching frequency has been developed for the power factor control of the AC-DC converter. Computer simulation and experimental results have been given to verify the proposed digital control scheme. The constructed DSP-controlled UPS system can achieve fast dynamic response for nonlinear loads and high power factor under various loading conditions.

50    J.M. Guerrero, L. Garcia de Vicuna, J. Matas, J. Miret, "Steady-state invariant-frequency control of parallel redundant uninterruptible power supplies," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 274- 277 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new approach for the wireless control of parallel-connected uninterruptible power supplies is proposed. This method can perform the output-voltage frequency accuracy of the paralleled system, by using a transient droop characteristic. In this manner, the controller endows to the system absence of frequency-deviation in steady state conditions. This fact contrasts with conventional P-/spl omega/ droop schemes, in which the trade-off between active power sharing and frequency variation limits strongly the performances. The proposed control is particularly suitable since both steady-state invariant frequency and good current balance are achieved. In addition, the transient response can be easily modified by means of controller parameters. Simulation results are reported to prove the feasibility of the approach for this kind of systems.

51    Sun Jin, Hou ZhenYi, Zou HongChao, Lu JiaLin, Su YanMin, "A novel decoupled control strategy for three-phase AC power supply," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 278- 281 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes the design of a three-phase AC power supply with the three-phase unbalanced load applied. An accessible AC neutral point is established to balance three phases to be completely uncoupled in the main circuit. The proposed control strategy has been implemented on a 400 Hz, 1 kW three-phase AC power supply. The test results show that it performs quite well with symmetric three-phase output voltage waveforms under the unbalanced load.

52    J. Schutz, G. Scheible, C. Willmes, "Load adaptive medium frequency resonant power supply," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 282- 287 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The fast development in low power electronics, micro-systems technology and wireless communication enables totally new system concepts that call for new and cheap supply options. In several applications wired energy transfer is not suitable or possible, for example in robot type applications or in fully automated production machines as well as in medium or high voltage applications with high insulation requirements. There are solutions where nonconventional transformers with, for example, a large air-gap in the magnetic path, are operated with resonant switch mode supplies to supply energy to the load. In this paper we present a resonant supply converter system enabling totally wireless applications by providing auxiliary energy without wires via magnetic fields over distances of up to several meters and covering volumes of e.g. 100 m/sup 3/, suited for the wireless supply of robot applications or highly automated manufacturing machines (sensors, communication, actuators).

53    Shan Lu, Zhongyuan Cheng, Bin Wu, R. Sotudeh, "Modeling of neon tube powered by high frequency converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 288- 293 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic model for neon tubes. The model is derived from conventional Cassie's and Mayr's equations which are often used to model low-voltage and high-current arc discharges, such as electrical arcs in switching interrupters and HID lamps. In this paper, the effects of various types of energy dissipation mechanisms on conductance of the plasma channel are considered for high-voltage and low-current neon tubes. In particular, the Cassie's and Mayr's equations are modified such that the loss on the heat conduction of the neon tube can be accurate modeled. Some basic rules for the selection of parameters in the model are proposed. Simulation is performed using Pspice simulator. A high frequency switch mode supply is built to power the neon tube under test. Experimental results reveal that the developed neon tube dynamic model is applicable for both low and high frequency operations.

54    A. Sandali, A. Cheriti, P. Sicard, "Simple PDM pattern generation for an AC/AC resonant converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 294- 299 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: PDM control applied to a series resonant inverter reduces switching losses and eliminates the requirement for the rectifier DC voltage smoothing filter. Synthesis of a PDM control signal is quite complex and the aim of the paper is to simplify the PDM control law based equations. In the control law derived from the simplified model, PDM signal is generated by comparing a triangular carrier and a power reference signal. It is shown that the proposed simplified model is very accurate if the carrier frequency is below a certain limit. Validation of the simplified model is based on the comparison of harmonics content of the input current. Simulation results validate the proposed PDM pattern generator.

55    Chang-Sun Kim, Won-Seok Oh, Hee-jun Kim, "Alternately zero voltage switched forward, flyback multi resonant converter topology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 300- 304 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The high efficiency multi-resonant converter is capable of operating at a high frequency with high power density [W/inch/sup 3/]. However, the resonant voltage stress of 4/spl sim/5 times the input voltage increases the conduction losses because of on-resistance of a MOSFET. In this paper, the alternatively zero voltage switched forward multi resonant converter topologies are suggested to solve these problems. Comparing to the input voltage, it is about 2/spl sim/3 times the input voltage. Two multi resonant switches are turned on at the zero voltage and can be controlled more easily. Especially, the operational characteristics and the transient response are considered for alternated forward ZVS MRC. The operational principle of the resonant converter was verified through the experimental converter with 48 V input voltage, 5 V/50 W output voltage/power and PSpice simulation. The measured maximum voltage stress is 170 V of 2.9 times the input voltage and the maximum efficiency is measured up to 81.66%. The stabilization is achieved from the experimentally measured results of phase margin and gain margin of loop gain.

56    C.A. Canesin, F.A.S. Goncalves, "Modeling of pre-regulator boost ZCS interleaved operating in critical conduction mode and with high power factor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 305- 310 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new pre-regulator boost operating in the boundary area between the continuous and discontinuous conduction modes of the boost inductor current, where the switches and boost diode performing zero-current commutations during its turn-off, eliminating the disadvantages related to the reverse recovery losses and electromagnetic interference problems of the boost diode when operating in the continuous conduction mode. Additionally, the interleaving technique is applied in the power cell, providing a significant input current ripple reduction. It should be noticed that the main objective of this paper is to present a complete modeling for the converter operating in the critical conduction mode, allowing an improved design procedure for interleaved techniques with high input power factor, a complete dynamic analysis of the structure, and the possibility of implementing digital control techniques in closed loop.

57    M. Boussak, K. Jarray, "A new stator resistance estimation method for high performance stator-flux oriented sensorless induction motor drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 311- 316 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with a novel method for implementation of a sensorless stator flux oriented control (SFOC) of induction motor drive with stator resistance tuning. The rotor speed is determined by the difference between the synchronous angular frequency and the estimated slip angular frequency which is estimated from the measured and reference q-axis stator current. The stator resistance updating is based on the measured and reference d-axis stator current of an induction motor on d-q frame synchronously rotating with the stator flux vector. The proposed method for estimation of speed and stator resistance is based only on measurement of stator currents and DC-bus voltage. Digital simulation is carried out to show that the proposed method can overcome the problem of performance degradation due essentially to changes in stator resistance. Robust sensorless speed control at nominal, low and zero speeds is introduced, with load torque applied, in order to show the robustness of the proposed method. Experimental results for a 3 kW induction motor are presented and analyzed by using a dSpace system with DS1102 controller board based on the digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320C31.

58    A. Ba-Razzouk, P. Sicard, V. Rajagopalan, "A simple on-line method for rotor resistance updating in indirect rotor flux orientation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 317- 322 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Rotor resistance plays a dominant role in the loss of decoupling in rotor flux indirect vector control. To maintain high performance in these drives, estimation of the rotor resistance is required to adapt the decoupling regulator against the variations of the actual rotor resistance of the motor. This paper presents a new simple method for on-line estimation of the rotor resistance in rotor flux, current-controlled voltage-fed vector drives of induction motors. Small perturbations are applied to the rotor resistance programmed in the decoupling controller and the resulting response at the output of the d-axis proportional-integral current regulator is analyzed to provide a useful information on the actual rotor resistance of the motor. In addition of being independent of the motor state model and requiring no additional sensors, the proposed technique distinguishes from other conventional methods, such as extended Kalman filter, MRAS and neural networks identifiers, by the fact that it is simpler to implement and that it does not require complex computations. Simulation results are presented for a current-controlled, voltage-fed, indirect rotor flux drive to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

59    A. Miloudi, A. Draou, "Variable gain PI controller design for speed control and rotor resistance estimation of an indirect vector controlled induction machine drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 323- 328 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an original variable gain PI (VGPI) controller for speed control and rotor resistance estimation of an indirect vector controlled (IVC) induction motor drive. First, a VGPI speed controller is designed. Its simulated performances in speed control and rotor resistance estimation are compared to those of a classical PI controller. Simulation of the IVC induction motor drive using VGPI for speed control shows promising results. The motor reaches the reference speed rapidly and without overshoot, trapezoidal commands under no load are tracked with zero steady state error and almost no overshoot, load disturbances are rapidly rejected and variations of some of the motor parameters are fairly well dealt with. For rotor resistance estimation, the variation of the integrator gain from zero to a terminal value results in the elimination of the transient state estimation error. The proposed VGPI resistance estimator provides excellent tracking performance.

60    M. Tsuji, K. Tomonaga, M. Ohmachi, K. Izumi, "A novel parameter identification of vector controlled induction motor using a phase lag current control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 329- 334 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel identification of stator and rotor resistances for the vector controlled induction motor system. A current controller that has a phase lag element instead of conventional PI controller is used for the parameter identification without losing current control property. Both stator and rotor resistances are tuned by driving the errors between the references of d- and q-axis currents and their actual values to zero. Therefore, the proposed system is simpler than the conventional MRAS based parameter identification. In the motoring and regenerating modes, the system stability is guaranteed by computing the trajectories of poles from a linear model. The effectiveness of proposed system is verified by digital simulation and experimentation. The improved steady-state torque characteristics are demonstrated.

61    S. Caux, L. Peyras, M. Fadel, "Robust development of Matsui's observer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 335- 340 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a robust observer based on redundancy computing EMF on 2-axis rotor oriented reference frame. Driving sensorless synchronous machine is presented in 3 steps. The first is a stalling phase to avoid wrong rotation whatever the initial rotor position is. The second step is a calibration phase, to estimate accurately the electrical parameters of the drive. So using the 2 first step, finally we control the sensorless drive by estimating EMF, velocity and position which are quite close to reality only by voltages and currents measurements.

62    V.F. Pires, J.F. Silva, G.D. Marques, "Space-vector /spl alpha//spl beta/ modulator and sliding mode control of the three-phase buck type rectifier with freewheeling diode," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 341- 346 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a vector based sliding mode control method for three-phase buck type three-phase rectifiers with freewheeling diode. This fast and robust technique uses sliding mode to generate /spl alpha//spl beta/ space-vector modulation, which forces the input line currents to track a suitable sinusoidal reference. A near unity power factor operation of the rectifier is obtained using a sinusoidal reference in phase with the input source voltages. With this control strategy the input currents are actively shaped, being possible to maintain a near sinusoidal current even with high ripple DC inductor current. A proportional integral (PI) controller can, then, be designed to regulate the rectifier output voltage. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

63    F.K.A. Lima, C.M.T. Cruz, F.L.M. Antunes, "Unit power factor single-phase rectifier with reduced conduction loss using a nondissipative passive snubber," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 347- 352 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a single-phase rectifier with low conduction losses. To have a further reduction in the rectifier losses, a passive nondissipative snubber is included in the rectifier. The snubber allows nondissipative commutation at the switches within a large range of the input current. The snubber reduces the rate of the current growth during the switch turn on and also the rate of voltage grow during the switch turn off. The performance of the snubber circuit associated with the low conduction losses results in a rectifier with high efficiency. It is also presented the design of a three kW rectifier and simulation results are shown to access the performance of the proposed rectifier.

64    A. Lazaro, A. Barrado, J. Pleite, E. Olias, "New power factor correction AC/DC converter with reduced storage capacitor voltage," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 353- 358 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Single-stage power factor correction (PFC) AC/DC converters usually present a high storage capacitor voltage stress and voltage variation. The series inductance interval (SII) PFC converters allow obtaining a bulk capacitor voltage lower than the peak value of the line voltage and even lower than output voltage. In this paper the novel single-stage SII-B-2D PFC converter is presented. This topology combines as three main advantages a low value and not much variable storage capacitor voltage, input current harmonics under EN61000-3-2 Class D limits, and an advantageous component count.

65    Ching-Tsai Pan, Yi-Shuo Huang, "A truly error bounded current controller for three-phase AC/DC boost converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 359- 364 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is well known that for the conventional three-phase hysteresis current controller, the maximum current error can reach twice of the specified error bound. In this paper, a truly error bounded current controller for three-phase AC/DC boost converter is proposed to keep the error within the specified error bound precisely in theory. Moreover, according to the current error and the extra information of the current error derivative, the zero voltage space vectors can be added at proper time to further reduce the switching frequency. A simple implementation is also proposed without calculating the error derivative such that merits of the conventional hysteresis current controller can still be reserved. Theoretical basis and some simulation results are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed current controller.

66    E.P. Wiechmann, R.P. Burgos, "Voltage swell ride-through capability with enforced, fixed input voltage for PWM current-source rectifiers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 365- 370 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The constant search for increased efficiency, reduced costs, size, and weight of high-power static converters has led these towards higher operating voltages and overall semiconductor ratings. This trend has pushed high-power converters to their operational limit, especially in terms of their insulation capacity. Disturbances such as voltage swells therefore arise as compelling constraints for these applications. In view of this, this paper proposes a voltage swell ride-through strategy for PWM current-source rectifiers, its main feature being the capacity to enforce a fixed converter input voltage throughout the disturbance. This technique enables high-power converters to exert their maximum capacities, operating right on the edge of their operational envelope. Particularly, ride-through is accomplished first by drawing inductive current, and secondly by increasing the DC-link current in case the former action does not suffice. Importantly so, these measures do not mar the converter performance at all given their transient, sporadic nature. Further, a nonlinear control strategy obtained from the complex state variable model of the converter is employed to linearize and decouple its d-q axes dynamics, thus assuring a constant response independent of the drive operating point. Finally, experimental results from a TMS320C32 DSP-based system are used for evaluation and validation of the proposed ride-through strategy.

67    C. Branas, F.J. Azcondo, S. Bracho, "Evaluation of an electronic ballast circuit for HID lamps with passive power factor correction," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 371- 376 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper evaluates a new design of electronic ballast using the standard EN61000-2-3 and the recommended crest factor of the lamp current as references. The solution under study is based on a DC to AC resonant inverter whose input voltage is taken from a valley-fill AC-DC passive converter. The DC output of the valley fill circuit has a ripple of 50%. The output power dependence on the input voltage makes necessary an active compensation technique to stabilise the lamp power. Experimental results prove that the proposed solution is suitable to achieve high efficiency and low cost electronic ballast for low-medium power lamps.

68    Duk Jin Oh, He Jun Kim, Won Seok Oh, Kyu Min Cho, "A novel complex modulation method for the metal halide lamp ballast," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 377- 382 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel complex modulation method for the metal halide lamp ballast. The proposed modulation method, which has a modulating signal of swept complex frequency, can eliminate the acoustic resonance more effectively than the conventional modulation method, which has a modulating signal of constant frequency. For the purpose of future application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), the proposed ballast controller has been designed only with erasable programmable logic devices (EPLDs), but without a microprocessor. In this paper, detailed modulation schemes are described and experimental results on the prototype 150 W metal halide lamp ballast with the proposed modulation method are discussed.

69    J.M. Alonso, E. Lopez, J. Ribas, A.J. Calleja, M. Rico-Secades, J. Losada, "Design and implementation of an electronic ballast for UV-based ozone generation using a low cost microcontroller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 383- 388 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the design and implementation of an electronic ballast for UV lamps using a very low cost microcontroller (/spl mu/C) is presented. The /spl mu/C is used to optimize the lamp ignition and supply, allowing the control and regulation of lamp power. Also, protection features such as overcurrent, undervoltage and overtemperature are included using the /spl mu/C. The electronic ballast can drive lamps up to 40 W which are employed to generate ozone in water disinfection processes.

70    N. Vishwanathan, V. Ramanarayanan, "Input voltage modulated high voltage DC power supply topology for pulsed load applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 389- 394 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High voltage power supplies for radar applications are investigated which are subjected to pulsed load with stringent specifications. In the proposed solution, power conversion is done in two stages. A low power-high frequency converter modulates the input voltage of a high power-low frequency converter. This method satisfies all the performance specifications and takes care of the critical aspects of HV transformer.

71    J.W. Baek, M.H. Ryu, D.W. Yoo, H.G. Kim, "High voltage pulse generator using boost converter array," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 395- 399 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Using boost converter array consists of IGBTs, diodes and L-C circuits, novel repetitive impulse voltage generator was developed. In the presented circuits, high voltage pulse is generated by series-connection of capacitors and IGBTs. Therefore, the high voltage pulse is obtained by circuit configuration without any high voltage pulse transformer and high voltage DC source. Especially, the proposed circuit can operate up to several kHz and have high reliability and longer life than conventional ones. It also gives voltage balance of IGBTs automatically. So, the difference of characteristics of IGBTs and a drive signal does not cause severe problems. To verify the proposed circuit, a 2 kV and 40 A pulse generator is manufactured and tested.

72    V.-M. Leppanen, J. Luomi, "Speed sensorless induction machine control for zero speed and frequency," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 400- 405 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A speed sensorless controller structure for tracking the rotor flux orientation of an induction motor was implemented in a laboratory setup. The controller is based on superimposing a low-frequency AC test signal on the stator current of the motor. The response in the stator voltage to the signal depends on the orientation of the signal relative to that of the rotor flux. The dependency is due to the reaction of the mechanical system, and it is used to control the orientation error to zero. In the experiments, the controller operated successfully under nominal torque both at zero speed and at zero frequency. Slow and fast speed reversals under nominal torque were also successful. In addition, the system was capable of withstanding both motoring and generating load torque steps up to 50% of nominal torque.

73    Dae-Il Kim, Myoung-Ho Shin, Dong-Seok Hyun, "A design of robust speed controller for speed sensorless stator-flux-oriented induction motor drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 406- 411 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In a conventional speed sensorless stator-flux-oriented (SFO) induction motor drive system, the estimated speed is delayed in transients by the use of a low pass filter (LPF). To prevent extreme overshoot of speed caused by this delay, the gains of speed regulator should be small. Consequently speed response is greatly affected by disturbance torque. In this paper, by taking advantage of disturbance torque observer and feedforward control, robust speed controller is designed for speed sensorless SFO system. The proposed method is verified by simulation and experimental results.

74    G. Poddar, V.T. Ranganathan, "Sensorless field oriented control for double inverter fed wound rotor induction motor drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 412- 419 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel control technique for sensorless vector control operation of double inverter fed wound rotor induction motor is presented. Two current controllers control the stator side currents based on vector control algorithm. Another V/f type flux and frequency controller controls the rotor side frequency directly. A novel frequency command profile for the rotor side controller is suggested to make this sensorless drive operation reliable and less dependent on motor parameters at any rotor speed. A complete inverter power flow analysis is presented to show that the drive can deliver full torque from 0 to 2 p.u. speed for either direction of rotation. Thus, double the rated power can be extracted from the induction motor without overloading it. The proposed algorithm allows the drive to start on-the-fly without any rotor transducer.

75    H. Rasmussen, "A new observer for speed sensorless field oriented control of an induction motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 420- 425 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer for speed sensorless field oriented control is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states including the rotor speed. Assuming motor parameters known the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. Experiments on a real motor demonstrate high dynamic performance even at very low rotor speed and stability is extended to zero speed.

76    H. Kubota, Y. Tamura, "Stator resistance estimation for sensorless induction motor drives under regenerating condition," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 426- 430 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Several speed estimation methods for sensorless induction motor drives have been proposed. Performance of them is not satisfactory at low speed. When the stator resistance value in the speed estimator is incorrect, the estimator does not work satisfactorily. This paper presents a stator resistance estimation method, which works successfully under not only powering condition but also regenerating condition.

77    L. Allain, L. Gerbaud, C. Van DerSchaeghe, "Object oriented modelling for model capitalisation and simulation of electromechanical systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 431- 436 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to model physical system. Nowadays, engineers have to work with similar models that cover different knowledge. One has to extract analysis from a time simulation, an other one has to size the device. However, tools dedicated to these tasks are often different and use specific internal representation for the models. So, coherence is hard to maintain between models; moreover, the knowledge of the model is often hidden behind the obscurity of a dedicated code. The proposed approach focuses on model knowledge: equations, professional algorithm. The paper proposes a method that aims at capitalising knowledge under a physic format, in a natural manner, i.e. out of computer language. So, a translation mechanism is then proposed to generate specific code from this natural description of models to dedicated software applications.

78    Qinghong Yu, R.M. Nelms, "State plane analysis of an auxiliary resonant commutated pole inverter and implementation with load current adaptive fixed timing control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 437- 443 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: State plane analysis has been successfully applied to resonant DC-DC converters. The equivalent circuit of the resonant mode of an auxiliary resonant commutated pole (ARCP) inverter is very similar to the parallel resonant converter. With proper normalization, the application of state plane analysis to the ARCP equivalent circuit is a geometric approach which provides much insight into the operating principle of the ARCP inverter. This elegant visualization simplifies the analysis and design of the ARCP inverter and can be extended to other ZVS inverters. A prototype ARCP inverter was constructed with load current adaptive control scheme, which utilizes the commutation characteristics of an inductive load to obtain soft switching performance with minimum hardware. Experimental waveforms are provided to show the soft switching performance of this ARCP inverter.

79    R. Surend, N. Mohan, R. Ayyanar, R.M. Button, "Analysis of a hybrid phase modulated converter with a current doubler rectifier in CCM and a comparison with its center-tapped counterpart," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 444- 449 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A hybrid phase modulated converter with current doubler rectification has been analyzed. The operating principles in continuous conduction mode are discussed. Various equations and equivalent circuits that aid in design have been derived. How this topology compares against a conventional hybrid resonant converter has been delineated under various design considerations. The zero voltage switching characteristics, filter requirements, small-signal transfer characteristics, device ratings and magnetics size requirement are discussed. Simulation results and experimental verification from a 500 W prototype converter switched at 100 kHz are presented.

80    J. Catala, J. Bordonau, L. Romeral, A. Arias, "Study of the propagation of the modulator and transistors dead time in sensor-less AC motor drives based on SVPWM," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 450- 455 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An accurate model in order to simulate a nonideal inverter is complex. In this work, a Simulink model is proposed. The model implements all the structure of the power inverter and the nucleus of calculation of the modulation of the inverter to obtain the induction motor voltage. This paper also studies the feasibility of knowing the specified voltage by building the signal from the control signal that the modulator sends to the inverter. The interest is double. First, the goal is to know the limit of neglecting the dead time. In the other hand, to reduce the cost in sensor-less AC drives. The voltage measurement part in the sensor-less drive can be omitted if the studied system is implemented. The results show three main conclusions. First, the influence of the modulator is a pure delay for any modulation index and for any frequency. For nearly all applications, this delay (Tpwm) can be accepted. Second, the blanking time causes more relevant deviations, especially for lower modulation indexes. In this paper, a modulator compensation is suggested to improve the behaviour of the inverter in sensor-less applications. The results have been experimentally verified. Third, the response of the sensor-less system implemented with a modified system of voltage measurement is better than the systems that do not use modified models.

81    M.E. Elbuluk, S. Gerber, A. Harnmoud, R.L. Patterson, M. Newell, "Low temperature evaluation of bipolar- and CMOS-based current-mode PWM controllers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 456- 461 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) current-mode controller integrated circuits (ICs), with potential use in the development of a low temperature DC/DC converter, were evaluated at cryogenic temperatures. The design of the two ICs is identical but one is bipolar-based and the other is CMOS-based. Both ICs are capable of high frequency switching (200-500 kHz) and are specified for operation in the temperature range of 0 /spl deg/C to +70 /spl deg/C. Two separate circuit boards utilizing these controllers were built and evaluated in the temperature range of +20 /spl deg/C to -185 /spl deg/C. The performance of each controller in terms of its switching frequency and duty cycle control was evaluated as a function of temperature. Under short-time exposure to low temperature, the bipolar-based IC displayed good operational behavior with temperature only down to -110 /spl deg/C. Beyond that temperature, the device lost its functionality but recovered when higher temperatures were introduced. Nonetheless, the low temperature limit of -110 /spl deg/C by far exceeds the manufacturer's temperature specification of the device. The CMOS-based current-mode controller, on the other hand, displayed good operational behavior down to -185 /spl deg/C. While slight changes were observed in some of the device parameters upon exposure to low temperature; no significant impact, however, resulted on its overall performance.

82    J.C. Anton, C. Blanco, F. Ferrero, P. Roldan, G. Zissis, "Simulation of the dynamic behaviour of HID lamps based on electrical conductance," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 462- 467 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a model for HID lamps based on equivalent conductance. Starting from fundamental physical principles a general equation is obtained. The model was developed using SIMULINK/MATLAB modeling tool and verified against experimental results. It was found that the model proposed emulates faithfully electrical response of a high pressure sodium (HPS) lamp at low (50 Hz) and high frequency (100 kHz) operation.

83    M.A. Co, C.Z. Rezende, D.S.L. Simonetti, J.L.F. Vieira, "Microcontrolled electronic gear for HID lamps comparisons with electromagnetic ballast," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 468- 472 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an electronic control gear for high intensity discharge (HID) lamps that operates with a low frequency current inverter to drive the lamp, a DC-DC buck converter to control the power and lamp current, and a power factor pre-regulator based on a discontinuous conduction mode boost converter. The signals of all power stages are provided by a dedicated microcontroller. An overview of the lamp operation phases, the strategies to avoid acoustic resonance in the electronic ballast and the operation of electromagnetic ballasts are mentioned. A 70 W prototype without acoustic resonance and stroboscope effect was implemented and the results of the proposed electronic ballast and a conventional one are compared.

84    C. Branas, F.J. Azcondo, S. Bracho, "Experimental study of HPS lamp ignition by using LC network resonance," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 473- 478 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a study of the HPS lamp behavior before ignition is achieved. The voltage generated by a LC network is applied to the lamp leads using the soft-start-up method. Modifications of the off state lamp equivalent resistance are observed when applying different ignition sequences. From the experiments, a breakdown characteristic is defined.

85    T. Suntio, "Small-signal modeling of switched-mode converters under direct-on-time control-a unified approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 479- 484 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Small-signal modeling of switched-mode converters has been developed in early 70s, when the state-space averaging (SSA) method was introduced for assessing the dynamics of direct-duty-ratio controlled converters in continuous conduction mode (CCM). It turned out that the direct circuit theoretical approach could not be applied to get accurate models also for discontinuous operation mode (DCM). We present in this paper a unified and consistent method for the modeling of switched-mode converters under direct-on-time control applicable to fixed-frequency and variable-frequency operation in DCM and CCM. The method is based on the direct estimation of the state-variable derivatives using their physical and circuit-theoretical dependence on the corresponding circuit elements.

86    A. Barrado, R. Vazquez, A. Lazaro, J. Pleite, E. Olias, "Linear-nonlinear control applied to switching power supplies to get fast transient response," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 485- 490 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper shows the utilization of the new linear-nonlinear control (LnL) to get a better fast transient response in switching power supplies. The linear-nonlinear control allows reducing the recovery time of the converters working under a load current step. This type of control helps designers to solve the problems presented in system such us DSPs and microprocessors. Four different prototypes have been built to show the actual operation and to compare the experimental results: a conventional buck converter with linear control, a buck converter with LnL control, a hybrid source with threshold band and a hybrid source with LnL control. The results prove that using LnL control the output voltage variation is limited, the efficiency is improved, and a better transient response is obtained.

87    P. Chancharoensook, M.F. Rahman, "Dynamic modeling of a four-phase 8/6 switched reluctance motor using current and torque look-up tables," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 491- 496 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents dynamic modeling of a commercially available 1-hp 4-phase 8/6 switched reluctance motor (SRM) using nonlinear 2D look-up tables created from its measured flux linkage and static torque data. A model for each phase consists of a flux linkage estimator, a current look-up table and a torque look-up table. The current look-up table was achieved for 101 data of flux linkage (from 0 to 0.275 Wb/spl middot/t) by 115 rotor positions (from -30/spl deg/ to 30/spl deg/). Besides, the torque lookup table was achieved for 14 data of current from (0 to 6.5 A) by 115 rotor positions (from -30/spl deg/ to 30/spl deg/). The machine model was then tested in Matlab/Simulink environment and also experimentally verified. An asymmetric half-bridge converter, which was driven by DS1102 DSP real-time control environment, applied single-step voltage, single-pulse control voltage and current-regulated PWM voltage to the motor windings. The agreement between simulation and experimental results has confirmed the accuracy of the proposed model.

88    I. Moson, K. Iwan, J. Nieznanski, "Circuit-oriented model of the switched reluctance motor for drive systems simulation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 497- 501 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Switched reluctance motors, unlike other types of motors, for their operation require a control system and the supply from a converter. For simulation purposes of the complete switched reluctance drive system it is desirable to have a circuit-oriented model of the switched reluctance motor. A circuit-oriented model is especially useful when simulations are to be made for different algorithms and control parameters. A method of modeling, the developed circuit-oriented model of the switched reluctance motor, and simulation results of the complete switched reluctance drive system are presented in the paper.

89    T. Wakasa, Hai-Jao Guo, O. Ichinokura, "A simple position sensorless driving system of SRM based on new digital PLL technique," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 502- 507 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Within many sensorless driving methods of switched reluctance motors (SRMs), the method that injecting high frequency voltage pulses into unenergized phase windings is easy to implementation. In this paper, we propose a sensorless driving method based on the impressed voltage pulse but using new digital techniques: a digital peak detector and a new digital PLL. The total system is constructed by digital device: field programmable gate array (FPGA) that is considered cheaper and higher speed compared with DSP. Test results show the possibility of attaining a higher performance level as compared with present approach.

90    Tian-Hua Liu, Ching-Guo Chen, "Implementation of a sensorless switched reluctance drive with self-inductance estimating technique," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 508- 513 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new method to estimate the shaft position of a switched reluctance motor (SRM). By on-line estimating the self-inductances of the motor, the shaft position of the SRM is obtained, and a closed-loop drive system can thus be achieved. The drive system performs well in both the pulse-width-modulated (PWM) region and the single pulse region. The adjustable speed range of the system is from 20 r/min to 2000 r/min. In addition, the drive system is automatically started from standstill to a required speed.

91    Tian-Hua Liu, Ming-Tsan Lin, Ching-Guo Chen, Chih-An Tai, "Implementation of a position control system of a sensorless synchronous reluctance drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 514- 519 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel position control for a sensorless synchronous reluctance drive system. By measuring the three-phase currents of the motor, a rotor position estimator is achieved. Then, a velocity estimator is derived from the estimated rotor position by using a state estimating technique. Next, a robust position controller is designed to improve the transient and load disturbance responses. A digital signal processor, TMS-320-C30, is used to execute the estimating and control algorithms. To evaluate the performance of the position control system, a moving table is connected with the drive system. The drive system can precisely control the moving table. Experimental results show that the proposed system has good performance.

92    Qing-Chang Zhong, T.C. Green, Jun Liang, G. Weiss, "H/sup /spl infin// control of the neutral point in 3-phase 4-wire DC-AC converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 520- 525 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new circuit topology and the H/sup /spl infin// control design for the neutral point in a 3-phase 4-wire DC-AC power converter, which can be connected to 3-phase 4-wire loads or the power grid. It offers a significant advantage: the neutral leg and the three-phase converter can be controlled independently. The disadvantages of the conventional neutral leg and the split DC link (e.g. the complicated control design, the very large capacitance and the drifting neutral point) have been overcome. The control system (including the PWM waveform generating scheme) is considerably simplified. The neutral point can be steadily regulated by a very simple controller (e.g. a proportional controller) even when the three-phase converter system (mostly, the load) is extremely unbalanced. A voltage-current controller is designed using H/sup /spl infin// techniques. This topology together with the H/sup /spl infin// control also offers a solution to the DC link balancing problem inherently existing in three-level converters. The design is verified by simulation results.

93    M. Benghanem, A. Draou, A. Tahri, "Harmonics elimination technique applied to an NPC topology three level inverter used as static VAr compensator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 526- 531 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the use of harmonics elimination method applied to a three level inverter is reported. The method used to calculate the switching angles is clearly shown and discussed. Simulations results using Pspice program and experimental results are carried out to validate the mathematical model. Finally, we applied this harmonics elimination method to control an advanced static VAr compensator (ASVC) which uses a three level voltage source inverter.

94    T. Takeshita, N. Matsui, "Current waveform control of distributed generation system for harmonic suppression on distribution system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 532- 537 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The voltage waveform in the electric power distribution system is distorted by harmonic producing loads. Regardless of the terminal voltage waveform with or without harmonics, the output current waveform of the distributed power generation systems is always controlled to obtain a sinusoidal waveform. For harmonic suppression of the voltage and current on the distribution system, the authors propose the current waveform control of the distributed generation system with a PWM converter. The effectiveness of the proposed current waveform has been verified by experiments.

95    Chan-Ki Kim, Byung-Mo Yang, Yong-Ho Ahn, Jong-Gi Choi, "Impact of generator of inverter station on torsional dynamics of HVDC system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 538- 543 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the impact of an inverter station on the torsional dynamics of turbine-generator which is located at the inverter side of a HVDC-AC network power system. The study shows that the torsional stress of turbine-generator depends on the AC network fault locations since it is influential to the commutation failures of an inverter station. The torsional stress induces fatigue in the shaft material, and it reduces the shaft life-time. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the torsional stress of turbine-generator shaft at the inverter side, and find where should be checked in a turbine-generator. The EMTDC program is used for the simulation studies.

96    Li Jian, Kang Yong, Chen Jian, "A novel repetitive PD control strategy for single-phase 400 Hz CVCF inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 544- 549 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a novel repetitive PD control strategy for single-phase 400 Hz CVCF inverters is presented. The performance of CVCF inverters is evaluated in terms of output voltage waveform distortion with linear or nonlinear loads and transient response due to sudden changes in the load. The repetitive controller is synthesizing to minimize low-order harmonic distortion in steady state. Since the ratio between the switching frequency and the fundamental output frequency of 400 Hz inverter is significantly decreased, the inverse of inverter under no load is used to attenuate the resonant peak resulting from the inverter in order to obtain stability and satisfactory harmonic rejection. On the other hand, PD control is used to improve transient performance. The PD controller is designed using direct digital approach base on the frequency response method in the w-plane. Thus, repetitive controller and the PD controller can be combined to take advantage of their positive attributes. The control scheme is implemented using a TI TMS320F240 DSP in a 400 Hz 5.5 kW prototype. Simulation and experimental results prove that the proposed control scheme can achieve not only low THD during steady-state operation but also fast transient response subject to load step change.

97    F. Charfi, M.B. Messaoud, B. Francois, K. Al-Haddad, F. Sellami, "Two novel modeling methodologies for IGBT transistor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 550- 554 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To overcome the limitations of the conventional Matlab IGBT model, two model libraries for the power device (IGBT) aimed for the simulation of the power circuit tools have been proposed. To that end, we adapt the Stateflow to create the first model that consists of both control and operative parts. The Matlab Simulink environment is used to build the second model. The paper discusses the modeling methodology and describes simulation results obtained for different operation zone as well as advantages and drawbacks of the applied techniques.

98    S. Musumeci, R. Pagano, A. Raciti, F. Frisina, M. Melito, "Parallel strings of IGBTs in short circuit transients: analysis of the parameter influence and experimental behavior," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 555- 560 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the behavior analysis of parallel connection of IGBTs under short circuit conditions is presented. The issues of hard switching fault (HSF) and fault under load (FUL) short circuit types are faced by taking into account for the influence of the layout and gate driving parameters. The role of the temperature has been considered too in order to investigate how this quantity affects the IGBTs short circuit phenomenon. An analytical description of the FUL transient is introduced to put in correlation the current and voltage peaks, which are suffered by the IGBT, to the circuit and device parameters. Indeed, the current peak imbalance appearing in a FUL condition is depending on the power layout, on the gate driving conditions and spread on device parameters.

99    F. Iov, F. Blaabjerg, Zhe Chen, A.D. Hansen, P. Sorensen, "A new simulation platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 561- 566 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Matlab/Simulink/spl reg/ has become the most used software for modeling and simulation of dynamic systems. Wind energy conversion systems are for example such systems, containing subsystems with different ranges of the time constants: wind, turbine, generator, power electronics, transformer and grid. The electrical generator and the power converter need the smallest simulation step and therefore, these blocks decide the simulation speed. This paper presents a new and integrated simulation platform for modeling, optimizing and designing wind turbines. The platform contains different simulation tools: Matlab/Simulink (used as basic modeling tool), HAWC, DIgSilent and Saber.

100    A. Kawamura, T. Furuya, K. Takeuchi, Y. Takaoka, K. Yoshimoto, Meifen Cao, "Maximum adhesion control for Shinkansen using the tractive force tester," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 567- 572 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The acceleration and deceleration rate of the train depend on the tractive force. When the wheels of the train slip on the rails, the electric torque is decreased to avoid the continuous slipping. This reason is that the tractive coefficient between the wheels and the rails has a peak at a certain slip velocity and the over slipping should be avoided. But this adhesive phenomenon is not clearly examined or analyzed. Thus we have developed new adhesion test equipment, and we measured the tractive force with this equipment, and clarified the adhesive phenomenon. Then, we proposed a maximum tractive force control in the slip region and verified the validity of the proposed control scheme.

101    A. Scaglia, G. Melandri, "Impact speed drop compensation procedure for a new layout wire rod mill," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 573- 578 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new architecture of the final section of the production line of a wire rod mill (WRM). Such final section consists of three stands that are powered by one 5400 kW and two 2400 kW motors, respectively. The motors are supplied by one 9 MVA and two 6 MVA medium voltage NPC inverters, all in the AFE (active front-end) configuration. The authors briefly describe the new mechanical layout and its functional characteristics, highlighting its advantages in terms of product quality and productivity. They also present the main tasks of the automation system, so devised to insure dimensional accuracy of the product both under static and dynamic conditions. Finally, the authors give details of the new algorithm studied and implemented as a special function, added to the standard drive control software and devised to compensate the dynamic speed drop occurring at the impact of the billet entering the stand. By this algorithm the maximum instantaneous impact speed drop is reduced to 0.2% of the maximum rolling speed. Due to the very high rod output speed, the performance of the line production in terms of product quality is directly related to the efficiency of the new algorithm. The paper provides also information about the main results and the performance level attained by the production line.

102    S.M. Madani, Lei Hao, H.A. Toliyat, "A low-cost four-switch BLDC motor drive with active power factor correction," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 579- 584 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a high-performance low-cost brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive for commercial and residential applications. The proposed drive employs fewer number of switches than the conventional converter and incorporates an active power factor correction feature which results in sinusoidal input current at close to unity power factor. The proposed converter has bidirectional capability, which improves speed control features of the drive. Moreover, a new PWM current control system, with regenerative braking capability is proposed. Finally, simulation and experimental results are given to verify the proposed developed methods.

103    Liu Congwei, Sun Xudong, Chai Jianyun, Li Fahai, Xiao Ruhong, "A new ripple-free torque brushless DC motor without requirement for square-shape magnet flux distribution," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 585- 589 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new structure of the brushless DC motor with ripple-free torque performance is first proposed. The steady torque of the motor is guaranteed even if the shape of rotor magnet flux distribution is arbitrary. It adopts 180/spl deg/ square-wave current and 120/spl deg/ or less flux distribution. The reason of torque ripple in conventional square-shape brushless DC motor is presented. The theoretic proof of ripple-free performance of torque in novel brushless DC motor is given under commutating and noncommutating stage. The principle of novel motor design including one tooth pitch skewed slot in stator and method for decrease the 60/spl deg/ residual magnet flux is given, the influence to effective width of uniform current density by skewed slot is analyzed. Serial connected and parallel connected power circuit topology is discussed. The experiment comparison between novel and conventional brushless DC motor is investigated. Experimental results verify that the output torque is constant in noncommutating stage. The method to decrease current fluctuating caused by commutation is given.

104    J. Dixon, M. Rodriguez, R. Huerta, "Position estimator and simplified current control strategy for brushless-DC motors, using DSP technology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 590- 596 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a different way to sense the phase currents and to estimate DC rotor position of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor. For current control, the current is sensed taking the absolute value of two of the three phases, transforming this information in a DC current I/sub MAX/, which is finally compared with a reference value. With this method of control, all the transistors of the inverter are commutated with the same PWM signal. Based on the this characteristic, the paper proposes a method to estimate the instantaneous position of the rotor. The method is based on the determination of the current slopes of the PWM during the conduction periods. The main characteristic of this type of motor, fed with quasi-square-wave currents, is that it only needs a six-position sensor, and one current controller for its full torque control. The system was implemented using a fast digital signal processor (TMS320F241) which is programmed with a closed loop PI control for the phase currents. The processor also makes all the calculations required for position estimation. Because of a lack of BLDC in laboratory, the motor tested was a 12 kW (16 HP) permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), with sinusoidal back EMF. This machine has been tested with quasi-square current waveforms using the method proposed, and fed with an IGBT inverter working at 15 kHz commutation frequency. Experimental results of the currents and the way the slopes of current locus are obtained are shown.

105    Jeong-seong Kim, S. Doki, M. Ishida, "Improvement of IPMSM sensorless control performance by suppression of harmonics on the vector control using Fourier transform and repetitive control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 597- 602 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the case of the sensorless control for the PMSM that estimates position and velocity from EMF using the model of a synchronous motor with the voltage and current, it is desirable for the voltage and current to be perfect sine waves. However, in fact, various harmonic components are contained in the voltage and current, and they have bad influence on the estimation performance of a sensorless control. In this paper, we propose an improving method of sensorless control performance for the IPMSM by suppression of harmonic component in the current control loop of the vector control using Fourier transform and repetitive control. To suppress harmonic components, compensation signals are acquired using Fourier transform and repetitive control, and feedforward control is implemented with acquired compensation signals. To evaluate our proposed system, the sensorless control system for the IPMSM is taken for instance. The system is constructed on the basis of the extended EMF disturbance observer with the current and voltage command whose harmonic components are suppressed. As a result, we can have a margin in pole assignment of the disturbance observer, and the performance of sensorless control can be improved. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results.

106    G. Garcera, E. Figueres, M. Pascual, J.M. Benavent, "Novel analog adaptive 3-loop average current mode control of parallel DC-DC converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 603- 608 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new three-loop control scheme for multimodule parallel DC-DC converters with average current mode control (ACC) is presented. The proposed loop adds a high gain robust loop with two controllers to the conventional current and voltage ACC loops, achieving an analog adaptive voltage loop in which the equivalent voltage regulator varies with the changing power stage parameters: number of modules, input voltage, load and component tolerances. The loop improves drastically the disturbance rejection of the control system, i.e. closed loop output impedance and audiosusceptibility, while preserving stability and loop gain crossover frequency to a significant extent.

107    H. Bevrani, Y. Mitani, K. Tsuji, "Robust control design for a ZCS converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 609- 614 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Resonant converters have a highly nonlinear and time-varying nature. Any change in operating conditions leads to significant changes in system dynamical model so that desired performance and even stability are lost. This situation is mainly due to variation in load and line voltage. Taking into consideration the uprising need for high-quality resonant power converters comes the need for modern and systemic approaches to the control of these systems. In this paper to access both satisfactory stability and satisfactory performance, such as reduced sensitivity to line voltage and load variations, satisfactory disturbance rejection, reduced output impedance, and attenuated transfer from input to output, we use the /spl mu/-synthesis technique for a zero-current switching (ZCS) converter.

108    F. Jurado, F.P. Hidalgo, "Neural network control for dynamic voltage restorer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 615- 620 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The dynamic voltage restorer is a power electronic device which has demonstrated its ability to protect sensitive loads from the effects of costly voltage sags. The dynamic voltage restorer is connected in series with the distribution feeder at medium voltage. A neural network control is proposed. As is known, the PWM converter is actually nonlinear, but the PI is a linear controller, so it can only guarantee the stability of this converter in a local area. Simulation results are shown to validate these control methods.

109    M. Mezaroba, D.C. Martins, I. Barbi, "A ZVS PWM full-bridge inverter with active clamping technique using the reverse recovery energy of the diodes," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 621- 626 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a ZVS PWM full bridge inverter with active voltage clamping technique that use the recovery energy of the diodes. The structure is particularly simple and robust because they use only a single auxiliary switch. Switching losses are reduced due to implementation of the simple active snubber circuit that provides ZVS conditions for all switches, including the auxiliary one. It is very attractive for single-phase high power applications. Its main features are: simple control strategy, robustness, lower weight and volume, lower harmonic distortion of the output current, and high efficiency. The principle of operation for steady-state conditions, mathematical analysis and experimental results from a laboratory prototype are presented.

110    G. Jimenez, J.L. Sevillano, F. Diaz, A. Linares, M.A. Rodriguez, "Waveform generator based on computer-controlled switching power supplies," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 627- 632 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes design and implementation of a waveform generator. The generator can be controlled using an embedded computer, performing many different voltage patterns up to 400 V. This feature makes it a very versatile instrument, useful in a wide range of experiments. The system is based on a switching DC power supply (flyback converter), controlled by an on-board microcontroller. The control system is a proportional feedback control with a feedforward loop. The main contribution of this paper is that using the fundamentals of PWM controlled switching power supplies, we implement a generic waveform generator. As an application example, we describe the characterization of breakdown in thin films in order to obtain dielectric parameters.

111    You Xiaojie, Li Yongdong, "A shunt active power filter using dead-beat current control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 633- 637 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The conventional control method of active power filter is based on the instantaneous reactive power theory. But the performance of this method is affected by the distortion of source voltage. To overcome the problem, this paper presents a novel control method based on dead-beat current control with fixed switching frequency. The results of both simulations and experiments are presented.

112    M.A. Perales, L. Terron, J.A. Sanchez, A. de la Torre, J.M. Carrasco, L.G. Franquelo, "New controllability criteria for 3-phase 4-wire inverters applied to shunt active power filters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 638- 643 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In shunt active filter applications, the 3-phase 4-wire topology is frequently used when dealing with unbalanced loads containing zero sequence components. A new design criteria for this topology is presented, based on the well known existing method for the 3-phase 3-wire system. Simulation and experimental results confirms the validity of this new criteria, providing an easy method for the design of the reactive elements involved in a shunt active filter.

113    S. Rahmani, K. Al-Haddad, F. Fnaiech, "A series hybrid power filter to compensate harmonic currents and voltages," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 644- 649 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a series hybrid power filter (SHPF) to compensate harmonic currents and voltages at PCC is proposed. The SHPF consists of a small-rated series active power filter (SRSAPF) and a series tuned passive filter (STPF). This combination is suitable for compensating voltage type harmonics-producing load. The SHPF uses the synchronous rotating frame method, which detects both source current and load voltage harmonics. Simulation results using Power System Blockset Toolbox PSB of Matlab show the performance of the series hybrid power filter, and its capability to compensate for voltage type harmonics-producing load.

114    P. Salmeron, J.C. Montano, J.R. Vazquez, J. Prieto, A. Perez, "Practical application of the instantaneous power theory in the compensation of four-wire three-phase systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 650- 655 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For three-phase four-wire circuits, two compensation criteria are possible: one based on the instantaneous value concept and the other on the average value concept. Thus, according to the first method the noninstantaneous power current is reduced, without altering the instantaneous active power (time-instantaneous compensation, TIC). On the other one, according to the second method the nonactive current is reduced, without altering the average power (time-average compensation, TAC). When the zero-sequence voltage component exists, both compensation types, would not enable the zero-sequence (neutral) source current elimination. Then, two approaches are marked in this paper. The first one, is for eliminating the noninstantaneous power current or eliminating nonactive current component but neutral current can still flow. The second one for eliminating the modified noninstantaneous power current or the modified nonactive current, thus the neutral current components is compensated. Experimental results are obtained to confirm the theoretical properties and show the compensator performance.

115    S. Segui, F. Gimeno, V. Leon, J. Montanana, "Unbalanced power active compensator with unit efficiency control for the improvement of the electric quality in four wire systems with photovoltaic panels in the DC bus," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 656- 661 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a new method for obtaining the reference currents for an unbalanced power active compensator (UPAC), applied in unbalanced systems with linear loads connected to an unbalanced three-phase system and with positive sequence voltage. The reference currents are obtained using the unifying theory of electrical power (UTEP). UTEP is applied to the control of a power converter and this helps optimize the balance of the current supplied by the three-phase generator and improves efficiency. Unit efficiency control (UEC) is used in this application. The developed system uses photovoltaic panels in the DC bus and this enables compensation for power losses in the inverter bridge and control circuits-depending on the level of sunshine. The system efficiently supplies electrical energy to the utility. UEC control of voltage source inverters (VSI) is applied over a single-phase linear load; specifically, over a resistance domestic oven of 2200 W, supplied by a three-phase utility of 220 V from line to neutral point, with a 50 Hz frequency and direct sequence. The digital control is achieved with a digital signal processor (DSP) and the power section consists of a commercial three-phase power inverter bridge and an interface card.

116    M. Boussak, "Sensorless speed control and initial rotor position estimation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 662- 667 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new approach to a sensorless speed control and initial rotor position estimation for interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) drive is presented. At rotating condition, speed and rotor position estimation of IPMSM drive are obtained through an extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm, by simply measurement of the stator line voltages and currents. The main difficulty in developing an EKF for IPMSM is caused by the complexity of the dynamic model expressed in the stationary coordinate system. This model is more complicated than that of the surface PMSM, because of the asymmetry of the magnetic circuit. The starting procedure is a problem under sensorless drives, because no information is available before starting. The initial rotor position is estimated by the current response of the voltage pulse, which is intermittently applied to the motor at standstill. To illustrate our work, we present experimental results for an IPMSM obtained on a floating-point digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320C31/40 MHz based control system.

117    E. Robeischl, M. Schroedl, M. Krammer, "Position-sensorless biaxial position control with industrial PM motor drives based on INFORM- and back EMF model," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 668- 673 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the presented paper the practical realization of a position sensorless biaxial positioning system based on industrial permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives is introduced. At low speed including standstill the INFORM-method is used for sensorless position estimation, at high speed an EMF-based short circuit model is applied. With the help of a proper control structure and a corresponding implementation in the DSP the standard deviation of the estimated rotor position is just about 3-5 degrees (el.) at both models, resulting in a linear position resolution of about 0.05 mm in the presented application. In order to reduce the costs of the drive and to increase its reliability once more the energy consumption at generating mode is implemented without any additional hardware just by a slightly modified control structure. As a result a highly dynamic low-cost sensorless position control with a positioning accuracy of about 3-5/spl deg/ el. is practically realized.

118    M. Linke, R. Kennel, J. Holtz, "Sensorless position control of permanent magnet synchronous machines without limitation at zero speed," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 674- 679 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Sensorless position control of surface mounted permanent magnet synchronous machines (SMPMSM) still is a challenge. High performance position control at low and zero speed is only possible using anisotropic effects being considered not in the fundamental-frequency machine models, but in extended high-frequency models. This paper presents a new high-frequency injection method estimating the rotor position, which overcomes the small signal to noise ratio inherent to methods of this type published so far. This enables to track even small saliencies typical for SMPM synchronous machines. A small high-frequency voltage signal is injected into the rotor d-axis with no influence on the torque producing q-current. The demodulation of the responding high-frequency current signal is independent on machine parameters. Therefore the proposed method is independent on machine parameters and simply adaptable to different machines. As only the high frequency current has to be processed for position estimation, there is no additional hardware necessary besides that for standard drives with field oriented control.

119    C. De Angelo, G. Bossio, G. Garcia, J. Solsona, M.I. Valla, "Sensorless speed control of permanent magnet motors with torque ripple minimization," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 680- 685 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A sensorless speed control strategy for permanent magnet AC machines with nonsinusoidal EMF waveform is presented in this paper. First, a nonlinear observer is proposed to estimate the EMF as well as rotor speed. Assuming that the EMF waveform is unknown, a high gain observer is proposed to estimate the time derivative of the position derivative of linked flux, which is needed for the EMF estimation. Then, the estimates are employed in the implementation of a torque control with minimum ripple. The performance of the proposal is validated through simulation.

120    S. Stasi, L. Salvatore, F. Cupertino, "Sensorless control of PM synchronous motors based on LKF estimation of rotor position," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 686- 691 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel PMSM sensorless control scheme based on a linear Kalman filter (LKF) observer. The LKF algorithm is able to estimate rotor position and current components in the stator reference frame by measuring stator currents, and using a mathematical model based on the voltage equations of motor. The proposed observer is linear but time-varying because the rotor speed is treated as a model parameter to be updated on-line. Estimation of rotor speed is performed in two steps: firstly a rough speed estimation is obtained by processing the estimates of rotor position; then a simple speed observer is used to improve the accuracy of speed estimates. The observer output, i.e. the final speed estimate, is fed back to both the speed control loop and LKF algorithm. Sensitivity to strong stator resistance variations makes this sensorless algorithm unsuitable for operation at very low speed; good performances are obtained in the speed range from 10% of rated speed to full speed.

121    J.I. Guzman, J.R. Espinoza, M.A. Perez, "Improved performance of multi-pulse current and voltage source converters by means of a modified SHE modulation technique," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 692- 697 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Medium voltage AC drives use multi-pulse, multi-cell or multi-level power converter topologies in order to meet the power quality requirements. In fact, they can easily cancel out low order unwanted harmonics while keeping an even distribution of the load power through out the power semiconductors. Multi-pulse configurations based on active switches are used at the AC/DC stage in order to control the fundamental current component. This allows the control of the power sent to the load while operating at reduced current distortion and unity displacement power factor. For instance, in a 12-pulse configuration, the fundamental component control could be achieved by introducing a chopping angle at the gating pattern as indicated by the selective harmonic elimination technique. Thus, the configuration can handle the fundamental component at expense of the injection of the 11/sup th/ and 13/sup th/ harmonics into the AC system and the 12/sup th/ harmonic to the load, as the lowest unwanted harmonics. This paper proposes that by adding just one extra chopping angle at the gating pattern level, the first unwanted low frequency harmonic is the 24/sup th/. This improvement is achieved without any penalties in the AC waveforms. In general, for a n-pulse converter, the lowest unwanted harmonic is the (2/spl middot/n)/sup th/ harmonic. Simulated and experimental results confirm the theoretical considerations.

122    M. Basu, S.P. Das, G.K. Dubey, "Performance study of UPQC-Q for load compensation and voltage sag mitigation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 698- 703 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is one of the major custom power solutions that is capable of mitigating the effect of supply voltage sag at the load end or the point of common coupling (PCC). It also prevents load current harmonics from entering the utility and corrects the input power factor of the load. The control of series compensator is such that it injects voltage in quadrature advance to the supply current, so that no active power is consumed by the series compensator at steady state. The UPQC employing this type of quadrature voltage injection in series is termed UPQC-Q. The present paper discusses the VA requirement issues of series and shunt compensators of UPQC-Q and its performance is verified in a laboratory prototype. The phasor diagram, control block diagram and typical experimental results are presented to confirm the validity of the theory.

123    S.-I. Hamasaki, A. Kawamura, "Experimental verification of disturbance observer based active filter for resonance suppression," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 704- 709 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In case of the harmonic compensation based on the detection of the line current, a problem of the resonance between the active filter (AF) and an LC filter often arises if an LC filter is connected parallel to the AF. Thus the disturbance observer is introduced to solve this problem. By the estimation of the harmonics disturbance using the proposed disturbance observer, the compensation characteristics of the AF is improved and the resonant current can be compensated. In this paper, the theoretical analyses of resonance, a design of the disturbance observer based AF and the experimental results are presented.

124    Hung-I Hsieh, Ching-Cheng Teng, "Experimental approach to likely optimizing the transition and output inductors for activating the dynamic behavior of the phase-shifted zero-voltage-switching PWM full-bridge converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 710- 715 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A likely optimization of the transition and output inductors for activating the dynamic behavior of the phase-shifted zero-voltage-switching pulse-width modulated full-bridge (ZVS-PWM FB) converter is introduced. Five conversion models, including one energy-delivery state, two resonances, one energy-holding state, and one transition state etc., are explored and analyzed. Interestingly, the transition inductor is dominant only for the energy-transition period in the H-loop and the other four dynamics are mainly subject to the output inductor when the turns-ratio of the main transformer is greater than two. Design consideration for estimating the mentioned inductors is conducted and implemented by a 1-kW ZVS-PWM FB converter to assess the predicted dynamics.

125    S. Chakraborty, A.K. Jain, N. Mohan, D.M. Mitchell, "A novel power distribution system for multiple individually regulated loads using a single converter and reduced magnetic components," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 716- 720 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel power distribution system for supplying multiple individually regulated outputs from a current source that contains all the magnetic components. Realization of the current source with buck, buck-boost, and SEPIC converters is discussed. Individual outputs are regulated by hysteretic control while the converter output current is regulated using average current control. Simulation results for the system using a SEPIC converter as a current source are presented.

126    J.M.M. Ortega, A.T. Lora, M.B. Payan, C.I. Mitchell, "Reference current errors of instantaneous pq-based methods for active filters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 721- 726 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The reference current errors of instantaneous pq-based methods for active filters are analyzed in this paper. First, the error function in steady-state conditions is derived and a numerical harmonic analysis is performed. A theoretical harmonic analysis is developed to carry out the underlying reasons that causes the error harmonics due to the singularity of the harmonic spectrum. Finally, some examples of application are reported.

127    S. Rahmani, K. Al-Haddad, F. Fnaiech, "A new PWM control technique applied to three-phase shunt hybrid power filter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 727- 732 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new PWM control technique applied to a three-phase shunt hybrid power filter (SHPF). An appropriate control strategy for removing harmonics caused by nonlinear loads is developed. The PWM control technique adopted is based on two comparisons of a triangular high frequency carrier signal and the source harmonic currents. This harmonic signal namely +/spl thetav/ and its opposite value -/spl thetav/ are used, at the same instant, in the comparison process to generate the gate signals for the semiconductor devices. By using the averaging technique, the direct consequence of using this new PWM technique is that the transfer function of the active power filter (APF) becomes. a pure gain. Therefore the DC voltage regulator as well as the filter current controllers becomes easier to design. The Matlab PSB simulation results of the proposed technique highlight the performance of the controllers in terms of THD reduction and power factor correction.

128    Taeck-Kie Lee, Woo-Cheol Lee, Hoon Jang, Dong-Seok Hyun, "A study on the line-interactive UPS using the series voltage compensator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 733- 738 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a three-phase line-interactive uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with series-parallel active power-line conditioning capabilities, using synchronous reference frame (SRF) based controller, which allows an effective power factor correction, source harmonic voltage compensation, load harmonic current suppression and output voltage regulation. The three-phase UPS system consists of two active power compensator topologies. One is a series active compensator, which works as a voltage source in phase with the source voltage to have the sinusoidal source current and high power factor under the deviation and distortion of the source voltage. The other is a parallel active compensator, which works as a conventional sinusoidal voltage source in phase with the source voltage, providing to the load a regulated and sinusoidal voltage with low total harmonic distortion (THD). The control algorithm using SRF method and the active power flow through the line-interactive UPS systems are described and analytically studied. The simulation results are depicted in this paper to show the effect of the proposed algorithms.

129    J.R. Vazquez, P. Salmeron, J. Prieto, A. Perez, "Practical implementation of a three-phase active power line conditioner with ANNs technology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 739- 744 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new method to control an active power line conditioner (APLC) using neural networks is presented. Actually, there is an increase of voltage and current harmonics in power systems, caused by nonlinear loads. The APLCs are used to compensate the generated harmonics and to correct the load power factor. The proposed control design is a pulse width modulation control (PWM) with two blocks that include neural networks. Adaptive networks estimate the reference compensation currents. On the other hand, a multilayer feedforward network (trained by a backpropagation algorithm) works as hysteresis band comparator. An experimental prototype was built to check the proposed control performance. The practical results confirm the possibility and usefulness of controlling an APLC by means of artificial neural networks.

130    N. Bianchi, S. Bolognani, M. Zigliotto, "Time optimal current control for PMSM drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 745- 750 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes an innovative current control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives with both isotropic and anisotropic rotors, based on Pontryagin's time optimal control (TOC) theory. The control strategy assures the fastest current response after any demanded torque reference variation. It can be demonstrated that such a control exhibits faster response than hysteresis control, even if the latter is often considered the fastest control scheme. The theoretical principle of TOC is at first illustrated. It is then applied to PMSM drives and verified by simulations. Comparison to other control strategies is included in the paper. At last, an experimental validation is carried out and measured results are presented and discussed.

131    D. Swierczynski, M.P. Kazmierkowski, "Direct torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) using space vector modulation (DTC-SVM)-simulation and experimental results," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 751- 755 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents digital signal processor (DSP) based direct torque control scheme using space vector modulation (DTC-SVM) for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. The analysis of PMSM shows that the increase of electromagnetic torque is proportional to the increase of the angle between the stator and rotor flux linkages and therefore fast torque response can be obtained by increasing the rotating speed of the stator flux linkage as fast as possible. The presented control strategy DTC-SVM is implemented in software of the DS1103 board. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Also comparison with conventional DTC scheme and results of speed control loop are given.

132    C. De Angelo, G. Bossio, G. Garcia, J. Solsona, M.L. Valla, "A rotor position and speed observer for permanent magnet motors with nonsinusoidal EMF waveform," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 756- 761 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A nonlinear reduced order observer for estimating the rotor speed and position for permanent magnet motors is presented. The EMF is estimated first assuming only that it can be approximated by a Fourier series. Then rotor position and speed are reconstructed using the relationship between the EMF and the rotor variables. The EMF generated by the motor, which is neither sinusoidal nor trapezoidal, is obtained experimentally off-line. Then, it is approximated by a Fourier series in order to construct the model to be estimated on-line. The proposed observer is ideal for the realization of torque control with minimum torque ripple, since it allows an easy synthesis of nonsinusoidal currents. The proposal is validated with experimental results.

133    Y. Gao, K.T. Chau, "Chaotification of permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives using time-delay feedback," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 762- 766 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Research has shown that chaos can actually be useful under certain circumstances, and there is growing interest in utilizing the very nature of chaos. Thus, a controllable chaotic motor drive, namely chaotifying a motor drive, is highly desired for practical engineering systems. This paper firstly proposes and implements a time-delay feedback method to chaotify a practical permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive. Based on the current-fed model and field-oriented control, the corresponding system dynamics will be approximated by first-order differential equations. Hence, the electromechanical torque will be adjusted according to the time-delay speed feedback. Consequently, chaotic motion can be achieved by tuning the feedback gain of the torque controller. Moreover, the resultant chaotic motion is easily controllable in the sense that the rotor speed boundary can be controlled precisely by the value of the speed ratio. This controllable chaotic PMSM drive potentially offers some special applications desiring chaotic motion such as fluid mixing and surface grinding. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation as well as experimental results will be given to verify the proposed method of chaotification.

134    J.L.V. Mora, A. Lelkes, J.M. Pacas, "External rotor PM motor fed by a load commutated inverter for fan applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 767- 770 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An important market for brushless permanent magnet (BLPM) motors is fan applications. External rotor motors are especially advantageous for space-saving fan-motor-units. Synchronous machines fed by a load-commutated inverter (LCI) have been used for many years for drive systems in the highest power range. The utilization of this system in the lower power range for washing machines by using PM motors was also proposed. The present paper examines an LCI-fed external-rotor PM motor for fan applications.

135    Jiang Yanshu, Xu Dianguo, Chen Xiyou, "Analysis and design of a feed-forward-type active filter to eliminate common-mode voltage generated by a PWM inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 771- 775 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An equivalent model of a four-winding transformer for a feed-forward-type active filter is presented in this paper and a three-phase inverter-fed motor drive system can he described as a single-phase system for the convenience of analysis. After a passive common-mode voltage detection method is analysed theoretically, a resistor-capacitor network is used to detect common-mode voltage generated by a PWM inverter; a push-pull circuit, in which the complementary transistors have no maximal rating voltage limitation, is used to amplify current for driving a four-winding transformer which is used to impose a compensating voltage with the same amplitude but with the opposite polarity to the common-mode voltage generated by the PWM inverter. Some design considerations of the filter are also given in detail. In a 380 V/3 kW motor drive system, simulation analysis and experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed filter that the common-mode voltage at motor terminal is eliminated almost completely and the negative effects of the common-mode voltage, such as shaft voltage and bearing current, are unobvious.

136    Yu-Kang Lo, Sheng-Yuan Ou, Shang-Chin Yen, "Adaptive DC voltage control of an active power line conditioner," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 776- 779 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new strategy for adaptive DC voltage control of an active power line conditioner (APLC) is proposed in this paper. The APLC is composed of a full-bridge inverter of which the DC voltage is supplied by a capacitor rather than a DC power supply. The relationships of the current slopes are discussed to determine the level of the DC voltage of the capacitor. By measuring the peak slope of the command for the compensating current, an optimal value for the reference DC voltage can be set based to produce an undistorted input current with a minimum switching loss. Experiments show satisfactory results for the APLC to operate under the proposed control method.

137    A. Abellan, J.M. Benavent, G. Garcera, D. Cerver, "Fixed frequency current controller applied to shunt active filters with UPF control in four-wire power systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 780- 785 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a shunt active power filter for four-wire power systems with unity power factor control (UPF), which operates in unbalanced and nonsinusoidal conditions. In these power systems it is interesting to use four-branch voltage source inverters (VSI) because they are capable of compensating load currents of nonzero average value. Most four-branch VSI control methods are based on a space vector generalization using Clarke's transformation. The switches of these inverters operate at variable frequency with the well-known disadvantages that this supposes. Here a fixed frequency current controller applied to four-branch VSI is presented. It is based on an extension of the space vector modulation from two-dimensional space to three-dimensional space using Clarke's transformation. With it, a fixed switch switching frequency is obtained that causes line current ripples to have a fixed frequency. These current ripples can be easily attenuated by means of appropriate filters. This current controller also is able to decrease the relationship between DC and AC voltages at a greater rate than the one in and at a much greater rate than the ones in. For obtaining the reference currents starting from load currents the UPF control method based on the domain analysis is used.

138    A. Kheloui, K. Aliouane, K. Marouani, F. Khoucha, "A fully digital vector current control of three phase shunt active power filters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 786- 791 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The most important issues in implementing shunt active power filters are to obtain accurate information about harmonic currents, and to inject the appropriate compensating currents into the AC lines. This paper presents a space vector control technique of the compensating currents with low switching frequency. The proposed control strategy and the computation method of the current references, based on instantaneous reactive power theory, are entirely performed digitally in a PC-based control system.

139    R.L.A. Ribeiro, F. Profumo, C.B. Jacobina, G. Griva, E.R.C. Da Silva, A.M.N. Lima, G. Penneta, "Two fault tolerant control strategies for shunt active power filter systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 792- 797 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper shows how to integrate fault detection, fault identification and fault compensation into two different types of fault tolerant active power filter systems. These proposed strategies can compensate the open-circuit and short-circuit failures occurring in the power converter devices used on active power filter systems. The fault compensation is achieved by reconfiguring the power converter topology by using isolating and connecting devices. These devices are used to redefine the post-fault converter topology. This allows for continuous free operation of the system after isolation of the faulty power switches of the converter. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed fault tolerant control strategies.

140    Gubae Kang, Bon-Gwan Gu, Sung-Yong Shin, Kwanghee Nam, Seong-Hwan Yoon, Tae-Kyung Shin, "A double winding linear induction motor control scheme for PRT system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 798- 803 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To increase fault tolerance, a double winding linear induction motor (LIM) is proposed for personal rapid transit (PRT) system. In the double winding LIM, two sets of windings are wound in a single yoke, and each of them are controlled by separate inverters. Therefore, the flux continuity must be provided in the region where the two windings are overlaid. Providing flux continuity is interpreted as aligning two flux angles. If the flux angles of two LIMs are not identical, then abrupt flux change occurs in the overlaid region, causing loss and coupling between two inverter systems. To align two flux angles, we propose a flux aligning controller by exchanging angle information through RS-232 communication and analyze its performance under the disturbance. We discuss the fault-tolerant operation algorithm and compare the PRT system with the other transport systems.

141    K. Ohishi, Y. Sato, E. Hayasaka, "High performance speed servo system considering voltage saturation of vector controlled induction motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 804- 809 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Generally, a speed servo system of vector-controlled induction motor has a limitation of motor voltage and motor current. When the speed servo system has a large torque reference, the output of its PI controller is often saturated. In this case, the conventional servo system stops the integral calculation of its PI controller. However, this system often has a large overshoot and/or an oscillated response caused by both a windup phenomenon and phase error on vector control condition. This paper proposes a new speed servo system considering voltage saturation for vector-controlled induction motor. The proposed control method compensates the phase error on vector control condition quickly, and always keeps the vector control condition. The experimental results show that the proposed system well regulates a motor speed and a motor secondary magnetic flux for a large torque reference without a windup phenomenon.

142    K.K. Mohapatra, K. Gopakumar, V.T. Somasekhar, L. Umanand, "A novel modulation scheme for a six phase induction motor with open-end windings," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 810- 815 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A modulation scheme for a six phase induction motor is presented in this paper. For a six phase induction motor drive harmonics of the order 6n /spl plusmn/1(n=1,3,5 etc.,) will not contribute to the air gap flux and hence these harmonic currents are limited by the stator impedance only. So harmonic filters are needed for the suppression of these 6n /spl plusmn/1(n=1,3,5 etc.,) high amplitude harmonic currents, when a six phase induction motor is used for variable speed application. In the proposed scheme, a modulation technique to eliminate the 6n /spl plusmn/1(n=1,3,5 etc.,) harmonic currents, without the need for harmonic filters, from the stator phases of a six phase induction motor drive is explained. An open-end winding drive configuration with DC link voltages, chosen in such away that a 12-sided polygonal voltage space phasor combinations are achieved for each 3-phase group, independently. A modulation scheme based on 12-sided polygonal voltage space phasors will cancel the 6n /spl plusmn/1(n=1,3,5 etc.,) harmonic voltages from all the motor phases and hence currents due to these harmonics will not flow in the motor phases of the six phase machine. The proposed drive scheme is experimentally verified, for variable speed application, using a 1 HP six phase induction motor drive.

143    Chan-Ki Kim, Byung-Mo Yang, Bong-Eon Kho, Gil-Jo Jeong, "Performance analysis for the modified excitation system of synchronous machine connected to HVDC system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 816- 821 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyses the transient performance of the modified excitation system using 4-quadrant chopper for a synchronous machine connected to HVDC system. Conventionally, capacitors are used to supply reactive power requirement at a strong converter bus. And the installation of a synchronous machine is essential in an isolated weak network to re-start after a shutdown of HVDC and to increase the system strength. However, a conventional static excitation system has some problems which are harmonic instability and the system stress due to overvoltage. To reduce these problems, the new excitation system, which has 4-quadrant chopper, is proposed. As the proposed system provides the capability to allow reverse current and isolate between AC network and excitation power, problems of overvoltage and harmonic instability can be solved. The investigation is performed and confirmed by the time domain digital simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC program.

144    G. Bossio, C. De Angelo, G. Garcia, J. Solsona, M.I. Valla, "Analysis of a position estimation strategy using a multiple-coupled circuits model of the induction motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 822- 827 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for the analysis of a position estimation strategy for induction motors is presented. A model of multiple-coupled circuits, whose parameters are calculated from the winding geometry and distribution, is used for the analysis. The analyzed estimation strategy is based on the variation of the inductance between stator windings and rotor bars. The rotor position is obtained from the effect produced by inductance variation in the zero sequence voltage, exciting the motor with a predefined inverter-switching pattern. As an example, the analysis of the effect of skew on the estimation position signals is presented. Experimental results that validate the proposal are shown.

145    L. Demas, T.A. Meynard, H. Foch, G. Gateau, "Comparative study of multilevel topologies: NPC, multicell inverter and SMC with IGBT," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 828- 833 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents and compares several multilevel topologies used in the high voltage and high power applications. This study is focused on a multicell converter with flying capacitors, the new stacked multicell converter (SMC) and the classical neutral point clamped converter (NPC). After a recall of the properties of these converters, various aspects of the design are studied such as the energy stored in all the reactive components, the switches' properties and the switching losses. A comparison based on losses, the energy stored and performances is made.

146    C. Rech, H.A. Grundling, H.L. Hey, H. Pinheiro, J.R. Pinheiro, "A generalized design methodology for hybrid multilevel inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 834- 839 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper develops a detailed analysis and proposes a generalized design methodology for hybrid multilevel inverters. With these hybrid topologies, it is possible to minimize the number of series-connected cells for a given number of levels, minimizing the THD of the output voltage and, therefore, reducing or even eliminating the output filter. With the proposed design methodology, the number of series-connected cells and the value of the DC voltage source of each cell are defined so that few cells synthesize a large number of levels and the circulating energy among the series-connected inverters is minimized, increasing the efficiency of overall system.

147    S. Mariethoz, A. Rufer, "Design and control of asymmetrical multi-level inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 840- 845 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with asymmetrical multi-level inverters. The investigated topologies consist of series connected cells with different input voltages. Some combinations of different input voltages have been proposed to improve the converter resolution. This paper has a general approach. It describes the rules to obtain a uniform step with these topologies. It points out the switching problem of some of these asymmetrical solutions, describes the rules to avoid this problem, resulting in a solution where the number of commutations and hence the switching losses may be reduced. For this purpose, it also proposes an adapted optimal control strategy based on a geometrical approach, and a scheme for the control of multi-level inverters.

148    H. Valderrama-Blavi, L. Martinez-Salamero, J. Maixe, E. Vidal-Idiarte, C. Alonso, "Optimizing losses in multilevel inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 846- 851 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Losses generation in a multilevel inverter leg are analyzed in this paper for N=2, 3, 4, and 5 levels. An N-level inverter is modeled as the superposition of N-1 elementary buck converters to simplify the losses analysis. The results of the analysis show that the efficiency of a multilevel inverter can increase when the number of levels increases if an appropriate device selection is made. SABER simulations and experimental results in a 500 W 5-level prototype confirm the analytic predictions.

149    V.M.E. Antunes, V.F. Pires, J.F. Silva, "Harmonic distortion reduction in multi-level PWM modulators for audio power amplifiers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. 852- 857 vol.1, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new methodology to reduce harmonic distortion in multilevel PWM modulators with uniform sampling. The proposed approach generates pulses with widths longer than a pre-determinate value. This ensures the needed time for the calculations and helps to reduce audio distortion introduced by the nonzero rise and fall time of the switches. Therefore the methodology allows smaller harmonic distortions than the inherent of uniform sampled PWM signals. Simulation results are presented.

150    "Author List," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1 , pp. i- xiv, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference

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Vol.2 ,   5-8 Nov. 2002           Access to the IES Annual Conference on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




1    "Proceedings of the 2002 28th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Soclety," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 0_1- VI, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

2    S. George, V. Agarwal, "A novel technique for optimising the harmonics and reactive power under nonsinusoidal voltage conditions," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 858- 863 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The conventional power factor correction techniques assume the voltage source to be purely sinusoidal. But this is rarely true because the nonsinusoidal currents drawn by nonlinear loads incur nonsinusoidal voltage drops across source impedance and transmission line impedance. The result is a nonsinusoidal voltage supply applied to the load. Under such conditions, any attempt to make the power factor unity by usual methods will result in a nonsinusoidal current, which increases total harmonic distortion (THD). On the other hand attempt for harmonic free current may not result in unity power factor because of harmonics present in the voltage. Thus, there is a trade off between improvement in power factor and reduction of THD. With the law enforcing agencies getting more vigilant about power quality, it has become unavoidable to optimise power factor while satisfying harmonics limits. In this paper, a novel technique for optimisation of harmonics and power factor subject to power quality constraints is presented for nonsinusoidal voltage conditions. The technique is based on Lagrange multiplier method and calculates the concerned control coefficients by Newton Raphson method. This is used to compute the desired source current for optimum power factor satisfying the power demand of the load while meeting the THD limits. Knowing the load current, the compensating current that must be supplied by the active filter to the power system can be calculated. The proposed scheme does not use the widely used p-q theory and is applicable for both the single-phase and three-phase systems. Analysis using MATLAB has shown encouraging results. The scheme is being implemented in hardware using DSP.

3    I. Etxeberria-Otadui, V. Manzo, S. Bacha, F. Baltes, "Generalized average modelling of FACTS for real time simulation in ARENE," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 864- 869 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper studies two cutting edge technologies applied to the power system: FACTS devices and real time (RT) simulation tools. On the one hand, the complexity of the power system and its components, makes power system simulators very useful and even necessary. Amongst all the existing simulators, real time digital simulators permit the test of power system components in conditions that are quite close to reality. On the other hand power electronic devices such as FACTS, are becoming more and more frequent on the power system, and it is necessary to evaluate their impact on the performance of the system. For all these reasons it is very important to develop FACTS models which can be suitable for real time simulation in order to test their interaction with other power system components. This paper presents the generalized average model of two FACTS devices the static VAr compensator (SVC) and the static VAr generator, which have been then introduced in ARENE for the realization of real time simulations.

4    J. Gomes, F. Farret, M. Pieniz, "Harmonic minimization in HVDC systems through multiple injection of supplementary control signals," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 870- 873 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is a discussion about multiple injection of supplementary signals of lower harmonic orders to minimize either voltage or current harmonics of lower larger amplitudes in HVDC converters. Through the proposed algorithm the injection of those signals can reduce the dimensions of the filtering equipment and liabilities, so much in the AC- as the DC-sides of the converter. The importance of this reduction is evidenced exactly by the more effectiveness in those lower harmonic orders, closer of the fundamental.

5    A. Tilli, F. Ronchi, A. Tonielli, "Shunt active filters: selective compensation of current harmonics via state observer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 874- 879 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with partial current harmonics compensation by means of shunt active filter. A novel observer-based scheme is proposed to estimate load harmonics. This task is performed in d-q reference frame where active and reactive current components are enlightened. Positive and negative sequences are distinguished for selective compensation. Predictive action can be generated using the proposed observer to improve current tracking performances. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of this technique.

6    J. Gutierrez, J.C. Montano, M. Castilla, A. Lopez, "Power-quality improvement in reactive power control using FC-TCR circuits," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 880- 885 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Reactive power compensation using fixed capacitor (FC) and thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) circuit is studied. The goal is the minimization of the RMS and THD values of the line current, controlling the firing angle value of the TCR branch. Some changes in the conventional architecture of the conventional FC-TCR compensator were necessary to achieve it. We show that substitution of the reactor by a switched tapped-reactor forces the thyristor-firing angle to be small, improving the power factor (PF) and the total harmonic distortion of the line current (THDI). We denote this new architecture as 'fixed capacitor-thyristor switched reactor-thyristor controlled reactor' (FC-TSR-TCR). In the case of nonsinusoidal voltage supply, the above quantities, PF and THDI, are remarkably improved by substituting fixed capacitor by a fixed LC serial branch (FLC-TSR-TCR). These changes are also effective with nonlinear loads. For simulation purposes, FC-TSR-TCR and FLC-TSR-TCR compensator models, and linear and nonlinear loads, represented respectively by RL circuits and ideal current sources, have been considered. For several illustrative cases, an optimization algorithm is applied in each half-cycle of the voltage source, and optimum values of firing angles are obtained satisfying condition of minimum rms value of the line current. PF and THDI are calculated in the considered cases to show the performance of the FLC-TSR-TCR compensator.

7    J. Dixon, L. Moran, "Multilevel inverter, based on multi-stage connection of three-level converters scaled in power of three," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 886- 891 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A multi-stage inverter using three-state converters is being analyzed for multipurpose applications, such as active power filters, static VAr compensators and machine drives for sinusoidal and trapezoidal current applications. The great advantage of this kind of converter is the minimum harmonic distortion obtained. The drawbacks are the isolated power supplies required for each one of the stages of the multiconverter. In this paper this problem has been overcome by using isolated, bidirectional DC power supplies, which are fed from a common power source. This solution becomes practical because only one converter of the chain, called Master, takes more than 80% of the total active power required by the system. The rest of the converters, called "Slaves", need very low power, and then those DC supplies are small. Another configuration with common DC supply and output transformers is displayed, and simulation results for different applications are shown and compared with similar results obtained with conventional PWM converters. The control of this multi-converter is being implemented using DSP controllers, which give flexibility to the system.

8    Chul-Woo Han, Tae-Jin Kim, Dae-Wook Kang, Dong-Seok Hyun, "Line-interactive DVR using multi-level H-bridge inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 892- 897 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The interest in power quality has become a hot issue. The equipment causes voltage disturbance and has become more sensitive to the voltage disturbance. This paper deals with 5-level H-bridge line-interactive dynamic voltage restorer (LIDVR) system. The LIDVR has following advantages in comparison with the DVR with series injection transformer. It has the power factor near to unity under normal source voltage, can compensate the harmonic current of the load and the instant interruption, and has the fast response. First, the construction, the operation mode and algebraic modeling of LIDVR are reviewed. Then a voltage controller is proposed to get sinusoidal PCC (point of common coupling) voltage with constant amplitude. To find PWM method suitable for multi-level H-bridge converter, two PWM methods are compared and analyzed. Finally, simulation results verify the proposed 5-level H-bridge LIDVR system.

9    J. Pou, R. Pindado, D. Boroyevich, "Voltage-balance limits in four-level diode-clamped converters with passive front ends," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 898- 902 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel diode-clamped converters with more than three levels cannot maintain voltage balance in the DC-link capacitors for some operating conditions due to the existence of DC currents in the middle points. Since capacitors are either completely charged or discharged for those conditions, this circumstance severely limits practical application of these converters. The limit explored in this work is that the four-level converter cannot achieve voltage balance. Proper redundant vectors are selected in the space-vector diagram so that a quadratic parameter related to the currents in the middle points is minimized.

10    M. Botao, Liu Congwei, Zhang Yang, Li Fahai, "New SVPWM control scheme for three-phase diode clamping multilevel inverter with balanced DC voltages," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 903- 907 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new SVPWM control scheme for three-phase diode clamping multilevel inverters. First, it is proved that if the switch states are selected in a given mapping relation, the voltages of DC capacitors will be symmetrical. Voltage offsets of each two symmetrical capacitors fluctuate at the three-time frequency of AC currents. This rule can be applied to N-level (N>2) inverters and simplify the approach to solve unbalanced capacitor voltages. Then based on it, a new control strategy is presented to maintain the balanced voltages on the four DC capacitors of a diode clamping five-level inverter. Finally an experiment drive system is implemented on a TMS320F240 DSP in the Lab. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.

11    E.J. Bueno, R. Garcia, M. Marron, J. Urena, F. Espinosa, "Modulation techniques comparison for three levels VSI converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 908- 913 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays, multilevel converters are the best option to work with high level power signals in medium voltage ranges. The aim of this article is to compare different continuous functions used to generate driving PWM signals in inverters: cosinusoidal, vectorial and cosinusoidal with zero-sequence functions. In this way, different MATLAB models have been developed to analyze and obtain important conclusions about supply voltage exploitation and load signal harmonic components for each proposed modulation technique. On the other hand, in this document the problem according to the unbalance of the NP voltage in NPC converters is also analyzed. In this way, NP voltage and current are shown and analyzed for each of the modulation methods presented.

12    S. Alepuz, J. Salaet, A. Gilabert, J. Bordonau, J. Peracaula, "Control of three-level VSIs with a LQR-based gain-scheduling technique applied to DC-link neutral voltage and power regulation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 914- 919 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple and effective method to design a regulator for the complete large-signal control of the three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) VSI is presented. For the regulator calculation, a comprehensive multivariable model of the NPC-VSI converter is used. The control strategy is based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and gain-scheduling control techniques. Any state variable can be regulated using the proposed method, either in small and large-signal operation, including state variables related to DC-link voltages. With the model and regulator presented, DC-link unbalance regulation is also achieved by means of the controller action instead of the switching strategy. A controller is designed to keep DC-link neutral point voltage balanced and to regulate the power delivered to the load. Simulation results confirm the validity of the proposed controller design. Steady-state and transient operation experimental results are obtained using a NPC-VSI prototype and a PC-embedded DSP board for control implementation.

13    O. Alonso, L. Marroyo, P. Sanchis, E. Gubia, A. Guerrero, "Analysis of neutral-point voltage balancing problem in three-level neutral-point-clamped inverters with SVPWM modulation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 920- 925 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the evolution and the control options of the neutral point potential in NPC inverters with SVPWM modulation are analysed. In this analysis, the different components that can be found in the phase current are taken into account: fundamental, DC current and harmonics. Firstly, the current injected in the neutral point by the nonredundant medium vectors is evaluated for each phase current component. The only components that inject DC current in neutral point are demonstrated to be the even and nonmultiple of 3 current harmonics. This DC current tends to unbalance the neutral point potential. Finally, the compensation of this DC current by means of both the small redundant vectors and the fundamental component of the phase current is analysed. This study allows the maximum amplitude of the phase current harmonics to be determined without losing the neutral point potential control with the SVPWM modulation.

14    Jung-Kyun Kim, Tae-Jin Kim, Dae-Wook Kang, Dong-Seok Hyun, "Analysis of capacitor voltage and boost vector in neutral-point-clamped converter and H-bridge converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 926- 931 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In steady states, converter is normally operated in the range of 0.7/spl sim/0.8 [p.u] of modulation index. Even though zero vectors are not imposed to high modulation index, DC-link voltage is constant. It means that there exists another boost vector except for zero vectors among several vectors in 3-level converter. This paper has examined the principle of boost and investigated the difference between another boost vector and zero vectors in 3-level converter. In addition, this paper has analysed and compared capacitor voltage of NPC and H-bridge converter. It proposed the calculation method for the voltage ripple and charging current of each capacitor and dealt with voltage balance problems of each link capacitor, which are associated with the switching state and the position of reference voltage vectors. The proposed strategy and comparison are confirmed by simulation.

15    J. Rodriguez, P. Lezana, J. Pontt, J. Espinoza, M. Perez, "Input current harmonics in a regenerative multi-cell inverter with single-phase active rectifiers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 932- 937 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Harmonics are a very important issue in the design and operation of medium voltage inverter drives due to restrictions imposed by regulations. This paper studies the harmonics generated in a three-phase cascaded multi-cell inverter with single-phase active front end (AFE) at the input side of each cell. This study identifies accurately the origin of the harmonics present in the DC link voltage and in the input currents and discusses methods to reduce and, in some cases, eliminate them. It has been established that the low-frequency harmonics in the primary input current can be cancelled by an appropriate interconnection of the cells and of the input transformer.

16    R.K. Jardan, J. Hamar, I. Nagy, P. Korondi, P. Gogos, "Time domain analysis of common-mode EMI noise in the power lines at electronics production plants," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 938- 943 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents an analysis about the problems caused mostly by common-mode EMI noise in up-to-date production plants applying large number of sensitive electronic and microelectronic equipment and large power systems incorporating power electronic equipment, generating both radiated and conducted EMI noise in a wide frequency range. The paper focuses mainly on problems caused by common mode conducted EMI noise. It presents models for computer simulation of the system, suggests practical solutions for the reduction of the noise levels and finally simulation and on-site test results are included in the paper.

17    S.-I. Nagai, S. Sato, M. Yamamoto, M. Nakaoka, "Noise evaluation, two switch resonant DC link-assisted double converter system and commutation control to improve loss," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 944- 949 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The novel control method of reducing the power losses in the soft commutation circuit of this ARDCL method with two switch quasi-resonant circuit was proposed for three phase double converter with a single resonant snubber. It was confirmed that all the active power switches in the main and auxiliary circuit could achieve the soft switching commutation within the wide operating range from a light load to the ratings load. Moreover, the boost current was able to be substantially decreased to a minimum value necessary to make a main switch ZVS in this control strategy. This double converter system could improves the actual efficiency from 86.9% to 88.7% for the hard switching method, and has also improved the conduction noise by about 20 dB in the experimental feasible system of 10 kVA. It was verified that this double converter circuit composition is simpler than the other soft switching methods because the circuit components and power semiconductor devices and the detector and their related interfaces are not added. In. addition, because the main active power switch losses could be substantially decreased about one half as compared with the hard switching double converter system, this switch and the cooling heat sinks could be also miniaturized. The double converter system are cost effectiveness is high. This soft commutation double converter implementation is going to be practicable, because of the excellent merit. Finally, the switches of the experimental system used high-speed IGBT as compared with the hard switching method. This soft commutation method makes all the switches soft-switching. Therefore, if the trench gate IGBT with the low saturation type is used, much higher efficiency can be achieved in this double converter and are able to have practical effectiveness.

18    M. Chomat, L. Schreier, "Compensation of unbalanced three-phase voltage supply in voltage source inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 950- 955 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A control method for the compensation of unbalanced voltage supply that eliminates pulsating current in the DC link of a voltage source inverter is investigated. Such a pulsating current can have detrimental effects on operating properties of the drive as well as on the quality of power supply in the electrical vicinity of the inverter. A feasible range of control parameters is determined based on the required level of immunity against unbalanced voltage supply and on the parameters of the system. The impact of the control method on the power factors and current amplitudes in individual input phases for the available range of control parameters is analyzed and discussed. Examples of numerical simulations illustrate operation of the system under investigation both with and without the compensation method used.

19    S. Kwak, R.M.O. Dabbousi, H.A. Toliyat, "An instantaneous compensation technique for supply disturbances in direct frequency converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 956- 960 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Voltage sags and swells are a common occurrence in industrial power distribution system. Even though the matrix converter has more vulnerable structure than the conventional rectifier-inverter drives, it has the inherent ability to compensate three-phase voltage sags and swells. In this paper, a simple instantaneous compensation technique for voltage disturbances is presented. Two methods are provided based on both the Venturini's method and the SVM method. The algorithms are based on the modification of controllability such as the voltage transfer ratio in the Venturini's method, and the modulation index of the rectifier stage in the SVM in the event of the supply disturbances. For compensations of supply disturbances, the utility input voltages are sensed and then converted to the value reflecting the instantaneous supply voltage amplitude. Then, the controllability inside the matrix converter is corrected to compensate the supply disturbances if voltage sags and swells do occur. Analysis and simulation are presented for the feasibility of the proposed technique.

20    Y. Miloud, A. Draou, "Fuzzy logic based rotor resistance estimator of an indirect vector controlled induction motor drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 961- 966 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple method for estimating rotor resistance in an indirect vector-controlled induction motor drive is proposed in this paper. The proposed rotor resistance estimator which uses fuzzy logic principle is based on the improvement of control performance when mismatch between estimated rotor resistance and actual one occurs. Analysis, design, and digital simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed estimator. Moreover, simplicity and direct approach for estimating the rotor resistance are other significant features for the described method.

21    N. Abdel-Rahim, A. Shaltout, "Operation of single-phase induction motor as two-phase motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 967- 972 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, it is proposed to drive a single-phase induction motor with a two-phase supply. The two-phase supply is obtained from the conventional single-phase utility supply by using a two-phase inverter. The adverse effects of most of the harmonics associated with the use of the two-phase inverter are alleviated by canceling/attenuating the dominant harmonics in the motor terminal voltages using the selective harmonic elimination (SHE) pulse width modulation (PWM) technique.. The performance of the motor is analyzed using computer simulation and is then compared with that of a conventional single-phase capacitor start induction motor. For a comprehensive comparison, the analysis is performed at both the transient and steady-state cases. Furthermore, frequency analysis is conducted with a view to provide more insight into the operation of the proposed scheme. The proposed mode of operation allows the single-phase induction motor to gain the advantages of the poly-phase motor such as starting torque, less torque harmonics and higher rated power.

22    V.T. Somasekhar, M.R. Baiju, K.K. Mohapatra, K. Gopakumar, "A multilevel inverter system for an induction motor with open-end windings," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 973- 978 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a multilevel inverter system for an open-end winding induction motor drive is described. Multilevel inversion is achieved by feeding an open-end winding induction motor with two 2-level inverters in cascade (equivalent to a 3-level inverter) from one end and a single 2-level inverter, from the other end of the motor. The combined inverter system with open-end winding induction motor produces voltage space phasor locations identical to a 6-level inverter. A total of 512 space phasor combinations are available in the proposed scheme, distributed over 91 space vector locations. The proposed inverter drive scheme is capable of producing a multilevel PWM waveform for the phase voltage ranging from a 2-level waveform to a 6-level waveform depending on the speed range. A space vector PWM scheme for the proposed drive is implemented using a 1-HP induction motor with open-end winding structure.

23    C.J. Ramos, A.P. Martins, A.S. Araujo, A.S. Carvalho, "Current control in the grid connection of the double-output induction generator linked to a variable speed wind turbine," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 979- 984 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The output power of present wind turbines is continuously increasing. At high power levels, to limit mechanical stresses and power surges in the grid it is necessary to use speed control systems. The double-output induction generator (DOIG) system is an excellent solution to adjust the speed over a wide range. At present the two converters associated with the DOIG use high power IGBTs with medium switching frequencies in order to optimise the current waveform in the generator and in the grid. The two converters need a high performance control system operating with high sampling frequencies and complex control algorithms. The voltage source IGBT converter connected to the grid controls the active and reactive power supplied and imposes a low level of harmonic distortion. This paper presents the results obtained with such a system.

24    R. Pena, R. Cardenas, G.M. Asher, J.C. Clare, J. Rodriguez, P. Cortes, "Vector control of a diesel-driven doubly fed induction machine for a stand-alone variable speed energy system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 985- 990 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a control structure for a vector controlled doubly-fed induction generator, used for a variable speed energy conversion system, driven by a diesel engine. The paper focuses on an energy system, feeding an isolated load, with two back-to-back PWM converters connected between the stator and the rotor for sub and super synchronous speed operation. A d-q reference frame aligned with the stator flux is used for rotor current control, with correct orientation assured by controlling the q-axis rotor current. Indirect control of the stator voltage is achieved by regulating the stator flux via the d-axis rotor current. Minimum fuel consumption of the diesel, for any given load, is obtained by regulating the speed to follow an optimum operating curve. Given the nonlinear characteristic of the diesel engine, a fuzzy logic structure is used to adapt the parameters of the speed controller. Results are presented for step load impacts and for the tracking of the optimum speed.

25    D. Forchetti, G. Garcia, M.I. Valla, "Vector control strategy for a doubly-fed stand-alone induction generator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 991- 995 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A voltage and frequency control for a stand-alone doubly-fed induction generator is presented in this paper. The control strategy consists of a simple vector control with impressed rotor currents. This strategy allows generating constant frequency and voltage with variable mechanical speed. Experimental results where obtained using a 5.5 kW induction machine. The behavior of the voltage and frequency, under variable speed and load, are shown. The experimental results confirm the feasibility of this proposal.

26    S. Ryvkin, D. Izosimov, S. Baida, A. Shipunov, V. Obrazumov, A. Alexandrov, "Digital vector control algorithm for induction motor torque drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 996- 1001 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High quality precision digital vector control for standard AC drive (induction motor, voltage source inverter, current and speed sensors (or mechanical variable observer)), microprocessor-based controller is described. The synthesis of control algorithm is based on using exact (analytical) discrete model; digital, independent estimation of unmeasured variables; decomposition of vector control on two independent scalar controls of the field current and torque one; using discrete sliding modes control or asymptotic control; using variables predictor on a step of calculations for compensation of delay caused by calculation time of the controller; using optimal vector PWM for reduction of switching losses. The simulation has confirmed essential increase of dynamic accuracy, simplification of algorithm of digital control, reduction of the requirements to computing capacity of the controller.

27    A.B. Nikolic, B.I. Jeftenic, "DTC of a CSI-fed induction motor with DC link based adaptive estimator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1002- 1007 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Direct torque control (DTC) of a current source inverter (CSI) fed induction motor is proposed in the paper. The main contribution of the paper is a flux estimator with only two inputs (the current and the voltage measured from DC link) and a modified integrator with an adaptive compensation. The stator current, voltage and resistance are determined by a reconstruction from DC link measurements, known characteristics of the inverter semiconductors and the current states of the inverter switches. The rectifier is controlled by a PI current controller. The rectifier current reference is resolved from the torque and the rotor flux references in the similar way as in the standard vector control scheme to obtain fast DC link current response at all speeds. For the torque control, the optimal current switching-vector table is used. Simulation and experimental results are provided to confirm the performance of the proposed control algorithm. Some of these results are compared with those obtained with the vector control method of the same drive.

28    H. Henao, G. Capolino, C. Martis, M. Radulescu, "Harmonic characteristics of an induction machine connected to a distribution network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1008- 1013 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a complete study of the induction machine allowing the determination of its harmonic characteristics generated in the line current. The method used to analyse the induction machine behaviour is based on the circuit-oriented approach. The developed model facilitates the estimation of frequencies and maximum values of the stator current harmonic components. Using the EMTP/ATP electrical network simulation package, the obtained circuit-oriented model is simulated in normal conditions at the rated load and the results are compared with theoretical results and experimental measurements.

29    Changsheng Li, M. Elbuluk, "A robust sliding mode observer for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1014- 1019 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a sliding mode observer to estimate the position and speed of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The observer error under parameters' detuning is analysed. Simulation results showed that the observer is robust to the parameter uncertainties. An adaptive gain scheduling is used to increase the observer speed of convergence. A phase-compensation is introduced to minimize the unwanted phase lag introduced by the observer low pass filter. The observer lowest speed is 0.5 rad/s.

30    H.E. Akhter, V.K. Sharma, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, "Starting performance of switched reluctance motor with fixed turn-off angle control scheme," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1020- 1025 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The value of turn-off angle is an important factor in developing positive or negative, high or low electromagnetic torque in switched reluctance motor (SRM) and leads to stable or unstable operation of the drive. This paper presents the performance of a 4 kW 8/6-pole configuration SRM drive through modelling and simulation. Normally, the turn-off angle depends upon the motor speed and is changed with acceleration. However, in this paper, the study is conducted for full load starting and stable operation of the drive with fixed turn-off angle control scheme. The simulated performance of SRM drive system is presented to analyze the effect of fixed value of turn-off angle on transient and steady state performance of the drive in terms of speed, current and torque response. The merits of fixed turn-off angle control scheme are highlighted.

31    C.S. Edrington, B. Fahimi, R.B. Sepe, "Sensorless super-high-speed switched reluctance generators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1026- 1031 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Operating at super high speeds emerges as a need in various sectors of industry including military, automotive and home appliances. Generation of electric power at such speeds has the inherent advantage of compactness and elimination of speed adaptation means. Switched reluctance (SR) drives favor high speed operation due to their inherent ruggedness and robust structure. In addition they represent a very long constant power region allowing an efficient operation in a compact form. Moreover, SRM drives can tolerate structural and thermal conditions imposed by the application. Finally, they are inherently fault tolerant due to their modular configuration. To take steps towards making SR a superior choice for generation at super high speed, availability of a reliable sensorless control and a proper design and control is inevitable. The present paper addresses these critical technologies as related to aerospace applications. Experimental and simulation results are also presented to validate the claims.

32    Weizhe Qian, S.K. Panda, J. Xu, "Reduction of periodic torque ripples in PM synchronous motors using learning variable structure control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1032- 1037 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: PM synchronous motor drives are widely used for high-performance industrial servo applications where torque smoothness is an essential requirement. However, parasitic torque pulsations do exist in PMSM drive due to nonperfect sinusoidal flux distribution, cogging torque and current measurement errors. A consequence of these torque ripples is speed oscillation that deteriorates the drive performance particularly at low speeds. In this paper, we propose a simple plug-in learning variable structure control (LVSC) scheme for generating a compensation reference current to improve the steady-state torque and hence the speed responses. Extensive simulation and experimental investigations have been carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the scheme. Experimental results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in reducing torque ripples significantly.

33    Y. Perriard, C. Koechli, L. Cardoletti, "Noise reduction for brushless DC motor-sensorless control analysis and back-EMF shape modification," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1038- 1043 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Brushless DC motors are normally built with PM mounted on the rotor, which create the necessary back EMF voltage to produce mechanical power. The shape of this back-EMF voltage is very important in determining the phase voltage supply shape. The new generation of electronic drives uses sinusoidal shape current in order to suppress the harmonic. This paper describes a comparison made on a motor for pump application, with a sine wave back-EMF, and driven with a 120, 125 degree or sine wave control mode. The results show the differences between these modes, when using a sensorless technique to avoid the sensors. In order to complete the analysis, another possibility to decrease the noise is to modify the back-EMF shape. This reduces all the torque harmonics. A method is proposed with only one parameter modification. This method can be applied to a large range of applications.

34    R. Visinka, "Phase resistance estimation for sensorless control of switched reluctance motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1044- 1049 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The determination of phase resistance is a key factor for a number of sensorless position estimation algorithms of switched reluctance (SR) motors. The change of phase resistance during motor operation due to it's temperature dependency causes error in the position estimation and thus it significantly affects the performance of the drive. An on-the-fly resistance estimation algorithm for SR motors has been developed. The algorithm is based on estimation of flux linkage and its relation to the actual phase current. The developed resistance estimation algorithm has been successfully implemented and tested on a sensorless SR drive. The overall error of the phase resistance estimation was reached in a range of 2% for the low- and mid-speed range. it significantly improves the sensorless position estimation and thus SR drive performance. Since the algorithm requires neither additional sensors nor excessive computational power, it is applicable in real sensorless SR drives.

35    Chen Hao, Meng Xianjun, Xiao Fang, Su Tao, Xie Guilin, "Fault tolerant control for switched reluctance motor drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1050- 1054 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents the essential conditions for implementing the fault tolerant control of the switched reluctance motor drive system, such as the structure of the reluctance motor, the topology of the power converter, the rotor position detector, the current detector and the control strategies. The experimental tested results of the developed prototype with the fault tolerant control are given.

36    Feel-Soon Kang, Jung-Han Lee, Cheul-U Kim, Sung-Jun Park, "Single-stage power factor corrected SRM driver," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1055- 1059 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A single-phase power factor corrected converter for switched reluctance motor driving is presented to achieve sinusoidal, near unity power factor input currents. Because it combines a power factor corrected converter and a conventional asymmetric SRM driver into one power stage, the configuration has a simple structure resulted in low cost. A prototype to drive 6/6 poles SRM employing a parking magnet is designed to evaluate the proposed topology. The characteristics and operational mode are discussed in depth, and the validity of the proposed driver is verified through the experimental results.

37    Hu Yuwen, Tian Cun, Gu Yikang, You Zhiqing, L.X. Tang, M.F. Rahman, "In-depth research on direct torque control of permanent magnet synchronous motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1060- 1065 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The direct torque control theory has achieved great success in the control of induction motor. However, in the DTC drive system of permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) proposed a few years ago, there are many basic theoretical problems that must be clarified. This paper describes an investigation about the effect of the zero voltage space vectors in the DTC system of PMSM and points out that if using the zero voltage space vectors rationally, not only the DTC system can be driven successfully but torque ripple is reduced and performance of the system is improved. This paper also studies the sensorless technique in the DTC system of PMSM and configures the DTC system of PMSM with sensorless technique including zero voltage space vectors. Numerical simulations and experimental tests have proved the theory correct. In the sensorless condition, the DTC system of PMSM is wide-ranged speed adjusting, and the ratio of speed adjustment is 1:100.

38    Chong-Chul Kim, Jin Hur, Dong-Seok Hyun, "Simulation of a switched reluctance motors using Matlab/M-file," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1066- 1071 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new analytical representation and simulation of the phase inductance of a switched reluctance motor (SRM) using Matlab/M-file. This simulation method has many advantages: it is free from expression, can be applied widely, demonstrates inductance profile using a motor parameter only, and saves run time. Moreover, this simulation method can easily realize various SRM models unlike the existing method that limited itself to one model. Analytical expressions for inductance are welcome as they allow for easier analysis of the motor, for they can bring insights into the working, formulating control strategies and achieving high accuracy in performance computations.

39    Z.Z. Ye, T.W. Martin, J.C. Balda, R.M. Schupbach, "Feedback control of an 8/6 SRM under multiphase excitation mode with short flux paths," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1072- 1078 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A switched reluctance motor (SRM) operating under multiphase excitation mode with short flux paths can achieve higher torque density. This has been indicated in the literature by numerical analysis, simulation and measurement of static torque. However, the design of controllers for real-time operation of such a SRM is quite difficult due to the nonlinearity and mutual coupling arising from multiphase excitation. On the other hand, most of previous investigations regarding control of a SRM are only for single-phase excitation. In this paper, a simple but effective design approach for the current and speed controllers of an 8/6 SRM under multiphase excitation mode with short flux paths is proposed in the low and intermediate speed ranges based on some reasonable assumptions and simplifications. Using a fixed-point DSP, the real-time operation and control of the SRM are implemented by means of linearized controllers. Our experimental results verify the effectiveness of this method.

40    D.C. Martins, C.L. Weber, R. Demonti, "Photovoltaic power processing with high efficiency using maximum power ratio technique," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1079- 1082 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper shows in detail the study of a photovoltaic power processing and control circuit with the objective to maintain a photovoltaic module at the maximum power point using the maximum power ratio technique-MPRT. This function is accomplished by controlling the photovoltaic module voltage through the current drained from the module. The circuit is implemented using a DC-DC converter in buck configuration. The power stage, the control strategy, the system's operation principle and the simulation results are presented. In order to confirm the performance of the system, the experimental results acquired with the prototype constructed in laboratory also are shown.

41    N. Laverdure, S. Bacha, D. Roye, B. Raison, F. Dumas, "Elements of modelling of wind power systems with energy management: two structures in comparison," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1083- 1088 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to study the influence and the impacts of the grid connection of wind generators, and to predict problems which can occur, modelling plays a very important role. In this paper, a particular attention is focused on the energy management. For this, special models and control algorithms are developed. This paper presents two different wind generator topologies. The first structure is a synchronous machine connected to the grid via an AC-AC converter. This innovating solution, which remains still rather confidential, offers interesting possibilities in term of energy management (active and reactive power). The second structure is an induction machine directly connected to grid associated with a static VAr generator in order to avoid flicker problems and other perturbations. These two topologies are modelled, controlled and compared. First, the various wind generator components are modelled such as wind turbine, electric machine, power electronics devices and grid. Particular attention is focused on the various control levels, and on algorithms permitting to manage the system power generation, conversion and transfer. The proposed models and algorithms present the advantages in case of the lack of information such as control system data and control laws. In general, manufacturers only provide commercial data, a lot of details concerning the kind and the size of the wind power generators. Finally simulation results, comparisons for each solution are presented.

42    N. Kasa, T. Iida, "Flyback type inverter for small scale photovoltaic power system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1089- 1094 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a newly developed flyback type inverter for a small scale (low power) photovoltaic power system and a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller without a current sensor for this system. As the small scale photovoltaic power systems are used in parallel, cost reduction with high reliability is strongly required. In the proposed inverter, the current is controlled with open loop, and then the generated power of photovoltaic array is calculated by an equation using the voltage of the photovoltaic array. Therefore, the system can obtain the power by detecting only the voltage of the photovoltaic array. As a result, we may obtain the performance of the MPPT without a current sensor as well as with a current sensor.

43    R. Tirumala, P. Imbertson, N. Mohan, C. Henze, R. Bonn, "An efficient, low cost DC-AC inverter for photovoltaic systems with increased reliability," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1095- 1100 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a topology for photovoltaic inverters to convert the DC voltage to single phase or split-single-phase AC. The proposed modular approach helps to increase the reliability of the system by introducing redundancy while lowering cost by having identical modules in parallel to achieve different output power levels.

44    A. Kotsopoulos, P.J.M. Heskes, M.J. Jansen, "Zero-crossing distortion in grid-connected PV inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1101- 1106 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Zero-crossing distortion has been observed in the AC output current produced by some grid-connected PV inverters and this can cause a resonant response between the grid impedance and the inverter filter capacitor. In some cases, particularly with large numbers of parallel connected inverters and with weak grids, the resonance can cause voltage distortion that may be large enough to disturb other nearby equipment. A number of commercially available inverters were tested to investigate the mechanisms of this distortion. A model was then developed to allow further simulations with different numbers of inverters and varying levels of distortion to be performed.

45    K.H. Edelmoser, F.A. Himmelstoss, "Control strategy of a solar power inverter (analysis of a fifth order system III)," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1107- 1112 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In power inverter applications coupled to power grids a dedicated reactive filter is unavoidable to interface the generator to the power grid. This is necessary to fulfill the EMC requirements of switched mode inverters, and to ensure the required output characteristics (current source). In this paper the output stage of an inverter in conjunction with the matching filter section and the main impedance is analysed. The topology used here leads to a structure of sixth order which was difficult to control (due to its high system order) and problematic to realize due to unknown varying mains impedance behaviour. To overcome the resulting limitations of the low damped system and to reach the goal of an always stable and robust system here a special compensator is used. It is shown, that the optimal adaptation of the presented structure leads to a simple, insensitive, easy to use and very robust solution. The presented concept is well-suited for mains-coupled power inverters, especially solar inverter applications.

46    Hyeong-Ju Noh, Dong-Yun Lee, Dong-Seok Hyun, "An improved MPPT converter with current compensation method for small scaled PV-applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1113- 1118 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved MPPT converter with current compensation method for small-scaled PV-applications is presented in this paper. The proposed method implements maximum power point tracking (MPPT) by variable reference current which is continuously changed during one sampling period. Therefore, the proposed MPPT converter with current compensation method increases the power transferred to the load above 9%. As a result, the utilization efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV)-module can be increased. In addition, as it doesn't use a digital signal processor (DSP), this MPPT method has the merits of both being cost efficient and having a simple control circuit design. Therefore, it is considered that the proposed MPPT method is proper to use for low power, low cost PV-applications. The concept and control principles of this improved MPPT method are explained in detail and the validity of the proposed method is verified through several simulated results.

47    J. Antenor Pomilio, G.M. Martins, S. Buso, G. Spiazzi, "Three-phase low-frequency commutation inverter for renewables," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1119- 1124 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The connection of distributed power sources with the utility grid generally needs an electronic power converter for processing the locally generated power and injecting current into the system. If the source provides a DC voltage, the converter must be able to produce a low-distortion, high-power factor AC current. The same aspects related with the voltage and current distortion produced by nonlinear loads can be considered for the injection of power into the grid. In the absence of a specific standard, this paper takes as a reference the limits for current harmonics given by the IEC61000-3-4 technical report. The justification for this approach is that, from the resulting line voltage degradation, there is no difference between injected and absorbed current. This paper presents a three-phase inverter using low-frequency commutation. An auxiliary circuit is added to the inverter topology in order to reduce the output voltage distortion, thus improving the current waveform. The main advantages of this approach are the minimization of the switching losses (i.e. high efficiency) and the elimination of the EMI (which avoids high-frequency filters necessary in high-frequency commutation inverters).

48    F. Scapino, F. Spertino, "Circuit simulation of photovoltaic systems for optimum interface between PV generator and grid," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1125- 1129 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper proposes a circuit simulation procedure based on two steps to determine the steady state working points and to analyze the time domain response of a grid-connected PV system. The overall PV generator is modeled with a very compact two-component physical model. A PV generator, constituted by a string of three standard 30 cell modules, connected to the grid by means of a PWM inverter, a decoupling inductor and a low frequency toroidal transformer is used as practical application example. This system is modeled and simulated using both DC and transient analysis with different modulation index values. Simulation outputs are compared with experimental results obtained from an ad hoc designed prototype system showing good agreement. The proposed circuit simulation procedure and models can be useful in assessing design variables as well as in checking novel hardware/software solutions for maximum power point tracking and grid connection.

49    J.Y. Hung, Mo-Yuen Chow, "Optimal excitation of a permanent magnet synchronous motor having an open-circuit phase," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1130- 1133 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Optimal excitation of a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor with an open-circuit winding fault is considered. A model of motor torque development with a failed winding is first presented using Fourier analysis. Then, a design procedure based on knowledge of the motor magnetic characteristic is developed. The average torque is maximized using the design approach, and torque ripple is reduced as the order of the optimal solution is increased. Two design examples are presented.

50    P. Hernandez, F. Monterde, J.M. Burdio, J.R. Garcia, S. Llorente, "Power losses distribution in the litz-wire winding of an inductor for an induction cooking appliance," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1134- 1137 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the squared-field-derivative method for calculating the losses in the winding of an inductor for induction cooking is derived. It is based on a 2D finite-element eddy-current simulation. For a given geometry just one simulation is needed for the analysis. The equivalent resistance of the winding and the optimum number of strands for a wire diameter and frequency are obtained. The distribution of the resistance inside the winding is obtained too, in order to localize the hot spots of the inductor. Also how the resistance of the winding change due to temperature caused by the variation of the conductivity of the winding material and the permeability of the materials which form the load (cookware).

51    J. Poza, E. Oyarbide, D. Roye, "New vector control algorithm for brushless doubly-fed machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1138- 1143 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new vector control algorithm for the brushless doubly-fed machine (BDFM) has been developed. The goal of the BDFM control is to achieve the same or higher dynamic performance as the wound rotor machine, exploiting the well known induction motor vector control philosophy. For this purpose a unified reference-frame model is preferred. This paper exploits this new model leading to some interesting coupling properties and allowing a high performance dynamic response. All this work is tested and validated in an experimental machine prototype.

52    E. Gubia-Villabona, P. Sanchis-Gurpide, O. Alonso-Sadaba, A. Lumbreras-Azanza, L. Marroyo-Palomo, "Simplified high-frequency model for AC drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1144- 1149 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The development of simulation models that describe the high-frequency behaviour of all the components in an electrical drive, can be considered as a very useful tool. The usefulness of these models exceeds the description of the disturbances caused by the drive elements (overvoltages, bearing currents, EMI, etc.). From these models, the influence of the system elements on the disturbances can be evaluated. This paper proposes a complete model consisting of simple structures representing every drive element: motor supply cable, ground system, electrical machine, electronic converter and power line. A complete system model allows the development of mitigation techniques that take into account all the perturbations. In addition, the proposed methodology allows calculating values for the different system parameters derived from tests carried out with the converter. The results show that the model is accurate enough to describe the high-frequency drive behaviour.

53    A.G. Torres, B.J. Cardoso Filho, "A generalized Epstein test method for the computation of core losses in induction motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1150- 1155 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Modeling and definition of procedures leading to good estimation of core losses in induction motors from material test data is still a challenge. Complex geometry of the laminations, concentration of current in discrete number of slots and PWM inverter supply further increase the complexity of induction motor core losses model. In this paper, it is proposed an alternative for the modeling and computation of the stator core losses in induction motors based on lab tests of samples of the magnetic material with simple geometry. The proposed method accounts for effects such as flux space harmonics, PWM inverter supply, material anisotropy and cutting stress during the manufacturing process. Models, test methods and practical results from a 2 hp, 220 V, 4 pole, high efficiency three-phase induction motor, employing E-170 steel, are presented and discussed in detail.

54    F. Ricci, Hoang Le-Huy, "An FPGA-based rapid prototyping platform for variable-speed drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1156- 1161 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach to the design and implementation of controllers for variable-speed drives using Simulink and FPGA software. A rapid prototyping platform based on FPGA is proposed and described. The design procedure using this platform is presented to illustrate the important steps. An application example using a DTC induction motor drive is presented and discussed.

55    Y. Liao, D. Xiang, L. Ran, G.A. Putrus, "Analysis of harmonic transfer in an AC excited generator including speed ripple," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1162- 1166 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: AC excited generators are favoured in some applications due to their features including generation at a constant frequency but a variable speed. With the rotor windings supplied from a static power electronic converter, harmonics are one of the major concerns in such systems. Based on a mathematical model of the AC excited machine, a method is developed to analyze the system or stator side harmonics as transferred from the rotor side. The effect of the rotor speed ripple, which can be caused by pulsating torque at low frequencies, is investigated. It is shown that the rotor speed ripple will modify the spectrum of stator current. Experimental tests and simulations are used to illustrate the phenomenon and verify the analysis.

56    Qitao Wu, Yanchao Ji, Jianze Wang, Yongxuan Hu, Mingwei Shan, "A novel phase-shifting harmonic elimination technique in PWM static VAr compensator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1167- 1172 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel phase-shifting harmonic elimination technique (PSHE) in PWM static VAr compensators (PSVCs) is proposed in this paper. By making the gating signals of the three phases shifted by T/sub s//3 in turn, the harmonics of (3k-2)f/sub s/-f and (3k-l)f/sub s/+f are eliminated from the compensating current. Compared with the previously presented compensator, it can work at a lower frequency with less harmonics. Moreover, it has the advantages of easy implementation and rapid response. The operating principle of the proposed concept is analyzed, and is finally verified by simulations and experiments.

57    I. Yamamoto, K. Matsui, M. Hasegawa, H. Mori, F. Ueda, "Individual DC voltage control of five level PWM inverter for static VAr compensator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1173- 1178 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multi-level PWM inverters, (including five-level ones), have significant operational advantage, such as the ability to drive a motor with nearly sinusoidal current waveforms and at higher output voltages. Consequently, the consideration of their practical applications is of increasing interest. When we look in detail at their possibility, the requirement for larger capacity inverters is also anticipated for use in large AC motor drives, SVCs (static VAr compensators) and the like. In this paper, the possibility of applying the technology to SVCs is discussed. By controlling the phase and the amplitude of the modulating sinusoidal signal, the capacitor voltage and the output current can be controlled successfully, which can play an important role in SVC applications. In addition, a third order harmonic can be injected, and the capacitor voltage can be controlled by shifting its phase with reference to the modulating sinusoidal waveform. By using these characteristics, coupled with an adequate feedback control circuit, each capacitor voltage can be controlled, even with respect to fluctuations in the load or unbalanced states of the individual capacitor voltages.

58    T. Suntio, I. Gadoura, K. Zenger, "Input filter interactions in current-mode controlled converters-a unified analysis approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1179- 1184 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A unified analysis approach in assessing the effect of an input filter on the performance of a current-mode controlled converter is presented. The analysis method is based on the use of two-port unterminated modeling technique. The describing formulas to assess the input-filter effect are presented based on the transfer functions of direct-duty-ratio control with modifications caused by the effect of inductor-current feedback in peak-current control. The analysis shows that the behavior of input impedance explains the phenomena noticed earlier.

59    M. Prodanovic, T.C. Green, "Control of power quality in inverter-based distributed generation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1185- 1189 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Power quality is an important additional service of inverter-based interfaces for distributed generators. In grid connected applications the power quality depends on the harmonic content of the current injected at the point of common coupling. By careful design of the power converter and its output filter the switching frequency components in the output current spectrum can be reduced to low levels. The effect of the harmonic distortion of the grid voltage on the output current can be minimised by using an appropriate inverter control strategy. Conventional control methods (manipulation of inverter voltage magnitude and phase) offer active and reactive power control, but not the control of the output current quality. This paper describes a new choice of control structure and explains the interaction between the applied control loops. The inverter is used to control the current in the first element of an LCL filter. A further controller is wrapped around this loop to control power export to the grid. The usefulness of this arrangement in providing big power quality is emphasised. Experimental results from a 10 kVA prototype are used to evaluate the distortion rejection properties and the regulation of active and reactive power control. The results show high quality of generated power and excellent transient and steady state-response to both active and reactive power demands.

60    A. Van den Bossche, V. Valchev, "Eddy current losses and inductance of gapped foil inductors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1190- 1195 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present analytical solutions for eddy current losses in foil windings of gapped inductors and solutions for additional inductance because of the fringing field path by using Fourier expansion in space. This allows avoiding the well-known disadvantages of the numerical field calculations such as long computation times, difficult geometry modelling, complex parameterisation.

61    A.J. Calleja, J.M. Alonso, J. Ribas, E. Lopez, J. Cardesin, J. Garcia, M. Rico-Secades, "Electronic ballast based on single-stage high-power-factor topologies: a comparative study," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1196- 1201 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents and compares some topologies based on a single-stage for electronic ballast. These topologies have been presented and studied in several papers. The integration of DC-to-DC converters and half-bridge resonant inverters is implemented in all topologies presented. DC-to-DC converters are used to provide a high input power factor, enough to satisfy the present standard requirements. The half-bridge LC resonant inverter has a double function of ignite and supply the fluorescent lamp.

62    V. Agarwal, V.P. Sundarsingh, S. Bontemps, D. Grafham, "A smart power converter module for buck applications operating at high input power factor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1202- 1207 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a single stage, single switch, isolated converter configuration using a hybrid combination of forward and flyback converters. The converter operates at a high input power factor with a regulated DC output voltage. It makes use of a novel control scheme combining the duty cycle and frequency control. Although frequency control is required, a continuous variable frequency control is not needed. The proposed configuration has the advantage of reduced peak current stresses on the devices and is specifically suited for 'buck' applications where low DC output voltages (e.g. 24 V, 48 V) are needed. The proposed configuration will be of specific interest to industries associated with battery charging and UPS systems. Keeping in view the wide industrial application it may have, the entire system is being integrated into a smart power module with the help of Advanced Power Technology-Europe (APTE). The theory of the proposed topology and the control scheme is discussed. Computer simulation results using PSPICE software are included. The details of the smart power module design and fabrication done at APTE, France, are presented as are the experimental results with a laboratory prototype.

63    Guang Feng, Wanfeng Zhang, Yan-Fei Liu, "A new adaptive fuzzy logic control method for DC-to-DC converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1208- 1213 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces a new fuzzy logic controller (FLC) using inductor current feedback for significantly improving the dynamic performance of DC-to-DC converters. Inductor current plays a very important role in high performance DC-to-DC converter control and FLC is suitable to deal with time-varying nonlinear nature of power converters. Based on the feedback of the inductor current, the new control method combines the merits of both the conventional FLC and current mode control. Furthermore, extended state observer (ESO) has been developed to ensure high dynamic performance of DC-to-DC converters. By using ESO, the influence of load disturbances and parameter changes are accurately estimated and compensated. The simulation results show that the proposed FLC with ESO ensures very good robustness and adaptability under modeling uncertainty and external disturbance, such as load current variation, supply voltage changes and converter parameter changes. In addition, small signal frequency response analysis demonstrates that by using the proposed FLC, the bandwidth and phase margin of the closed loop system have been significantly increased.

64    G.A. Trestman, O. Sylvania, "Minimizing cost of HID lamp electronic ballast," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1214- 1218 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An electronic ballast is one of the most cost sensitive products of power electronics. The high cost of available high intensity discharge (HID) lamp electronic ballasts is constraining their wide usage. A possible way to minimize the cost of an HID lamp ballast is to chose an optimal ballast operating frequency at which the required amount of components and their cost are minimal. As shown in this paper the minimal cost achieved at a selected operating frequency is in the 300 kHz region. Because of acoustic resonance problem in the HID lamp operating at high frequency, special attention was devoted to solution of this problem. The following items were used for cost minimization: a modern controller chip with integrated low and high side FET drivers; control, start up, and fault protection logic; an integrated magnetic-transformer-inductor; the simplest lamp power control circuit; bus voltage ripple for frequency modulation of lamp current to suppress acoustic resonance.

65    P. Zumel, O. Garcia, J.A. Cobos, J. Uceda, "Exploring interleaved converters as an EMI reduction technique in power converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1219- 1224 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Switched mode power supplies are widely used due to their advantages on efficiency, size and weight. However, it is necessary to include an EMI filter that is not always considered, but affects the overall volume. This paper quantifies the advantages of the interleaved converters from the point of view of EMI generation. Clear benefits are obtained and a great reduction of the EMI filter is achieved.

66    Wei Wu, L. Rossetto, Wei Luo, "Electrical connector under heavy vibration generating EMI: its laboratory repetition and analysis," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1225- 1228 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reports that the electrical connector loading current under heavy mechanical vibration can generate electromagnetic interference (EMI). The phenomenon is revealed by an accidental EMC test, and is confirmed in this paper with a series laboratory repetition made in both an open laboratory for direct measurement and a shielded chamber for radiation test. By means of wavelet de-noise and Fourier transform analysis, both experiments show similar measurement results and come to the conclusion that such EMI is caused by mechanical vibration which happens irregularly with similar characters under poor connection conditions.

67    M.C. Di Piazza, A. Ragusa, G. Tine, G. Vitale, "A soft start technique to minimize EMI implications in dual voltage vehicle electrical system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1229- 1234 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the electromagnetic compatibility of the new automotive 14/42 V dual voltage electrical systems has been examined. From this point of view EMI (electromagnetic interference) must be minimized since the design stage. The attention has been particularly focused on the 42 V engine cooling fan drive. In order to reduce its inrush current a soft start circuit has been proposed. First a model of the electrical drive has been developed, then the model has been experimentally validated and finally the possibility for a further optimisation of the proposed soft start circuit has been studied. Near to the inrush current reduction, the proposed circuit produces, also: a reduction of the high frequency harmonics of the current transients (due to a reduction of the slew rate of the current surge) and the absence of radiated EMI as it is switched at low frequencies. Moreover the proposed soft start circuit can be simply realised by using smart power technology and can be used to regulate the speed of the drive, according to engine temperature's variations.

68    A. Pandey, B. Singh, D.P. Kothari, "A simple fast voltage controller for single-phase PFC converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1235- 1237 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this work a simple and robust voltage controller is proposed to improve voltage dynamics in the power factor corrected (PFC) converters. The proposed controller eliminates twice the line frequency ripples from the voltage feedback path allowing large bandwidth design of voltage loop controller. As the voltage ripple is cancelled without any filtering, the controller action can be exercised at frequencies comparable to switching frequency. This eliminates large overshoots and undershoots during transients, which are common in conventionally designed PFC converters. The design of the proposed controller is described and simulation results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

69    Xiaoliang Ma, Bingyuan Wang, Futian Zhao, Guojie Qu, Daqing Gao, Zhongzu Zhou, "A high power low ripple high dynamic performance DC power supply based on thyristor converter and active filter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1238- 1242 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Magnets of accelerators etc. require DC power supplies to have high power, extremely low ripple (10/sup -4/-10/sup -5/) and high dynamic following performance without delay. A new scheme based on a thyristor converter (THC) and a paralleled IGBT DC active filter (DAF) is proposed. It is easy to realized high power, low capacity of the active filter and regenerating field energy. Two kinds of control systems: harmonic voltage control based (HVCS) and harmonic current control based (HCCS) are investigated. The key of the DAF are how to measure harmonic signal and how to minimize the response time of the current loop of the DAF and their new solutions are discussed. The feedforward and feedback compound control systems of the HVCS and HCCS and the achievement method of the first and second differential signals for the feedforward are introduced. The proposed system is verified by simulation and prototype experiment.

70    F.A. Himmelstoss, G. Hartl, E. Wimmer, "A simple DC-to-DC converter with the possibility of bipolar output voltage," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1243- 1248 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A fourth order PWM DC/DC converter with the possibility of bipolar output voltage is treated and a survey over important data (maximum voltage and current ratings for the elements, RMS-values for the semiconductor devices and a rough approximation of the losses) of the circuit is given. Furthermore, a converter model including the losses based on duty ratio averaging is established. Due to the bidirectionality of the converter, always continuous inductor current mode occurs. Simulation and measurement results are given.

71    A.R. Beig, G. Narayanan, V.T. Ranganathan, "Space vector based synchronized PWM algorithm for three level voltage source inverters: principles and application to V/f drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1249- 1254 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the synchronized PWM techniques based on space vector approach for three level voltage source inverters. The objective is to improve the output waveform of the inverters used in high power applications, where the switching frequency is very low. This is achieved by maintaining the synchronization and half wave symmetry, quarter wave symmetry, three-phase symmetry in the PWM waveforms. The principles of achieving synchronization and symmetries are presented. The proposed algorithm is implemented on TMS320F240 based digital controller and applied to V/f drive. The experimental waveforms of the inverter output voltage and motor no load current for different operating conditions of the drive are presented. The V/sub WTHD/ of the line voltage and I/sub THD/ of the no load current of the motor are computed from the experimental data. The performance measure in terms of the V/sub WTHD/ of the line voltage is computed for the entire operating region of the drive for the proposed algorithm and the synchronized SPWM technique. The comparative results show that the proposed method has improved THD over SPWM method. Another significant feature of the proposed algorithm is that the symmetry and synchronization leads to self-balancing of the DC bus capacitor voltages.

72    G. Tadmor, "A space vector modulation for a low zero-sequence voltage output," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1255- 1260 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A space vector PWM (SVM) algorithm is designed to prevent zero-sequence currents between tandem inverters in three phase applications. The development is motivated and illustrated by a GTO/IGBT inverter system, feeding a large three phase motor. In applications where harmonic emissions are highly undesirable, the low power/fast switching IGBT is used to cancel the GTO low frequency current ripple. Stray zero-sequence currents between inverters may saturate the IGBT and should thus be prevented. This requires a customized SVM in the GTO, which is presented here.

73    M.J. Newman, D.G. Holmes, "A universal custom power conditioner (UCPC) with selective harmonic voltage compensation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1261- 1266 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an integrated series/shunt active filter combination (termed a universal custom power conditioner or UCPC) which uses a range of control strategies to achieve improved voltage harmonic compensation capabilities and to fully exploit the potential functionality of the topology without requiring tuned passive harmonic filters. The series active filter uses a DVR type controller for voltage regulation and dip compensation, together with an array of resonant harmonic controllers to provide selective mitigation of supply voltage harmonics as seen by the load. The shunt active filter regulates the DC link voltage and compensates for load unbalance and load current harmonics. Experimental results show that the proposed system can regulate the load voltage, compensating for both source voltage dips and voltage harmonics, while simultaneously eliminating load current harmonics as seen by the source. For radial distribution applications, the proposed scheme achieves minimal load voltage error even under wide variations of supply voltages and load currents. The control principle can be used for both singleand three-phase systems, and is implemented with a delta-operator-based infinite impulse response (IIR) filter to achieve high performance using only 16 bit fixed-point DSP based controllers.

74    B.A. Welchko, M.Bde.R. Correa, T.A. Lipo, "A three-level MOSFET inverter for low power drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1267- 1272 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes operating a three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter using a two-level PWM method. This allows for the clamping diodes to be rated at a fraction of the main switches due to their low average current requirement. The use of a charge pump as a low cost method to obtain the isolated gate drive power supplies is extended for use with the NPC topology. Using this control method and circuits, an inverter based on high volume, low-cost, low-voltage power MOSFETs is experimentally demonstrated as a possible economic alternative to an IGBT based drive for 120 Vrms-supplied systems.

75    S. Bartos, V. Jehlika, J. Skramlik, V. Valouch, T. Vecerka, J. Bures, K. Kalcik, E. Venhoda, "Converters based on IGCTs in light traction drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1273- 1276 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: So far, the integrated gate-commutated thyristor (IGCT) has always been considered as a device suitable for converters controlling the power of the order of megawatts or higher. This paper shows how the advantages of the device can be used in a DC chopper and in an inverter designed to feed the traction motors of a trolleybus. This is a world's new application of the IGCT in a converter with the power of the order of one hundred kilowatts. The paper presents results of laboratory tests as well as experience with the prototype of the trolleybus. The measured thermal and EMI noise characteristics are presented.

76    E. Aldabas, L. Romeral, J. Llaquet, A. Arias, "Current controller for low switching frequency by means of increasing the vectors time application," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1277- 1281 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new software-implemented current regulator for three phase loads based on orthogonal two-phase /spl alpha/-/spl beta/ system. The controller uses the module of the error for defining two control situations, called of steady state and transitory, which depend on the position of the current error inside or outside of the hysteresis margin. In the steady state, a new active vector voltage application strategy is used for assuring the nearest trajectory to the diameter of the current error within the circular boundary hysteresis when a vector is applied. Moreover, this vector is chosen between V(0) and V(7) for reducing the number of inverter's switches commutations. On the other hand, in the transitory zone the control applies only active vectors, for reducing quickly the error inside the hysteresis margins. Computer simulations were carried out in order to investigate the performance of the regulator, and results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

77    J.W. Baek, T.G. Koo, Y.B. Byun, K.Y. Joe, D.H. Kim, "A study on a single-phase module UPS using a three-arms converter and inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1282- 1287 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The module UPS can flexibly implement expansion of power system capacities. Furthermore, it can be used to build up parallel redundant system in order to improve the reliability of power system operation. To realize the module UPS, load sharing without interconnection among parallel connecting modules, as well as a small scale and lightweight topology is necessary. In this paper the three-arms converter and inverter is compared with the general full-bridge and half-bridge topology from a practical point of view, and chosen as the module UPS topology. The switching control approaches based on a pulse width modulation of the converter and inverter of the system are presented independently. The frequency and voltage droop concept is applied to parallel operation control to achieve load sharing. Two prototype 3 kVA modules are designed and implemented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Experimental results are shown that the three-arms UPS system has high power factor low distortion of output voltage and input current, and good load sharing characteristics.

78    S. Lida, K. Tamaki, S. Masukawa, "A simplified 24-step inverter without output transformers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1288- 1293 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose an improved multi-level voltage source inverter whose output harmonic components can be effectively reduced regardless of simple construction. It is based on the neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter. The input DC source is divided into six sections and an auxiliary circuit composed of six switching devices and four clamping diodes are added into the conventional NPC inverter. By controlling the auxiliary circuit appropriately, quasi 24-step voltage waveforms can be outputted from the proposed inverter though it has no output transformers. In this paper, the circuit performances are described and the output voltage waveforms are derived theoretically. The circuit constants and the control parameters for decreasing the output harmonics are discussed. It is made clear that the proposed inverter can be performed with the same output distortions approximately as the conventional 24-step inverter with 24 switching devices and the heavy output transformers. Moreover, in order to adjust the output voltages, the step width control and the PWM control are investigated theoretically and experimentally.

79    D. Candusso, L. Valero, A. Walter, "Modelling, control and simulation of a fuel cell based power supply system with energy management," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1294- 1299 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on the way to manage the fuel cell (FC) produced energy toward the electrical grid. Two different topologies are described and analysed. The first one associates a DC/DC converter and a PWM inverter. The second one is a hybrid system: an ultracapacitor bank, connected to the DC bus through a chopper, is used in addition to the FC system and acts as a buffer peak power source. The paper describes the models of the FC system, the converters and the grid. Then control laws are laid on in order to optimise the active and reactive power transfers. Concerning the connection to the grid, the three-phase DC/AC converter includes two control loops; the inner current control loop is optimised using a resonant corrector, the outer loop is based on a power flow transfer control. The presented results deal with the dynamic and static behaviours as well as with the interaction between the generator and the grid. The generated harmonics are also analysed.

80    M. Jasinski, M. Liserre, F. Blaabjerg, M. Cichowlas, "Fuzzy logic current controller for PWM rectifiers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1300- 1305 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a comparison between fuzzy logic current controller (FLC) and classical PI current controller for a LCL-filter based PWM rectifier is presented. Both simulations and experimental results are included. The current control of PWM rectifiers is implemented in voltage oriented coordinates, known as voltage oriented control (VOC). This paper also presents design process of the fuzzy logic controller based on well-known proportional-integral current controller made by backward rule. The simulations (Matlab/sup TM/, Simulink/sup TM/) of the current controllers are performed in model of the existing laboratory setup. The paper shows the step-response of the i/sub d/ current for conventional PI-controller and the proposed FLC which provides good tracking of the reference current waveform with smaller overshoot in transient for the same step in U/sub DC/.

81    Z. Salam, C.T. Lynn, "Algorithm for near optimal harmonics elimination PWM based on quadratic approximation method," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1306- 1311 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Harmonic elimination optimized pulse-width modulation (HEPWM) scheme has been recognized as an attractive alternative to sinusoidal modulated PWM schemes for voltage source inverters (VSI). However, its application has been limited by the fact that the switching angles cannot be calculated online by a microprocessor-based waveform generator, as the equations involved are nonlinear and transcendental in nature. The paper proposes an algorithm to calculate near optimal switching angles, which will permit a fast and efficient realization using a microprocessor. The method is based on quadratic approximation approach which is derived from the computed trajectories of angles. The results indicate that the proposed method is accurate enough to substitute for the original harmonic elimination equations.

82    A. Van den Bossche, V. Valchev, J. Melkebeek, "Thermal modeling of E-type magnetic components," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1312- 1317 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a study about thermal considerations and coefficients, especially convection heat transfer coefficient h/sub c/ and the emissivity coefficient /spl epsi/, in the design of magnetic components for power electronics. An improved modelling of the heat transfer is presented with a high accuracy of the convection heat transfer.

83    C. Fernandez, O. Garcia, R. Prieto, J.A. Cobos, J. Uceda, "Overview of different alternatives for the contact-less transmission of energy," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1318- 1323 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: When a physical connection cannot exist between the power source and the load, a transformer is usually used as a power link to transfer the energy. Primary and secondary windings of this transformer are usually separated a distance that is quite large compared to its own size. This means that coupling is low and leakage inductance is higher or comparable to the magnetising inductance. Therefore, voltage gain is low and a considerable part of the primary current will flow through the magnetising inductance and go back to the power source. An important effort has been done in the last years, proposing different topologies suitable for contact-less applications and suggesting design rules in order to improve coupling of the contact-less transformer. This paper presents an overview of many of the proposals, comparing the converters results in terms of efficiency, size, coupling of the transformer and control method.

84    R. Casanueva, L.A. Chiquito, F.J. Azcondo, S. Bracho, "Electrical discharge machining experiences with a resonant power supply," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1324- 1329 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A DC to DC LCC resonant converter is the chosen topology for the electrical discharge machining power supply, which has been designed to the purpose to develop small size EDM systems. To design an effective control to achieve stable and efficient process conditions in the machining, a series of manual EDM operations have been performed under different conditions to characterize the process and to collect significant data. The resulting EDM parameters such as metal removal rate, electrode wear and surface finish are analyzed. In this paper, this experimental study is presented and the basis of the design of the gap width control, to keep the gap distance between the electrode and the workpiece within the optimum stable range, is established with these results and general knowledge of the EDM process and its variables.

85    S. Valtchev, B.V. Borges, J.B. Klaassens, "Contactless energy transmission with optimal efficiency," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1330- 1335 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper describes a theoretical and experimental analysis to aid the design optimization in case of the series resonant converter (SRC) operating with a loosely coupled transformer as in contactless power transfer. The main objective of this work is to give an idea about the more efficient modes of operation of the power stage. This study permits to define design criteria for the power circuit parameters in a normalized form (frequency, characteristic impedance, transformer ratio, etc) in order to optimize the efficiency. The analysis includes also a specially made ferrite transformer with two separately wound half-cores, in order to evaluate analytically and experimentally the changes in magnetizing and leakage fluxes and inductances caused by the distance between the halves. It is shown that at practical values of this distance, the leakage inductance remains almost unchanged. Nevertheless the current distribution between the primary and the secondary windings changes drastically due to the large variation of the magnetizing inductance. The analysis is leading to a set of equations describing these features. A graphically represented solution showing the way to an optimized operation of the converter is the contribution to the design of more efficient converters functioning with loosely coupled transformers.

86    L.M. Escribano, R. Prieto, J.A. Cobos, J. Uceda, "Thermal modeling for magnetic components: a survey," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1336- 1341 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents a summary about the state of the art in thermal modeling for magnetic components. The thermal problem is formulated in terms of physical concepts and mathematical equations and the procedures for carrying out the analysis of the problem are outlined. Different magnetic thermal models are studied according to the thermal effects that are modeled, geometries, coupling of the thermal and magnetic effects and application scope. Finally the thermal topics that are not modeled are emphasized and the different thermal models are compared from a practical point of view.

87    Pill-Soo Kim, Yong Kim, "Field and thermal modeling of magnetizing fixture by impulse," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1342- 1347 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In a capacitor discharge impulse magnetizer, a magnet is magnetized by the discharging current of capacitors. This paper describes a method for exact parameter estimation of impulse magnetizer and a method for field and thermal analysis of impulse magnetizer using this parameter. As the detailed field and thermal characteristics of impulse magnetizer can be obtained, the efficient design of impulse magnetizer which produces desired magnet will be possible using our analysis procedure. As the parameter estimation method of impulse magnetizer, two different estimation methods (a method considering contact resistance and a method using air-core test coil) are presented. Also, the temperature computation of discharging circuits of impulse magnetizer is very important since it gives some indication of the design of the magnetizing circuits. Therefore, a method for thermal analysis of impulse magnetizer is presented.

88    I. Garde, L.A. Baffagan, J.A. Burdio, D. Navarro, J. Acero, "A VHDL electrothermal modeling of power electronic circuits," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1348- 1353 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology to model in VHDL the electrothermal behavior of power electronic circuits. This model allows to simulate as a whole a system compounded of analog components and a digital control described in VHDL, making easier the design and verification of the digital control. The thermal model allows study of the devices' junction temperature for different devices and working conditions from the early design phase.

89    H. Shingu, H. Furuhashi, T. Sumi, Y. Uchida, "A growth process of hot-zone generated by high-frequency current," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1354- 1357 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A phenomenon which raises the temperature at the electrical connection and electrical contact point of electric wires is investigated. When a large electric current flows in the electric wire connections, the temperature of the section rises and subsequently causes an electric fire. The area of the high temperature is small, but it can become as high as 1000/spl deg/C. We have named it the "hot-zone phenomenon" and observed the growth process. The electrical characteristics of the hot-zone generated by current were measured for copper wire supplied with high-frequency voltage and current waveform. The formation processes of cuprous oxide in the connection were also studied. A triangular wave was used for the experiment. The area of the hot-zone was changed by heating the connection point. It was observed that the high temperature area was limited. The growth of the hot-zone and formation of the cuprous oxide by hot-zone was controlled by heating or adding bias voltage.

90    G. Scheible, J. Schutz, C. Apneseth, "Novel wireless power supply system for wireless communication devices in industrial automation systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1358- 1363 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There have been considerable advances in low power, integration and micro-systems technologies, enabling wireless communication for very small, affordable, lightweight and high performance devices. These technologies are still mainly used for consumer and office applications, but significant advantages can be obtained by applying the technologies to new areas. One area of particular interest industrial is automation and control systems, such as robotics and factory automation. In this paper we discuss the main challenges involved with realizing a reliable, wireless, and energy autonomous communication system suited for industrial automation. Special emphasis is placed on providing an overview of suitable power supply possibilities and describing a novel magnetic medium frequency power supply concept enabling true wireless energy supply within cell-volumes of more than 100 m/sup 3/ with sufficiently small infrastructure. The novel resonant power supply concept uses medium frequencies (/spl sim/120 kHz) in a "coreless transformer", enabling the supply of devices within a certain volume, for example a production cell, surrounded by coils. By using omni-directional or rotating magnetic fields, together with three orthogonal receiver coils, it enables a shielding tolerant supply system with unique properties. Compared to primary battery technologies, the new approach offers approximately 50 times higher energy densities over the application lifetime.

91    H. Ayano, K. Yamamoto, N. Hino, I. Yamato, "Highly efficient contactless electrical energy transmission system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1364- 1369 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the vehicle and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the vehicle, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the primary transformer at the battery charger and the secondary transformer on the vehicle in order to prevent damage which would be caused by a collision. In this case, a drop of the transformer coupling rate due to the large gap must be prevented. In conventional contactless electrical energy transmission technology, since electric power is received by a pick-up coil from a power line, a large-sized transformer is required. And when the distance over which the car runs is long, the copper loss of the line also increases. The developed system adopts a high frequency inverter using a soft switching method to miniaturize the transformer. The system has a coupling rate of 0.88 for a transformer gap length of 10 mm and can operate at 91% efficiency.

92    F.J. Gimeno Sales, R.M. Peris, S.O. Grau, S.S. Chilet, "Digital control of a 1 kW battery charger with a single IGBT switch in the grid," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1370- 1373 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Commercial high-power battery chargers usually use controlled rectifiers with SCR semiconductors and phase control in the secondary winding of a transformer connected to the supply grid. Generally, currents handled by these semiconductors are very high, while the voltages are usually far below the nominal voltage of the electrical network. This paper proposes a battery charger with digital control of the charging current and which operates at the grid voltage level at low current. It can be implemented using a single IGBT switch. The system is controlled by a microcontroller that incorporates the technique of firing by pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled by a PID digital regulator with control of the charge current.

93    Gong Maozhong, Liu Hankui, Gu Hanjun, Xu Dianguo, "Active voltage regulator based on novel synchronization method for unbalance and fluctuation compensation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1374- 1379 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Requirements on the power quality of AC sources are becoming more stringent as more voltage-sensitive equipments are being used. Among the power quality deterioration issues, voltage unbalance and voltage fluctuations are two serious ones. An active voltage regulator, which is used as a part of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC), is proposed to compensate for the voltage unbalance and fluctuations in this paper. It is composed of a voltage source inverter (VSI) coupled in series with the supply through transformers. The adopted topology guarantees that the energy can flow bi-directionally, thus it can regulate the load voltage to the expected value during long-drawn supply voltage fluctuation. Another aspect covered in this paper is the synchronization problem or the technique to get the phase angle of the reference signal, which is essential in voltage regulation. A software synchronization based on a new fundamental positive sequence (FPS) component extraction method is presented and proven in the paper. The active voltage regulator with the proposed topology and the synchronization method features in no hardware synchronization requirement, accurate and fast phase tracking and high dynamic performance. Experimental results performed on the prototype testify the validity of the proposed active voltage regulator in voltage unbalance and fluctuation compensation.

94    H. Wrede, V. Staudt, A. Steimel, "Design of an electronic power transformer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1380- 1385 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For the distribution of electrical energy in Germany, application-specific transformers with ratings of 110/20 kV, 110/10kV, 40 MVA, 50 Hz are typically in operation. Due to their weight, these transformers can only be transported with great expense (usually by rail). Therefore a considerable number of reserve transformers has to be held in stock in each distribution area, to guarantee power reliability to utility customers by quick replacement. To reduce assets, a universal, mobile and flexible (adjustable to different medium-voltage levels and truck movable) transformer reserve unit is desired by utility companies. The modular design of an electronic power transformer for this purpose is given in this paper. Based on power electronics, additional features like fast voltage regulation, reactive power compensation, ride-through capability etc. are described.

95    N. Mutoh, A. Higashikubo, "Electric vehicle system independently driving front and rear wheels," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1386- 1391 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new type electric vehicle suitable for city cars is proposed which can easily cope with traffic situations such as traffic jams, frequently starting and stopping operations, and the failure of the motor drive system occurring while running on the city routes. The proposed electric vehicle drive system is mainly composed of a permanent magnet type synchronous motor (SM) for the front wheel drive and an induction motor (IM) for the rear wheel drive. Each motor is directly connected via the differential gear (ratio of 5:1) and have the ability to independently drive the front and rear wheels. The torque reference generated from the accelerator is mainly distributed to the SM for driving the front wheels. The torque of the IM for the rear drive is normally controlled so as to accord with the speed of the SM in order to prevent the IM from operating as the load of the SM. The torque reference generated from the accelerator is distributed to the IM when it is judged that the torque generated from the SM is insufficient to drive the EV. The torque control to accord with the speed of the front wheels is immediately stopped when the speed of the rear wheel is increased up to excess speeds by slips of front wheels. The proposed drive system has also fail-safe functions to keep on running, even if either the front or rear wheel drive system has failed. These functions with the proposed EV system were verified through simulations.

96    M. Sri Balaji, S.P. Das, G.K. Dubey, M. Basu, "Regenerative magnet load power supply with utility friendly operation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1392- 1397 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the present paper, a utility friendly regenerative magnet load power supply has been proposed which can tolerate supply voltage dips and long duration sags or undervoltages and maintains unity input power factor under all operating conditions. The harmonics injected into the utility are much less and the total harmonic distortion (THD) complies with IEEE standards. Unity power factor at the input is maintained by using a synchronous link converter (SLC) as the front-end AC to DC converter with regenerative capability. The two-quadrant chopper in the second stage operates in a constant frequency current control mode and takes care of the load current ripple. The performance evaluation of the magnet load power supply has been made using SABER simulator. A laboratory prototype has been fabricated and tested successfully. The real time control algorithm has been implemented using a PC with PCL-207 data acquisition card.

97    T. Suntio, "Unified derivation and analysis of duty-ratio constraints for peak-current-mode control in continuous and discontinuous modes," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1398- 1403 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A unified approach to deriving duty-ratio constraints for the fixed-frequency peak-current-controlled converters in continuous and discontinuous mode is presented. The modeling technique is based on the geometric approximation of the dynamics of duty ratio as a function of the other circuit variables and elements. The mode limit is shown to be a consequence of the parabolic shape of the difference between the control current and average inductor current. Physical discrepancies in this are reflected as infinite duty-ratio gain, and consequently, operation in harmonic mode. The developed constraints may be used also to characterize accurately the steady-state operation of a converter, and provide a proof for the existence of the infinite duty-ratio gain.

98    H.Y. Kanaan, K. Al-Haddad, "A new multiple-loops control scheme for a three-phase/switch/level PWM rectifier based on the input/output feedback linearization technique," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1404- 1409 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new nonlinear control system is developed and applied to a three-phase, three-switch, three-level AC-to-DC converter. The derivation of the proposed control law is based on a fourth-order low-frequency time-invariant nonlinear state model of the converter. This mathematical model, expressed in a rotating frame, is obtained using averaging techniques over a double time base. The proposed control law is designed on the basis of a multiple-loops control strategy, where an exact input-output feedback linearization is applied to the inner and outer loops. The regulators are designed in order to ensure the shaping of the line-currents, the regulation of the DC output voltage and the compensation of the DC load unbalance. The performances of the proposed control law in steady state and transient regimes are then analyzed by numerical simulations. In this purpose, a digital version of the converter is implemented in the Matlab/Simulink framework, using the switching function approach. The obtained simulation results show a nearly zero current harmonic distortion, a unity displacement factor, a low output voltage ripple, and a high robustness to DC load unbalance.

99    Pei-Hsuan Cheng, Chern-Lin Chen, "A high-efficiency fast charger for lead-acid batteries," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1410- 1415 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Presented in this paper is a lead-acid battery charger featuring high power conversion efficiency, high charging efficiency, and short charging time. In the experiments on 12 V/4.5 Ah nonspillable lead-acid assembled batteries, the charging capacity is 3.71 Ah in 40 minutes and the discharging capacity is 3.5 Ah in 90 minutes. Charging efficiency is 94.3%. The charging time is no more than 10 minutes from empty to 50% of full charge and less than 30 minutes from empty to 80% of full charge.

100    V. Oleschuk, B.K. Bose, V. Ermuratski, "Synchronized pulsewidth modulation for different control regimes of AC drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1416- 1421 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Both one-stage and two-stage schemes of feedforward synchronized pulsewidth modulation (PWM), applied to three-phase voltage source inverter with discontinuous voltage space vector modulation with the 30/spl deg/-nonswitching intervals, have been described in the paper. Different control modes of inverter-fed drive systems with synchronized PWM, including standard scalar V/F control, and control regimes with nonlinear control dependencies between the fundamental voltage and fundamental frequency, have been analysed. Simulations give the behaviour of the PWM schemes and algorithms proposed. The output voltage waveforms of the inverter have quarter-wave symmetry during the whole control range including the zone of overmodulation, and its spectra do not contain even harmonics and combined harmonics, which is especially important for power adjustable speed drive systems with low switching frequencies.

101    A.A. Aboul-Naga, M.M. Atout, A. Emadi, "Analysis and design of forced commutation circuit for by-pass thyristor-based AC-DC converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1422- 1427 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In by-pass thyristor based AC-DC bridge converters, the by-pass thyristor can be either a conventional thyristor or a GTO thyristor. Generally, when the turn off facility is added to the by-pass thyristors, the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the supply current is reduced and the input power factor is successfully improved. This paper presents an alternative modified scheme, where forced commutation is applied to the conventional by-pass thyristors instead of using GTO thyristors. The complete analysis and design of a forced commutation circuit is presented for the single-phase bridge converter with conventional by-pass thyristors. Analytical and experimental results illustrating the benefits obtained from applying forced commutation are presented and discussed.

102    T. Hattori, H. Kitajima, T. Yamasaki, "Face recognition in the crowded people under general background," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1428- 1433 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method for face recognition of acquaintance as a subpattern in a given image is proposed. We consider that the face pattern to be recognized in the input image is approximately an affine transformed (rotated, enlarged and/or reduced, and translated) pattern of a registered original one. In order to estimate the parameters of the affine transformation, the method uses a Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion, spatial correlation, and an approximate equation based on Taylor's expansion of affine transformation. In this paper, we deal with two types of pattern representation: ordinary grey level representation and a normalized gradient vector field (NGVF) one. The experimental result shows that our method using NGVF representation is considerably effective.

103    H. Lamela, M. Ruiz-Llata, C. Warde, "Prototype optoelectronic neural network for artificial vision systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1434- 1438 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we propose of a novel hardware electronic-optoelectronic neural network processor for vision applications. The architecture of the proposed neuroprocessor is based on a hybrid optic and optoelectronic implementation of the system. Some neural operations, like interconnection weight storage and assignment, are done in the electronic domain while the interconnection between processing elements is done optically. By this way we exploit the communication strength of optics and the computational strength of electronics in an optical fashion. The main characteristics of the architecture are that it is fully interconnected, the interconnections are fully programmable, it avoids optical alignment problems, and it is readily scalable to large numbers of pixel neurons. We will describe the architecture, the hardware implementation of a first prototype and its functionality for pattern recognition applications. The neural network models we have implemented on our neuroprocessor have been a basic logic functions operator, a Hopfield network and the matching scores layer of a Hamming network.

104    G.M. Callico, A. Nunez, R.P. Llopis, R. Sethuraman, M.O. de Beeck, "A low-cost implementation of super-resolution based on a video encoder," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1439- 1444 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to improve the quality of digital images over the sensor resolution using superresolution techniques. In order to obtain a feasible low cost implementation, the resources have been restricted to those that can be found in a generic video encoder, i.e.: the motion estimator, the motion compensator, image loop memory, etc. The super-resolution system has been implemented over a codesign platform developed by the Philips Research Laboratories in Eindhoven, while performing minimal changes on the overall hardware architecture. Nevertheless, this methodology can easily be extended to any generic video encoder architecture. The results show important improvements in the image quality, assuming that sufficient sample data is available. Based on these results, some generalizations can be made about the impact of the sampling process on the quality of the super-resolution image.

105    T. Aono, H. Kimura, Y. Yamauchi, "A food recognition algorithm based on dish recognition," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1445- 1450 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As a new function for microwave ovens, the heating of food to a variety of respective target temperatures is being developed. A food-recognition algorithm, which is based on dish recognition, was developed to realize this function. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the algorithm. In the experiments, the position and direction of 'box lunches' were recognized. Experimental results showed that the correct recognition rate was 80% and that in case of incorrect recognitions the result of recognition was rotated by 180 degrees from the correct orientation. The recognition performance will be improved by the use of a color gradient.

106    F. Garcia-Lagos, G. Joya, F.J. Marin, F. Sandoval, "Self-organizing maps for contingency analysis: visual classification and temporal evolution," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1451- 1456 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper an analysis of the applicability of Kohonen's self-organizing maps (SOMs) to contingency analysis in power systems is presented. We show the applicability of this artificial neural paradigm for both visualization and graphic monitoring of contingency severity, and the prediction of the system evolution to a future possible dangerous state. Both bidimensional and linear SOMs have been studied using as reference standard IEEE-14 and IEEE-118 electrical networks. Among the advantages of linear SOMs with respect to bidimensional SOMs and other classical methods we highlight the following ones: (1) a greater number of contingencies may be represented in one only screen and they may be more easily analyzed by a human operator; (2) the architecture and training process complexity of the SOM does not significantly increase with the power system size; and (3) the operation model is carried out in real time.

107    J. Pleite, E. Olias, A. Barrado, A. Lazaro, R. Vazquez, "Frequency response modeling for device analysis," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1457- 1462 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In many industrial activities, the assessment of the good condition of the devices involved in these activities is an important issue. The condition assessment is usually carried out taking some measurements of the device and postprocessing them somehow. One approach about taking measurements is in either the frequency or the time domain (which are mathematically equivalent through the Fourier transform). This approach is very appreciated in cases such as electrical transformers in order to check whether some windings have been displaced or not after a high current (caused for instance by a short-circuit or by a lightning). The frequency response analysis (FRA) for transformer advanced maintenance is very useful in this case due to this fault being difficult to detect by means of any other procedure and its consequences could be serious. A procedure to model the frequency response is presented in this paper. It has been oriented to implement a modeling aided analysis for electrical transformers maintenance. However, this approach can be extended to different cases in which the frequency response modeling is required, adapting both the model and the algorithms to each particular case.

108    L.F.A. Pereira, J.F. Haffner, L.F. Chaves, "Compensator design in the frequency domain using optimization," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1463- 1467 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a strategy for design of compensators in the frequency domain, using reference models and numerical optimization techniques. The combination of these strategies for compensator design enables compensation networks to be determined with variable structure, without explicit need to undertake trial and error procedures.

109    A. Tay, Weng Khuen Ho, Khiang Wee Lim, Ai Poh Loh, Woei Wan Tan, "Control and signal processing for photoresist processing in microlithography," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1468- 1473 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The lithography process is a critical step in the fabrication of nanostructures for integrated circuit manufacturing. In this paper, a summary is presented of several projects applying control and signal processing techniques to lithography. We begin with a presentation of a nonoptical lithography process under development in our lab. The proposed lithography technique is based on chemically altering the surface in a spatially selective manner to achieve a patterned substrate. In addition to the exposure step, photoresist processing is also critical in lithography. Based on current limitations of photoresist thermal processing system, a new integrated system is designed to improve the performance of temperature sensitive chemically amplified photoresists used in deep-UV lithography. Two case studies where control and signal processing techniques have made an impact in photoresist processing are also presented.

110    S. Jemei, D. Hissel, M.C. Pera, J.M. Kauffmann, "Black-box modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell generators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1474- 1478 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Proton exchange membranes are one of the most promising fuel cell technologies for transportation applications. Considering this aim, a simulation model of the whole fuel cell system is a binding milestone. This would lead in the optimization possibility of the complete vehicle (including auxiliaries, output electrical converter and their control laws). So a "minimal behavioral model" of a fuel cell system, able to evaluate the output variables and their variations, is presented in this paper. In a fuel cell system, electrical quantities are dependent both on the fuel cell power level and also on the auxiliaries and gases used. Artificial neural networks are here used to model the whole system. To carry out an efficient model, it is necessary to identify the number and the nature of input and output parameters. The proposed model is implemented on Matlab/Simulink/spl reg/ software and will be integrated in a complete vehicle powertrain. Thus, it is possible to carry out the development and the simulation of the command laws intended to manage the energy transfers aboard fuel cell vehicle.

111    I. Vainio, "Polynomial constrained LMS adaptive algorithm for measurement signal processing," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1479- 1482 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The LMS adaptive algorithm is modified in such a way that unbiased polynomial estimation or prediction is guaranteed continuously. This is accomplished by introducing the necessary linear constraints and modifying the coefficient update equations accordingly. The adaptive properties in polynomial prediction allow optimum noise attenuation even when the characteristics of noise and interference are dynamically changing. Also, adaptive differentiation with the constrained LMS algorithm is proposed. Examples of signal processing in a velocity measurement application are shown.

112    I. Vainio, S.J. Ovaska, "Adaptive lowpass filters for zero-crossing detectors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1483- 1486 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Computationally efficient adaptive digital filters are introduced for 50/60 Hz line frequency signal processing in zero-crossing detectors in power converters. The purpose of the filter is to extract the fundamental sinusoidal signal from noise and impulsive disturbances so that the output is accurately in phase with the primary input signal. The proposed filters have fixed coefficients which are multiplied by adaptive parameters in order to adapt to the instantaneous line frequency. Only two adaptive parameters are needed in this method. Two linear-phase approaches are considered for the basis filters, one designed for good stopband attenuation and the other for computational simplicity.

113    N. Golea, A. Golea, M. Kadjoudj, "Indirect fuzzy adaptive control: hyperstability approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1487- 1492 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new fuzzy indirect adaptive controller for continuous-time nonlinear systems, with a poorly understood dynamics, is developed. The proposed adaptive scheme uses a single Takagi-Seguno (TS) fuzzy model with few parameters to learn, which results in low implementation complexity and a fast learning rate. In addition, the use of TS fuzzy model permits the inclusion of a priori knowledge about the plant dynamics in terms of exact mathematical models or qualitative information. Using the hyperstability approach, it is proved that this adaptive controller is globally asymptotically stable, and achieves asymptotic tracking of a stable reference model. The performance of the developed approach is illustrated with simulation results.

114    J. Aoyama, Y. Ohnishi, T. Yamamoto, T. Hinamoto, "A design of self-tuning pole-assignment controllers for stochastic systems with unknown deterministic disturbances," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1493- 1498 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new self-tuning pole-assignment control scheme is proposed for stochastic systems with unknown deterministic disturbances, whose control law is first derived based on minimizing a quadratic cost function. Furthermore, user-specified polynomials are designed based on the pole-assignment scheme. By considering the minimization of the cost function, the variance of the control errors can be minimized. On the other hand, this scheme has internal models corresponding to deterministic disturbances, and the internal models are adjusted in an on-line manner. Inserting self-tuned internal models enables us to reduce the influence of unknown deterministic disturbances. The effectiveness of the newly proposed control scheme is evaluated on simulation examples.

115    J.K. Tar, A. Bencsik, J.F. Bito, K. Jezernik, "Application of a new family of symplectic transformations in the adaptive control of mechanical systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1499- 1504 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the last years a special branch of soft computing aiming at the control of mechanical, electro-mechanical, and mechanical systems driven by hydraulic differential cylinders, was developed. Originally the internal symmetry of the classical mechanical systems described by the canonical transformations and the symplectic group was used as source of uniform structures also containing tuneable free parameters. Later on the special, so-called "minimum operation symplectic transformations", and, based on purely mathematical considerations, several Lie groups as the "generalized Lorentz group", the "stretched orthogonal group", and the "partially stretched orthogonal transformations" were successfully used for this purpose. Satisfactory conditions were proved for SISO, and later on for MIMO systems guaranteeing the complete stability of the control using the above groups in combination with the "modified renormalization transformation" and certain ancillary methods. The possibility for elaborating new versions of symplectic transformations of advantageous features hasn't yet been exhausted. In this paper a new family of symplectic matrices are introduced. As it is demonstrated via simulations made for 3 DOF SCARA arm these transformations have very advantageous properties in use in such control applications.

116    K. Noguchi, Y. Tadokoro, "New adaptive frequency estimation algorithm with smaller computations by direct sampling control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1505- 1509 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes an adaptive frequency estimation algorithm with smaller computations for the sinusoid signal in the additive noises. The feature of the proposed method is controlling the sampling frequency directly. This method using an FIR notch filter without the multiplication is based on a gradient algorithm to obtain a zero output. To improve the estimation accuracy we use an IIR bandpass filter which can reduce the noise components. It is clear that the proposed algorithm can estimate the input frequency accurately and the computational complexity is very low.

117    O. Vainio, "Least-squares design of FIR filters as a tapped cascaded interconnection of substructures," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1510- 1513 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Least-squares design of FIR filters is considered for a structure consisting of a tapped cascaded interconnection of identical subfilters. By using computationally efficient substructures, savings are achieved in the number of multiplications, as compared to direct form designs of comparable integrated squared error. Analytical formulas are derived for the optimum tap coefficients, based on the time-domain composition of the overall impulse response. Examples of linear-phase lowpass and bandpass filter design are given.

118    R.B. Wells, A. Vongkunghae, Jang Yi, "A signal processing model for laser print engines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1514- 1519 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An accurate printer model that is efficient enough to be used by halftoning algorithms is proposed. The signal processing model (SPM) proposed in this paper utilizes a physical model to train adaptive linear combiners (ALCs), after which the average exposure of each subpixel for any input pattern can be calculated using the optimized weight vector. The SPM can be used to model multi-level halftoning and resolution enhancement, as well as traditional halftoning. The SPM is comprised of a single layer of ALC's and is adapted using the LMS algorithm. A relatively small number of training patterns suffices to obtain adequate model accuracy.

119    A. Paraschiv-Ionescu, C. Jutten, A.M. Ionescu, "Estimation of the source number using array discrete wavelet transform," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1520- 1525 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A crucial step in many array signal-processing applications is an accurate estimation of the unknown number of sources. Standard techniques for source number estimation often have shortcomings in practice when sensor signals are buried in additive noise with unknown parameters. In this paper we present an efficient method for detecting the number of sources from noise corrupted sensor signals by using an array discrete wavelet transform. Denoising and source number estimation are performed in the wavelet transform domain allowing subsequent processing, such as blind source separation, in a very efficient manner. Simulation results are included that illustrate the performance of the method.

120    L. Ely de Lacerda de Oliveira, L.E. Borges da Silva, V. Ferreira da Silva, G.L. Torres, E.L. Bonaldi, "Real-time determination of the best interval of calculation for moving averages used for DC value extraction in active power filter control methods," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1526- 1531 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In many cases, active power filters based on the i/sub d/-i/sub q/ and p-q control methods can have their dynamic response improved and their computational effort reduced by using moving averages instead of filters for the DC value extraction. An optimal dynamic performance, however, can not be achieved without the knowledge of the shortest calculation interval for the moving averages. The best interval depends on the harmonic content of the load currents and/or supply voltages that will be compensated. This paper presents a method for the instantaneous determination of the shortest calculation interval of the moving averages. The paper describes the strategy and presents the simulations.

121    J.M. Corres Sanz, P.M. Gil Izco, "A new speed observer with guaranteed bounds using interval arithmetic," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1532- 1537 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a new speed and disturbance torque observer, applied to the induction machine with encoder, is proposed. In practical situations, when designing the control loop, the noise statistics needed for tuning a stochastic observer are generally unknown. However, the bounds of the process and measurement noises can be clearly defined, for example, if they are generated by a quantizer. The increased DSP computational power and new mathematical tools, like the interval arithmetic, allow us to calculate both the bounds of the estimation error and the observed states. A nonlinear optimization algorithm is used here to obtain the gain of the observer that minimizes the estimation error. Some experimental tests with an AC motor have been performed in order to compare the proposed observer with a state bounding algorithm.

122    Dei-Jeung Huh, Jong-Hun Park, Uk-Youl Huh, Hak-il Kim, "Path planning and navigation for autonomous mobile robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1538- 1542 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Given a certain target point, the mobile robot's navigation could be mainly considered about two areas, 'how fast and accurate' and 'how safe'. Such problems regarding the velocity and stability have close relationship with the path in which the mobile robot navigates. Therefore, in this paper, considering the surrounding environment, the path planning was conducted to ensure stable navigation of the mobile robot for two main parts. First, the shortest path and the feature point for the global path planning was chosen by utilizing cell decomposition method off-line computation. Second, to control the movement and path between the feature points, Potential field method, which acutely responds to the surrounding environment on-line computation, is used. In order to detect the given path and avoid obstacles, the navigation algorithm was composed by using two fuzzy logic control.

123    F. Gomez-Bravo, F. Cuesta, A. Ollero, "Manoeuvring in nonholonomic industrial-like electrical vehicles," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1543- 1548 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Manoeuvring autonomous vehicles in constrained environments is not a trivial task. This paper concentrates in the practical maneuvering of electrical vehicles. The autonomous vehicles considered in the paper, ROMEO3R and ROMEO4R, have been developed at the University of Seville as the result of the adaptation of a tricycle and a car-like conventional electrical vehicles for transportation of people, respectively. Moreover maneuvering of ROMEO4R backing up a trailer has also been considered. A particular maneuver, namely, autonomous parallel parking, has been used to illustrate the application of the presented methods to different electrical vehicles.

124    H. Hashimoto, N. Amano, C. Ishii, "Traction control of load by distributed force of two mobile robots," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1549- 1554 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the cooperative traction work on a load by two mobile robots. The reference trajectory of the load is given as a function of time, and the robots pull the load such that the load tracks the given reference trajectory. To achieve this, the virtual traction force vector generated by the PID controller is divided between the two mobile robots. Two force division methods of the virtual traction force vector are proposed, and their effectivenesses are examined through the simulation experiments.

125    J.C. Garcia Garcia, M. Marron Romera, M. Mazo Quintas, J. Urena Urena, "Positioning and localization system for autonomous wheelchairs," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1555- 1560 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new positioning and localization system (PLS) designed to be installed on board of an autonomous wheelchair. Special constraints of this kind of applications make unuseful other conventional solutions that cannot be directly applied to this case, although they were the right choice in other mobile robotics fields. The system here presented makes use of artificial landmarks, specially designed to provide, with a minimum cost, full information about relative position and orientation to landmark and also its localization by means of an associated topological map; so it is possible to know absolute position-orientation of the vehicle with enough precision, even in heavily structured environments, without the uncertainty problems related with other conventional systems. An additional advantage of the navigation system here described is to be able of plan an appropriate route even in places never visited before, using for this task wireless nodes to upload to vehicle local topological maps.

126    W. Iida, K. Ohnishi, "Mobile robot teamwork for cooperated task," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1561- 1566 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: When plural robots exist in the same workspace, first we have to decide robots in order to accomplish some tasks. There have been a lot of works that report how to control robots in cooperation, but there have been few works that report how to decide robots to be used. In this paper, a method for deciding a team of mobile robots is described. The aim of the team is to carry load in minimum working time. Working time is depend on some elements-distance between robot and load, torque a robot can output, maximum velocity and acceleration of robot, condition of robot, and so on. Each element as described above is named "ability" in this paper. For deciding a team, that is combination of robots, ability gaps in mobile robots are considered. Taking account of the ability gaps, a method for calculation of working time is described. To curtail the time of calculation and obtain a combination efficiently, genetic algorithm is introduced. Simulation and experiment result is shown to confirm the effectiveness of the method described in this paper.

127    M. Niitsuma, H. Hashimoto, Y. Kimura, S. Ishijima, "Movement model of crowd robots based on human collision avoidance," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1567- 1572 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a movement model of crowd mobile robots in order to investigate movement behavior of crowd robots. This model contains functions of the collision avoidance and the trajectory decision of each robot taking one's own inertia into account. The trajectory decision is realized as a servo system. Collision avoidance is attained by quasi Coulomb force generated among robots and also between a robot and a wall. It is shown that simulation results of crowd robots progressing to one exit in two cases of passageway configurations, straight and a right angle.

128    R.C. Luo, Yu-Chih Yeh, "Sensory controlled intelligent assistant system for walking rehabilitation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1573- 1578 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a sensory controlled intelligent assistant system for walking rehabilitation. Several pressure sensors are used to measure pressure distribution by the foot during walking, and an encoder is used to record trainee angle of knee joint. The gait phases are detected by the data that come from pressure and angular sensors. To realize the system in practical applications, we represent the rehabilitation expert knowledge by fuzzy membership functions and rules. If the trainees gait phase does not represent as usual phase, we will give him an extra force to correct his phase cycle through the fuzzy inference engine. 30 days as a course of treatment is set, trainee walking phases are traced and recorded into database during this period. In order to reduce the quantity of therapist's workload, this system is designed to recognize every trainee automatically who is in the database. The recognition method is based on neural network that inputs the angle of joint and foot pressure distribution directly. This system is able to adapt to the trainee walking phase to increase the training effect and recognize trainee automatically.

129    J. Calpe, E. Soria, M. Martinez, V. Frances, A. Rosado, L. Gomez-Chova, J. Vila, "High-speed weighing system based on DSP," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1579- 1583 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a new weighting sub-system for fruit sorting and grading machinery. Based on a fixed point DSP, it controls up to 10 lines at 20 fruit/second with an accuracy of /spl plusmn/1 gram. The system applies an adaptive filtering and a posterior deconvolution of the behaviour of the load sensor using an ARMA model. A final estimation procedure to obtain weight in grams is also described. The best results have been obtained with an ALMS algorithm for the adaptive filter.

130    A.P. Sanchez, I.D. Blanco, A.A. Cuadrado Vega, A.B. Diez Gonzalez, F.O. Carrera, V.L. Rubio, "Virtual sensor design for coating thickness estimation in a hot dip galvanising line based on interpolated SOM local models," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1584- 1589 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The galvanising process is usually complex and difficult to model. However, as a result of production requirements this process usually works on a reduced set of working points leading to process data with a cluster structure. An accurate description of process data can be given at a low computational cost by specifically assigning a local model to each cluster in process data space. This paper describes a virtual sensor design for coating thickness estimation in a hot dip galvanising line based on local models using SOM and GRNN neural networks.

131    I. Ibanez, M.A. Aguirre, A. Torralba, L.G. Franquelo, "A low cost 3D vision system for positioning welding mobile robots using a FPGA prototyping system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1590- 1593 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this work is to explore some solutions for artificial vision systems applied to welding autonomous robots. We take advantage from the UNSHADES-1 system, developed in Filiation (blind for evaluation). This system can be used for building a powerful 3D vision system. The system concentrates and processes the three images in parallel, producing an accurate value of the position, that can be improved if the relative position of the cameras are well defined.

132    Shi Jingzhuo, Zhang Qiuye, Xu Dianguo, Liu BaoTing, "Speed detection based on STFT for no-coupling SACS motor testing," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1594- 1599 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyzes the disadvantages of the testing system for the single-phase AC series-excited motor (SACSM) and points out the necessity of the study on the no-coupling motor testing system. Then, this paper studies on one of the basic problems of the no-coupling testing system, that is, the sensorless speed detection during the motor testing. The method to solve this problem based on STFT (short time Fourier transformation) is worked out, and the experiments show that, the results with high precision can be obtained within 15 seconds. The comparison between the methods using STFT and wavelet is also given out. The comparison shows that the method using STFT is better than that using wavelet both in calculation time and precision.

133    Ku Chin Lin, "Frequency-domain design of tension observers and feedback controllers with compensation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1600- 1605 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The dynamics of a web transport system are coupled and interactive among spans of web and rolls/rollers. As the process speed or variation of the speed is high, system friction and inertia of rotation of rolls could cause problems in implementation of observer techniques for tension estimation and control. In the author's previous study (see IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation, Denver, Colorado, USA (2001)), an observer-based tension feedback controller with friction and inertia compensation was proposed. However, the gains of observer and controller were determined based on the trial-and-error approach. This paper continues the author's previous study and presents an analytical approach for the gain design of observers in the time domain but design of controllers in the frequency domain. The linearization and decentralization techniques are implemented. Design of tension observers and feedback controllers with friction and inertia compensation is studied. Approaches for the gain design are discussed, and summarized procedures are given. The proposed analytical approach for design of tension observers and feedback controllers has been proven to be adequate by experiment.

134    A. Al-Mamun, T.H. Lee, Pan Ling, T. Suthasun, "Internal model control for the dual-stage actuator in hard disk drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1606- 1611 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Dual-stage actuator (DSA) is considered as the solution to meet the challenges of ever-increasing track density in hard disk drives (HDD). The low inertia of its secondary actuator makes it possible to reposition the read/write head fast to follow the variations in the data track. This allows better control of the position error during track-following mode of the servo system. Unfortunately, the physical characteristics of the secondary actuators vary widely because of imperfections in the manufacturing process and the variation in the material properties. Robustness is, therefore, a very important factor in the design of the servo controller. This paper presents the design and implementation of a dual actuator servo controller using internal model control (IMC) which is a well-known tool to design robust controller. The IMC is used for the piezoelectric secondary actuator only, and an observer-based controller is used for the primary stage. Effectiveness of the controller is verified through simulation and experiments.

135    F.M. Dias, A. Antunes, A.M. Mota, "Additive internal model control: an application with neural models in a kiln," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1612- 1617 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this article a new control strategy is proposed: additive internal model control. This control strategy is based in two existing strategies: additive feedforward control and internal model control. Internal model control is composed of an inverse model connected in series with the plant and a forward model connected in parallel with the plant, this structure allows the error feedback to reflect the effect of disturbance and plant mismodelling resulting in a robust control loop. Additive feedforward control consists of introducing an extra controller into an existing loop with the purpose of improving the quality of the control action. This new controller introduced is a feedforward controller, which performs better than the existing controller. In the proposed strategy, additive internal model control, the new controller added to the control loop is an internal model controller. The new control strategy is tested in a temperature control loop of a reduced scale prototype kiln resulting in improved performance compared to additive feedforward control. The models used to implement the control strategies are built with feedforward neural networks.

136    V.J.S. Leite, A.F. Miranda, P.L.D. Peres, F.G. Jota, "Robust pole location for an interacting tank system with uncertain parameters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1618- 1623 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of robust control design for an interacting tank system (ITS) model by means of state feedback gains. Specifically, the design of controllers that assure a robust pole location of the closed-loop system inside a circular region on the left-hand side of complex plane is investigated. The ITS modeled is a pilot plant with industrial sensors and actuators. The parameters of the ITS model are supposed to vary as a function of the operating points, being thus, uncertain parameters that can be described by convex polytopes. Three sufficient conditions for the existence of a robust stabilizing state feedback gain are addressed: the quadratic stability based gain, a published condition that uses an augmented space and a condition that uses an extended number of equations. The last condition provides a parameter dependent state feedback gain which assures to the uncertain closed-loop system a prespecified pole location inside a circle on the left-hand half of the complex plane. The robust stabilizability conditions are formulated in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities involving only the vertices of the uncertainty polytope. The parameter dependent gain proposed allows to impose to the closed-loop system pole locations that in some situations cannot be obtained with constant feedback gains.

137    Sang Hyun Cho, Hong Bae Park, "Robust and nonfragile H/sup /spl infin// output feedback controller design for affine parameter uncertain systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1624- 1629 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we provide the synthesis of nonfragile H/sup /spl infin// output feedback controllers which is also optimal with respect to a H/sup /spl infin//-norm performance index. The uncertainties are assumed to be polytopic, both in the controller gains and the system dynamics. The sufficient condition of controller existence, the design method of robust and nonfragile H/sup /spl infin// output feedback controller, and the region of controllers which satisfies nonfragility are presented. Also using some change of variables and Schur complements, the obtained sufficient condition can be rewritten as parameterized LMIs, that is, LMIs whose coefficients are functions of a parameter confined to a compact set. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this method, and the obtained controller guarantees the asymptotic stability and disturbance attenuation of the closed loop system with respect to the uncertainties in the plant and the controller within a resulted polytopic region.

138    L.F.A. Pereira, J.F. Haffner, L.F. Chaves, "Reference model procedure for determination and design of compensators networks in frequency domain-a nontrial and error approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1630- 1635 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a procedure to design controllers based on frequency response approach. The proposed procedure starts from the design specifications, in order to determine a transfer function of a reference model. The controller is obtained based on the difference between the frequency response of the reference model and the process.

139    Chih-Lyang Hwang, "Noncircular cutting on lathe using a discrete variable structure tracking control with optimal, rejected and enhanced robustness designs," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1636- 1641 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a discrete-time variable structure tracking control is applied to a noncircular cutting on lathe (NCL). In general, a noncircular cutting on lathe is subject to a time-varying cutting load whose period is the same as that of cutting profile. It is difficult to obtain a precise model when the voice coil motor (VCM) system is on a cutting condition. On the contrary, a linear discrete-time dynamic model with enough preciseness can be achieved under no cutting condition. However, a time-varying cutting load will force the cutting tool away from the desired trajectory; the cutting profile error then occurs. The proposed control rejects a periodic and constant cutting load and attenuates the effect of the output disturbance caused by the cutting load or uncertainties. The proposed scheme is effective and simple. Finally, the simulations for NCL are carried to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed method.

140    F.F. Shoji, Hee-Hyol Lee, "On an initial condition for a reduced-order model using a two-step iterative method," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1642- 1647 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A two-step iterative algorithm we have proposed gives good approximation in the sense of an integral square-error of time response between an original system and a reduced-order model. A reduced-order model using the two-step iterative algorithm is affected by an initial condition. In this paper the reduced-order model using a denominator array expansion method is used the initial step reduced-order model in the two-step iterative algorithm. It is found that the resulting reduced-order model gives good approximation compared with other methods in the sense of integral square-error.

141    T. Hinamoto, T. Inoue, "A state-estimate feedback continuous-time controller with very low L/sub 2/-sensitivity," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1648- 1651 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A measure for evaluating the L/sub 2/-sensitivity of a closed-loop transfer function with respect to the coefficients of a state-estimate feedback continuous-time controller is presented by using a pure L/sub 2/ norm and taking into account 0, /spl plusmn/1 coefficients. A technique is then developed for synthesizing the structure of a state-estimate feedback continuous-time controller with very low L/sub 2/- sensitivity. This is achieved by applying an orthonormal ladder filter with several 0 coefficients. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the utility of the proposed technique.

142    Qiwen Yang, Ping Feng, Yuncan Xue, Jiao Huang, "Control by adaptive table," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1652- 1656 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to improve the control performance of fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and to be convenient for implementing control algorithms by using microprocessors, we present a control scheme of looking up adaptive control table based on fuzzy control theory in this paper. To eliminate the steady-state error of fuzzy control system, a necessary and sufficient condition is proved, which guides to design the control table. The control system predicts the desired control action needed for removing the steady-state error online and optimizes the control table dynamically. The steady-state error can be removed without using any integrators in the control system. The simulation results show that: no matter how the gain of the controlled plant is fixed or alterable, the control system has both good performance and high precision.

143    H. Oya, K. Hagino, "Observer-based robust control giving consideration to transient behavior for linear systems with structured uncertainties," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1657- 1662 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present an observer-based robust controller design method which achieves performance robustness together with robust stability for linear multivariable systems with structured uncertainties. The performance robustness means that comparing the transient behavior of the uncertain system with a desired one generated by the nominal system, the deterioration of control performance is suppressed and at the same time excessive control input is avoided. In this approach, we assume that the control law consists of a state feedback law for the nominal system and a compensation input in order to prevent the error between the transient behavior for the uncertain system and the desired one. The compensation input is additional modification term given by feedback form of an estimated error signal and is determined so that an upper bound on a quadratic cost function of the augmented error system is minimized. We show that a condition for the existence of the compensation input which minimizes an upper bound of the quadratic cost function for the error system is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, numerical examples are presented.

144    Jung Hua Yang, "Nonlinear adaptive control for injection molding machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1663- 1668 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a nonlinear adaptive control design technique for the injection ram velocity tracking control of a molding machine based on some physical assumptions. The backstepping design procedure is employed and the acceleration signal of injection ram is not needed in the controller design. In addition, all the system parameters except the cross-sectional area of the barrel are assumed to be unknown. Asymptotical stability of the overall closed-loop system is proved via Lyapunov method. Computer simulation is also given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed controller.

145    F. Ronchi, C. Rossi, A. Tilli, "Sensing device for camless engine electromagnetic actuators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1669- 1674 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A position reconstruction method for camless engine electromagnetic valve actuators control without direct position measurement is proposed. The method makes use of flux signals, obtained through integration of a secondary coil voltage added at each electromagnet. By this solution, both fluxes and position signals are available for the design of the feedback position controller. The paper discusses the accuracy that can be obtained for position reconstruction, linking it to the system parameters tolerances. Experimental results are reported to show the validity of the proposed solution.

146    Hyoun-Chul Choi, Suk-Kyo Hong, "Hybrid control for longitudinal speed and traction of vehicles," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1675- 1680 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid system approach to longitudinal speed and traction control of a vehicle with wheel slip constraints. The vehicle system is modeled as a hybrid system where the system is divided into local subsystems and each subsystem is selected to control the vehicle, in terms of control modes and operating region. Controllers are designed to track a desired speed value while maintaining the safety constraint that the absolute value of the slip between wheels and ground must be less than a given limit value to prevent the wheels from skidding or spinning. Simulation results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed control system.

147    R. Morselli, R. Zanasi, A. Visconti, "Generation of acceleration profiles for smooth gear shift operations," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1681- 1686 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main goal of the engine-gear-clutch electronic control system is to improve the performance of the vehicle even in terms of passenger's comfort. Based on trajectory generation techniques, this paper proposes a nonlinear filter for the generation of comfortable car acceleration profiles during automatic gear shift operations. The passenger's head oscillations are evaluated by means of a head-neck dynamic model validated by experimental measurements. The on-line generation of the acceleration profiles ensures the required flexibility. The paper proposes also a methodology that can easily be extended either to fit with different comfort specifications or to match driveline constraints.

148    J.M. Altes, E.G. Dolcet, B.P. Solorzano, "Analysis of the most appropriate electrical architecture and communication bus for the new dual voltage 14/42 V system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1687- 1692 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the basic electrical architecture of the dual voltage 14/42 V system for vehicles proposed up to date. Certain functions of management of the electrical power and protection of the electrical system are also discussed such as the circuit protection, battery management system and fusing. In our analysis of circuit protection we consider the problem of battery discharge and how to avoid the dump load. To control these functions of the electrical architecture, a data communications bus must be provided. In this paper we analyze 4 buses (CAN, TTP, LIN and RDbus) that comply with the appropriate requirements for this type of control. This new electrical system should perform at least the same as the previous one as far as security, reliability and robustness are concerned. Finally, we discuss the most appropriate electrical and communication architectures according to present day requirements.

149    J. Pelegri, J. Alberola, V. Llario, "Vehicle detection and car speed monitoring system using GMR magnetic sensors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1693- 1695 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new simple circuit can detect the magnetic perturbation caused by the cars with two GMR magnetic field gradient sensors located on the pavement of a highway or fast road without wires. When a car passes above the board, a microcontroller processes the signal of sensors to obtain the speed and length of the car in real time. The dates of more than one thousand vehicles could be stored in a ROM until it is full. At this point the microcontroller sends the dates through a FSK modulation, that a PC stored permanently, and after present it with a software. The affordable system could be used for automatic traffic measurements and control in many places, replacing the expensive systems like the ultra sonic sensors and the video cameras to cover an extended area.

150    B. Raison, G. Rostaing, O. Butscher, C.-S. Maroni, "Investigations of algorithms for bearing fault detection in induction drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.2 , pp. 1696- 1701 vol.2, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents signal methods dedicated to the fault detection in the mechanical part of an induction drive: bearing damage, eccentricity and rotor unbalance. An experimental bench test is described and used to create and characterise these faults. Two methods for bearing faults detection are also detailed: the cepstrum and an original method (parcels summation method). These algorithms are tested on synthetical and real signals.

IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference

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1    "Proceedings of the 2002 28th Annual Conference of the IEEE Inductrial Electronics Society," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 0_1- vi, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

2    M. Krodel, K.-D. Kuhnert, "Reinforcement learning to drive a car by pattern matching," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1728- 1733 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the paper the actual state of a system is presented that is aimed to learn driving autonomously different vehicles on different courses exclusively by visual input. The subsystem intelligent image processing allows, as required, to locate the road mark edges of each single image. A trained search algorithm allows optimal search speed and high recognition rate and consequently efficiently converts road mark edges into abstract complete situation descriptions (ACSDs) capturing in a storage limited way the current situation the vehicle is in. The subsystem pattern matching successfully retrieves similar situations to the current one based on a pattern matching algorithm. The pattern matching algorithm used in this subsystem is optimised for search speed on one hand and usage for road situations on the other hand. The subsystem reinforcement learning is still under implementation. However, a simple approach implemented so far allows already autonomous driving on a learning-by-knowledge-transfer basis promising further positive results in the area of autonomous driving based on pattern matching.

3    M.C. Di Piazza, A. Ragusa, G. Tine, G. Vitale, "EMC in dual voltage vehicle electrical system: experimental investigation of transient disturbance problems and comparison with conventional 14 V electrical systems behaviour," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1734- 1739 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is focused on some electromagnetic compatibility problems concerning automotive electrical loads in dual-voltage vehicle architecture. Transient disturbances produced by a new prototypical vehicle electrical load have been analysed. In particular the considered electrical load is a DC cooling fan drive intended for a 42 V rated voltage. Both current and voltage transient disturbances produced by the 42 V cooling fan drive have been measured and critically analysed, in time and frequency domain. The reason for such an investigation is to define the characteristics of electromagnetic environment in new dual-voltage (14/42 V) vehicle electrical architecture and so to contribute to technical standardisation of the automobiles in the field of EMC. Suitable experimental measurement systems have been set up in order to measure and experimentally compare transient disturbances produced by the considered 42 V drive and 14 V cooling fan drive (used in conventional vehicle electrical architecture), both during start and stop operation. Particular care has been put in realising the experimental measurement system for 42 V drive, as no related technical standard references currently exist. Moreover the effects due to the introduction of a power electronic device, instead of a conventional electromechanical relay, have been evaluated, showing a reduction of transients' heaviness.

4    T. Suzuki, T. Zanma, M. Ishida, "A modal logic-based model of traffic system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1740- 1745 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A hybrid system in which continuous and discrete variables are involved is drawing much attention of researchers in system control. Traffic control system can be regarded as a typical example of hybrid system since both continuous variables such as a number of cars, speeds, and discrete ones, for example, traffic signals and so on are involved in the system. For modeling of the hybrid system, there exist various approaches based on discrete event system theory, which utilizes mainly timed automaton, Petri net and so forth. The traffic control system can be also regarded as a system controlled by a logic-based controller. In addition, if the control specifications are also given by logical expressions, it may not be difficult to modify the existing logic-based controller. In this paper, we take a simple traffic system as an example, propose one of the modeling methods using modal logic and consider its applicability to control.

5    R. Kennel, G. Nicastro, R. Roesner, R. Rohlfing, "High performance test equipment for 12 V and 42 V automotive components," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1746- 1751 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Many industrial branches refer to officially defined standards or recommendations concerning their products. Companies of automotive industry, however, define their own technical requirements. As a consequence technical issues like quality of voltage in vehicle power supply systems are different between the companies. A test generator coping with the requirements of most automotive companies at the same time is not available in the market so far. Consequently automotive suppliers use different test equipment depending on the respective customer. A power function generator for testing of 12 V and 42 V components was developed as a co-operation project between university and industry. The generator is able to feed supply currents of 30 A. The output voltage shape can be defined with a high degree of freedom and is repeated cyclically. Voltage rise times of 3 /spl mu/s and short time voltage drops and/or voltage interrupts can be produced. Of course, slow rise and decrease of the voltage can be realized as well. Additional oscillations of 100 kHz can be superposed to the output voltage. These features make the "voltage ripple generator" superior to commercial products available on market today.

6    V. Trent, M. Greene, "A genetic algorithm predictor for vehicular rollover," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1752- 1756 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A model-based genetic algorithm predictor is developed to estimate the potential for vehicular rollover. The model is based on a 1997 Jeep Cherokee Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) and is discretized at 100 Hz. Preliminary simulation results indicate rollover prediction of 400 ms in advance of the actual event. Such advance prediction would then allow the use of active anti-roll algorithms and systems such as differential braking or active suspension control.

7    M. Mrabet, F. Fnaiech, A. Chaari, K. Al-Haddad, "Nonlinear predictive control based on NARX models with structure identification," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1757- 1762 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) based on NARX modeling with structure detection algorithm is presented in this paper. The scheme employs a nonlinear structure identification procedure known as Kortman-Unbehauen algorithm. A suitable NARX model is then stated which enables computation of the prediction used to design the nonlinear model predictive control law. Performance and robustness properties of the new scheme are illustrated by several simulation results.

8    H. Konishi, M. Sekoguchi, M. Goto, A. Yokoyama, Qiang Lu, "Confirmation test for nonlinear excitation control system using state-space linearization," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1763- 1767 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Conventional power system stabilizers (PSSs) for generators are designed by linearization under one operating point. So they might not always work effectively after a large power system change due to disturbances. We have been developing nonlinear control systems which can operate effectively under various kinds of system conditions. We designed a nonlinear optimal excitation control (NOEC) system using an exact linearization approach for a one machine-infinite bus model. Confirmation tests of the prototype controller were carried out using a real time digital simulator (RTDS) to evaluate dynamic performance of the developed control system, and effectiveness of the controller was confirmed.

9    M. Manic, B. Wilamowski, "Towards the robustness in neural network training," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1768- 1771 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Though proven to be very successful in many cases where other traditional techniques failed to give satisfactory results, neural networks still raise a lot of questions. Disbelief comes from difficulties with correct choice of network parameters, like initial set of weights, adequate network architecture, etc. The proposed method uses combination of two different approaches: genetic algorithm and gradient method approach. The proposed approach automatically searches for the adequate initial weight set. The robustness with respect to initial weight set is achieved through introduction of randomness in neuron weight space. Process goes as following. Genetic approach is used in process of searching for weight set with minimal total error. Once that set is determined, algorithm uses the second, gradient type of approach. The proposed algorithm is not based on typical gradient type of search, rather it estimates the gradient from series of feed forward calculations. Results are confirmed through experimental data and given in form of graphs.

10    G.Q. Zhong, H.S. Kwok, K.F. Man, W.K.S. Tang, "Generating chaos in continuous-time systems using nonlinear feedback," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1772- 1777 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An approach of nonlinear feedback control for generating chaos in third-order linear autonomous continuous-time systems is proposed. With a simple nonlinear feedback control, chaotic dynamics can be generated in the controlled systems. The nonlinearity of the controller can be the forms of a piecewise-linear function, a cubic function, and a piecewise quadratic function, respectively. The circuitry implementation of the controlled systems, and the chaotic attractors observed by simulation and experimental measurement are demonstrated.

11    K. Takao, T. Yamamoto, T. Hinamoto, "A design of neural-net based controllers with internal model structure for nonlinear systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1778- 1783 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Since most process systems have nonlinearities, it is necessary to consider controller design schemes to deal with nonlinear systems. In this paper, a new neural-net based controller is proposed, which has an internal model structure. The internal model consists of the linear nominal model and the neural network. The linear nominal model and the neural network respectively work for the purpose of compensating the linear and the nonlinear components included in the controlled object. The pole-assignment control system is constructed for the augmented system which is composed of the controlled object, the internal model and the linear nominal model. Finally, the effectiveness of the newly proposed control scheme is numerically evaluated on a simulation example.

12    M. Parmar, J.Y. Hung, "Modeling and sensorless optimal controller design for an electric power assist steering system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1784- 1789 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper considers the analysis and design of a double-pinion type electric power assist steering (EPAS) control system. A simplified model of the augmented steering assembly-electric motor system is arrived at using Lagrangian dynamics. In contrast to the state of the art, the paper presents three advances. First, a state-space approach is used rather than an input-output model. The state-space formulation for the system model is obtained with the motor column angular position and the steering column torque as outputs. Secondly, LQG techniques are employed to arrive at an optimal controller for the EPAS system. The selection of weighting coefficients for the LQR is discussed. Finally, the authors present a control strategy that eliminates the steering column torque sensor, a critical component in existing EPAS controller designs. The proposed control strategy presents an opportunity to improve EPAS system performance and also reduce system cost and complexity.

13    A. Bonastre, J.V. Capella, R. Ors, "A new generic architecture for the implementation of intelligent and distributed control systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1790- 1795 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays distributed systems have demonstrated to be one of the best options for the industrial control systems implementation due their flexibility and power, which are increased with the application of artificial intelligence techniques. In this line, our group has developed several distributed systems applied to chemical analysis and industrial automation. For these implementations a CAN network was used. This article proposes a new layered architecture for the implementation of these intelligent and distributed systems. In that line, several techniques of discrete control may be used, from Petri nets to an expert system based on rule nets, while continuous control loops may be implemented by means of from traditional PID devices to distributed neural network approaches. Finally, for the communication layer implementation an industrial network such as CAN or TTP among others, will be used. This architecture defines the services offered by each layer, and specifies the interface between any two adjacent layers. It also defines the required characteristics of the protocols at any layers, and the capabilities that should be implemented. Finally, an implementation example of this architecture is presented.

14    S. Aramaki, H. Shirouzu, K. Kurashige, "Control program structure of humanoid robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1796- 1800 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the new control program structure for humanoid robot which consists of multi-CPU, multi-OS and multi-task is described. The method for planning action from multiple sensor information by using the production system is also described. Task program has hierarchical structure like as human being has conscious action and unconscious action. Our design concept is generality of task. We want to make a control program independently on the architecture of a robot and other tasks. We also want to make software architecture simple. Task program is divided into three levels. Tasks must communicate each other. However, if one task can communicate another task at random, the amount of communication increases exponentially. Therefore, we made a rule of task in order to make the amount of communication linearly increase. On the other hand, a robot must determine next action from multiple sensor information. We introduced the reasoning mechanism of production system for determining next action. It becomes easy to determine next action from multiple sensor input by using this method. We could make a robot grasp a block by using this method and simulator, and we confirmed the effectiveness of methods mentioned above.

15    M. Miwa, T. Inoue, M. Matsuzaki, T. Furuhasi, S. Okuwa, "Nurse scheduling system using bacterial evolutionary algorithm hardware," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1801- 1805 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nurse scheduling problem is one of combinatorial optimisation problems, and it is difficult to search for optimal solutions. This paper describes how bacterial evolutionary algorithm (BEA), which is one of evolutionary algorithms, is applied to search for the optimal solutions of nurse schedules. It takes a large amount of computation time for the scheduling. The nurses scheduling system is implemented on a hardware executed BEA for acceleration, and the system performs in real time.

16    J.A. Alonso-Jimenez, J. Borrego-Diaz, A.M. Chavez-Gonzalez, M.A. Gutierrez-Naranjo, J.D. Navarro-Marin, "A methodology for the computer-aided cleaning of complex knowledge databases," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1806- 1811 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In environments with complex cognitive structure (such as semantic web or sophisticated spatial databases for geographical information systems), classical methods for detecting anomalies can be inadequate. In this paper the use of an automated theorem prover to detect anomalies in knowledge bases within a complex ontology is proposed. The authors argue that it will need to integrate such systems in some intelligent agents. The loss of real-time execution in some cases. is discussed with examples.

17    M. Iwasaki, N. Tsujiuchi, T. Koizumi, "Force control for unknown environment using sliding mode controller with gain-scheduled variable hyperplane," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1812- 1817 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new type of sliding mode controller with gain-scheduled variable hyper plane for position and force control is presented. In this controller, the hyper plane in sliding mode controller is continuously adjusted according to the environmental stiffness identified in real time. This controller is applied to force control using a one-degree-of-freedom manipulator system, and the performance of this controller is verified by both simulation and experiments.

18    T. Mizuno, Y. Hirasawa, "Self-sensing magnetic suspension using an H-bridge type hysteresis amplifier operating in two quadrants," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1818- 1823 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A self-sensing magnetic suspension system with an H-bridge hysteresis amplifier is developed. Since the H-bridge drive circuit consists of a pair of transistors and a pair of diodes, the amplifier operates in two quadrants; the output current has one polarity while the polarity of the voltage applied to the coil is reversed alternatively. The switching characteristics of the amplifier are studied both analytically and experimentally. The measurement results show that the switching frequency is proportional to the air gap between the electromagnet and the suspended object, and insensitive to the value of current command. A digital control system is developed in which the displacement of the suspended object is estimated based on the period time measurement of the switching signal. Self-sensing suspension is achieved with the developed hysteresis amplifiers and the digital control system.

19    C. Morel, "Application of slide mode control to a current-mode-controlled boost converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1824- 1829 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We first study the behavior of a current-mode-controlled boost converter and exhibit its chaotic behavior (when the duty cycle exceeds 50%). We then introduce a practical method (sliding mode control) aiming at totally eliminating chaos and at keeping the desired current-controlled property. Indeed, the standard method (slope compensation) only partly cures this major drawback: even though it eliminates chaos, the converter is not current-controlled any more. Our control method does not only provide stability, it also increases the input voltage variation domain for which the system remains stable. The sliding-mode controlled converter always remains current-controlled, i.e. independently of the duty cycle. We finally establish a mathematical modeling of the whole circuit (close-loop) and study its performance in detail.

20    A. Arakawa, K. Miyata, "A variable-structure control method for the suppression of elevator-cage vibration," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1830- 1835 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new control method (i.e., a controller) controller with a variable structure that consists of multiple linear controllers-for suppressing the vertical vibration of a fast elevator has been developed. Each linear controller is designed by using an H/sup /spl infin// control method to suppress the vertical vibration of the cage. Moreover, the linear controllers are switched according to the position of the elevator. It has been found that the developed controller reduces the amplitude of the cage's vibration to one-half that of our previous design.

21    Y.Z. Elhalwagy, M. Tarbouchi, "Application of fuzzy sliding mode control to a command interceptor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1836- 1841 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the application of robust sliding mode control to highly nonlinear dynamical system. Extensive research efforts have been made to design or improve flight guidance and control systems. With the phenomenal growth in soft computing techniques, there is a growing interest to apply these techniques to missile flight guidance and control systems. A fuzzy sliding mode guidance algorithm is designed for command-to-line-of-sight skid-to-turn (CLOS-STT) missile. The fuzzy logic controller is merged with a fuzzy sliding mode controller to improve the robustness. The acceleration command input is obtained while the target randomly maneuvers are considered as a source of uncertainty. A six-degrees-of-freedom flight model for an anti-air command guidance system is developed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

22    Zhang Yan, V. Utkin, "Sliding mode observers for electric machines-an overview," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1842- 1847 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In electric machine control practice, it is not desirable or possible to measure all the state variables needed for control implementation. A good observer-based method to obtain state variables for use in the control law is always pursued by researchers. Observation algorithms make use of the machine model equations and allow the estimation of rotor speed and/or flux from the motor terminal measurement of current and voltage. Among different observation methods the sliding mode observer is a promising approach. This paper attempts to provide a status review and synopsis of the main approaches used in the sliding mode observer design for electric machines. Both induction machine and permanent magnet synchronous machine are covered in this paper. The research work expands from flux estimation, machine parameter estimation to sensorless control issue.

23    N. Mizuno, Y. Tamai, T. Okazaki, K. Ohtsu, "A ship's minimum-time maneuvering system using neural networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1848- 1853 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a ship's minimum-time maneuvering system using neural networks is proposed. In the proposed method, the neural networks are used both for interpolating the pre-computed minimum-time solution for the real-time situation and for compensating the control error caused by some modeling errors, disturbances etc. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method, computer simulations and actual sea tests are carried out using a training ship Shioji Maru.

24    T.W.S. Chow, S.Y. Cho, "A new colour 3D SFS scheme using neural networks and iterative recursive method," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1854- 1859 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of colour SFS (shape from shading) refers to the well-known fact that most real objects usually contain mixtures of diffuse and specular colour reflections and are affected by the multi-coloured interreflection under unknown reflectivity. In this paper, a novel colour SFS scheme is proposed. The proposed approach focuses on two main parts. First, a generalized neural based colour reflectance model is described. Second, an iterative recursive method is developed to reconstruct a multi-colour 3D surface. Experimental results on synthetic coloured objects were performed and compared with other well-known conventional models. The obtained results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed methodology is very encouraging.

25    D. Carmona, M.A. Jaramillo, E. Gonzalez, J.A. Alvarez, "Electric energy demand forecasting with neural networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1860- 1865 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electric energy demand forecasting represents a fundamental information to plan the activities of the companies that generate and distribute it. So a good prediction of its demand will provide an invaluable tool to plan the production and purchase policies of both generation and distribution or reseller companies. This demand may be seen as a temporal series when its data are conveniently arranged. In this way the prediction of a future value may be performed studying the past ones. Neural networks have proved to be a very powerful tool to do this. They are mathematical structures that mimic that of the nervous system of living beings and are used extensively for system identification and prediction of their future evolution. In this work a neural network is presented to predict the evolution of the monthly demand of electric consumption. A feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) has been used as neural model with backpropagation as learning strategy. The network has three hidden layers with a 8-4-8 distribution. It takes twelve past values to predict the following one. Errors smaller than 5% have been obtained in most of the predictions.

26    Ying-Shieh Kung, Rong-Fong Fung, "Precision control of a piezoceramic actuator using neural networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1866- 1871 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is to study the precision control of a piezoceramic actuator (PA). Due to the inherent hysteresis nonlinearity, the PA always causes position error in the open-loop system and instability in the closed-loop system. To remedy this problem, a new control method combining the feedforward and feedback controllers is proposed to improve the dynamic performance of the PA. In the feedforward controller design, the hysteresis nonlinearity of the PA is modeled by using Preisach model first. A database of input/output history and a neural networks architecture treated as the inverse function of Preisach model are also utilized in the feedforward controller. In the feedback controller design, a PI controller is used to regulate the error between the command input and system output. In experiment, the command of square wave, sinusoid wave and triangular wave is taken as the tested signal to validate the excellent performances of the proposed controller.

27    R.B. Wells, A. Vongkunghae, "A model-reference neural network scheme for obtaining laser printer modulation templates," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1872- 1875 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An adaptive subpixel modulation optimization system for obtaining laser printer modulation templates is introduced in this paper. This paper presents a novel training algorithm for employing a Madaline II network in a model-reference loop. The neural network weights are adapted using the Madaline II rule. Desired response feedback is obtained from a new performance feedback algorithm.

28    V. Turchenko, V. Kochan, A. Sachenko, V. Koval, "Advanced sensor data integration using neural networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1876- 1880 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Using neural networks for sensor drift prediction is considered in this paper. There are described basis and advanced methods of "historical" data integration and appropriate models of single-layer and multi-layer perceptrons. Simulation modelling results show an improvement of the accuracy of sensor data processing of advanced method in 2-3 times in comparison with basis method.

29    A. Correcher, F. Morant, E. Garcia, R. Blasco-Gimenez, E. Quiles, "Failure diagnosis of a cement kiln using expert systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1881- 1886 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The supervisory control and the fault diagnosis of a cement kiln is presented in this paper. The fault diagnosis system has been developed using state space and sensor space mapping, following the methodology developed by the authors. In this case, the mentioned methodology has lead to the use of an expert system implemented as a fuzzy logic fault diagnoser. Practical results of the implementation of the proposed supervisory control and fault diagnosis system in a cement kiln are included in the paper.

30    S. Gebus, E. Juuso, "Industrial utilization of linguistic equations for defect detection on printed circuit boards," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1887- 1892 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes how linguistic equations, an intelligent method derived from fuzzy algorithms, have been used in a decision-helping tool for electronic manufacturing. In our case the company involved in the project, PKC Group, is mainly producing control cards for the automotive industry. In their business, nearly 70 percent of the cost of a product is material cost. Detecting defects and repairing the printed circuit boards is therefore a necessity. With an ever increasing complexity of the products, defects are very likely to occur, no matter how much attention is put into their prevention. That's the reason why the system described in this paper comes into use only during the final testing of the product and is purely oriented towards the detection and localization of defects. Final control is based on functional testing. Using linguistic equations and expert knowledge, the system is able to analyze that data and successfully detect and trace a defect into a small area of the printed circuit board. If sufficient amount of data is provided, self-tuning and self-learning methods can be used. Diagnosis effectiveness can therefore be improved from detection of a functional area towards component level analysis.

31    A.M. Campos, D.F. Garcia, "A real-time expert system architecture based on a novel dynamic task scheduling technique," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1893- 1898 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Computational characteristics of real-time expert systems have limited its integration in real-time control and monitoring environments. The computation time required to complete inferences carried out by expert systems present high variability, which usually leads to severe under-utilization of resources when the schedule of inferences is based on their worst computation times. Moreover, the event-based aperiodic activation of inferences increases the risk of transient overloads, as during critical conditions of the controlled or monitored environment the arrival rate of events increases. The dynamic scheduling technique presented in this article obtains statistical bounds of the time required to complete inferences on-line, and uses these bounds to schedule inferences achieving highly effective utilization of resources. In addition, this technique handles transient overloads using a robust approach. During overloads this technique completes nearly as many inferences as other dynamic scheduling techniques, but shows significantly better effective utilization of resources. The specific real-time architecture presented in this work, based on component object model (COM) technology, completes our approach to the problem of building efficient real-time rule-based systems suitable for controlling or monitoring complex industrial processes.

32    I. Monedero, C. Leon, R. Denda, S. Munoz, J.M. Elena, J. Luque, "An expert system approach for the design of cable networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1899- 1902 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show the utility of expert systems in the task of designing cable networks. At Enditel Endesa we are developing a project called Datacab in collaboration with the Electronic Technology Department of the University of Seville. Datacab is an expert system for automatic routing and positioning of the elements of both the civil design and the cabling of a cable telecommunication network. It uses as input data from a GIS (geographic information system) and obtains an optimal design by applying a specific design rules database. Datacab's representation of the geographic information is entirely based on graphs. Among the advantages of the proposed expert system approach is the possibility to add new rules or to modify present rules easily if design criteria change.

33    J. Martins, A. Pires, A. Dente, R. Vilela Mendes, "Formal language control of induction motor drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1903- 1908 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Formal language techniques have been used in the past to study autonomous dynamical systems. However, for controlled systems, the modelling framework is based on a formulation in terms of context-dependent grammars distinguishing between information generated by the system and input control. The integration of electromechanical drive systems, which exhibit considerable intrinsic complexities, with information processing techniques allows a better adaptative modelling of the overall behaviour. Assuming the induction motor drive system as a linguistic source, producing a certain language, a grammatical inference algorithm is used to extract the productions that govern the grammar representing that language. The formalism of the developed formal language based control algorithm is presented. Grammatical interpolation and automatic rule inference techniques yield accurate results, making this language-based control a promising technique for changing and partial unknown systems. Experimental results regarding typical features are presented and discussed.

34    M.M.D. Santos, M.R. Stemmer, F. Vasques, "Schedulability analysis of messages in a CAN network applied to an unmanned airship," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1909- 1914 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the application of a CAN network to the integration of sensors and actuators in an unmanned airship called HELIX, based on the architecture of distributed processing proposed by L.M. Pinho (2001). Initially, a study of the viability of several communication networks used in vehicles (such as CAN, VAN, C2D and FIP, etc.) was accomplished. The preliminary study concluded that the behavior of CAN was better for this application when compared to other types of networks analyzed. In the present work, a detailed study of the employability of a CAN network in the HELIX project was accomplished, including situations not considered in the preliminary analysis, such as the presence of jitter in the group of messages, the high load of messages over the network, and the consideration of presence of transmission errors. As the CAN networks offer good properties for transmission of messages with temporal requirements, a schedulability analysis was accomplished for the transmission of messages and a numeric example is presented in an illustrative way to the present problem.

35    A. Linares-Barranco, G. Jimnez, A. Civit, J.L. Sevillano, R. Paz, "Software generation of address-event-representation for interchip images communications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1915- 1919 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Address-event-representation (AER) is a communications protocol for transferring images between chips, originally developed for bio-inspired image processing systems. Such systems may consist of a complicated hierarchical structure with many chips that transmit images among them in real time, while performing some processing (for example, convolutions). In developing AER based systems it is very convenient to have available some kind of means of generating AER streams from on-computer stored images. In this paper we present a method for generating AER streams in real time from images stored in a computer's memory. The method exploits the concept of linear feedback shift register random number generators. This method has been tested by software and compared to other possible algorithms for generating AER streams. It has been found that the proposed method yields a minimum error with respect to the ideal situation. A hardware platform that exploits this technique is currently under development.

36    L. Chrifi Alaoui, D. Pinchon, A. Faqir, "Local controller networks with robust control: application to induction motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1920- 1925 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper present a nonlinear control structure known as local controller network. The structure consists of a weighted combination of number of individual H/sub /spl infin// controllers, each of which is valid locally in the state space of the plant. Local controller designs are based upon local models valid in operating regimes which correspond to N physical equilibrium points of the system. The design is carried out for the induction motor, and simulation results are included.

37    H.K. Lam, S.H. Ling, F.H.F. Leung, P.K.S. Tam, Y.S. Lee, "Gain estimation for an AC power line data network transmitter using a self-structured neural network and genetic algorithm," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1926- 1929 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the estimation of the transmission gain for the AC power line data network in an intelligent home. The estimated gain ensures the transmission reliability and efficiency. A neural network with link switches is proposed to perform the estimation. Genetic algorithm with arithmetic crossover and nonuniform mutation is employed to tune the parameters and the structure of the proposed neural network. An application example will be given.

38    J.F. Lopez, F. Tobajas, S. Lopez, P. Cortes, S. Lalchand, R. Sarmiento, "VLSI video processing elements for real time applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1930- 1935 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, architectural, circuital and technological solutions for the implementation of key elements in real-time video processing systems are presented. Spatial transforms and motion estimation are identified as the most critical elements in terms of computational cost, power dissipation and area overhead. In order to support real time applications, effective implementations of these blocks are highly recommended, and for this task, gallium arsenide arises as a good candidate due to its inherent characteristics. Layout and simulation results for a 250 MHz multiplierless filter bank for applications on two dimensional discrete wavelet transform (2D-DWT) and for a 270 MHz full-search block matching algorithm (FBMA) for motion estimation are presented as part of a high performance video processing system.

39    Ming-Fa Tsai, Chien-Pang Chen, "Design of a quadrature decoder/counter interface IC for motor control using CPLD," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1936- 1941 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we present the design of a quadrature decoder/counter interface IC (ASIC) that performs the decoding, counting, and bus interface function in digital motor control systems, employing an Altera FLEX 10 KA CPLD device. The ASIC contains a pair of digital filters, a quadrature decoder, an up/down counter, a latch and inhibit circuit, and an 8-bit bus interface to a digital processing system. The design of the digital filter is based on the finite state machine model with datapath (FSMD). A novel scheme for detecting the motor rotation direction is also proposed. The ASIC can be applied to a digital motor control system for getting the rotation speed or position of the motor, which is equipped with an optical encoder. The data acquisition can be extended to 16-bit integer format by two continuous reading cycles. Simulation and experimental tests are shown to verify the ASIC functions properly.

40    L. Charaabi, E. Monmasson, I. Slama-Belkhodja, "Presentation of an efficient design methodology for FPGA implementation of control systems. Application to the design of an antiwindup PI controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1942- 1947 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an efficient design methodology to develop IP-core functions in VHDL for control systems. This methodology is able to cope with different optimization constraints such as the reduction of both the development time and the execution time and the minimization of the consumed resources of the chip. Our approach uses the AAA methodology (algorithm architecture adequation), which allows to rapidly develop and optimize the implantation of the DFG (data flow graph) of an algorithm. In order to illustrate the efficiency of this methodology, the authors present the implantation of an antiwindup PI controller on a single field programmable gate array (FPGA) applied to the control of a DC/DC converter.

41    A. Vega, J. Monagas, J.M. Cerezo, A.M. Escuela, "Edge connector for mechanical and electrical interconnection of PCBs," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1948- 1953 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The goals of the work introduced in this article are the development, manufacturing and testing of a three-dimensional (3D) modular system for electronic prototyping allowing for a fast, efficient and modular assembling of electronic systems dealing with a high volume of interconnections. This system uses a special kind of connector manufactured straight on the printed circuit board edge which highly reduces the surface required for the interconnection and also the final cost of the system. The Proto3D system will be very useful for educational and research purposes and also for small and medium size companies which will have fully functional prototypes for complex electronic systems in a few days term.

42    M. Morita, S. Uchikado, "New design of visual servoing using an uncalibrated camera and a calibrated robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1954- 1959 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we deal with visual servoing that can control a robot arm with a camera using information of images only, without estimating 3D position and rotation of the robot arm. Here it is assumed that the robot arm is calibrated and the camera is uncalibrated. We use a pinhole camera model as the camera one. The essential notion can be show, that is, epipolar geometry, epipole, epipolar equation, and epipolar constraint. These play an important role in designing visual servoing. For easy understanding of the proposed method we first show a design in case of the calibrated camera. The design is constructed by 4 steps and the directional motion of the robot arm is fixed only to a constant direction. This means that an estimated epipole denotes the direction, to which the robot arm translates in 3D space, on the image plane.

43    J. Calpe, E. Sanchis, M. Martinez, V. Esteve, A. Rosado, "DSP-based control for a series resonant heating generator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1960- 1965 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A digital control for a series resonant induction heating generator has been developed and tested. The paper describes the migration from analogue to digital control with some detail. Analogue regulation of the generator is achieved by controlling three different loops. Only one of them is active depending on the application. In addition to this control loop, a certain number of limitation loops were available to avoid illegal or dangerous operations. In the digital domain, the control loops are 4th order IIR structures realized as a cascade of two second-order blocks. A dominant pole is placed at very low frequency to assure stability under unexpected conditions. Given time constraints and in order to reduce risks, the prototype board maintained most of the well-established blocks of the previous analogue versions and substituted processing and measurement blocks. A modular solution based on the TMS320C31 as the processing unit was selected as the first solution. A final robust and cost-effective mezzanine board was developed based on the TMS320F241. The prototype has been working in real conditions on a 50 kW, 20 kHz switching frequency series generator.

44    Y. Hu, M. McCormick, "A FPGA based fast DC link voltage controller for stand-alone diesel engine driven generator systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1966- 1971 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a fast DC link voltage controller implemented with FPGA technology. The controller is designed for maintaining quality voltage supply in stand-alone diesel engine driven permanent magnet generator systems. Functional simulation and practical tests with a laboratory system were carried out and the results have shown that the controller is successful in quickly regulating the DC voltage level and keeping an almost constant voltage. The developed controller has the advantages of fast response, short developing period and low cost.

45    S. Jakkidi, G. Cook, "Geo-location of detected landmines via mobile robots equipped with multiple sensors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1972- 1977 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the process of landmine remediation, it is necessary to determine the ground coordinates of the mines. This is needed for data association in the case of multiple looks by a single sensor as well as in the case of multiple sensors. It is also required for neutralizing the mine or marking it for avoidance. Earlier the work in this area treated the use of a single radar sensor. This has now been extended to include multiple sensors, forward-looking radar and infrared. It treats the process of combining these measurements for optimal estimation of the mine's ground coordinates as well as tracking the status of each mine with respect to each sensor's field of view. Results of simulations show significant benefits achieved by the use of the multiple sensors.

46    M. Iwase, H. Iikubo, S. Hatakeyama, K. Furuta, "An identification method for continuous-time transfer functions based on nonlinear optimization," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1978- 1983 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose an identification method for continuous-time transfer function models, where sampled input-output data is directly used. To obtain the ARX model of a system, the derivatives of input-output signals are needed, and are given as output of some filters. The identification method is argued under the assumption that the measurement noise is independent of the input-output signals and that covariance of the noise is known. This identification method differs from the traditional methods based on the least-square technique, because the measurement noise is taken into consideration explicitly and the identification problem can be formulated as an optimization with a nonlinear constraint. The solution for this optimization is presented. The effectiveness of the method is verified through numerical simulations.

47    H.K. Lam, S.H. Ling, F.H.F. Leung, P.K.S. Tam, Y.S. Lee, "Playing tic-tac-toe using a modified neural network and an improved genetic algorithm," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1984- 1989 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an algorithm of playing game tic-tac-toe. This algorithm is learned by a modified neural network (NN), which is trained by an improved genetic algorithm (GA). In the proposed NN, the neuron has two activation functions and exhibits a node-to-node relationship in the hidden layer that enhances the learning ability of the network. It will be shown that the proposed NN and GA provide a better performance than the traditional approach.

48    M.O. Efe, O. Kaynak, B.A. Wilamowski, "An on-line and robust identification scheme for time-varying ARMA processes," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1990- 1994 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel method for extracting the values of the coefficients of time-varying ARMA processes is proposed. The approach discussed assumes solely that the orders of the numerator and the denominator polynomials are known. The algorithm is demonstrated to be stable in the sense of Lyapunov, furthermore, it is shown in the paper that the evolution in the parameter space takes place in a finite volume. The proposed method is cost effective and is based on the variable structure systems theory, which is well known with its robustness to uncertainties. In the simulation example, the coefficients of a second order ARMA process is extracted by the use of the algorithm presented.

49    G.O. Beale, J.H. Kim, "Fisher discriminant analysis and the T/sup 2/ statistic for process fault detection and classification," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 1995- 2000 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the application of Fisher discriminant analysis and the hotelling T/sup 2/ statistic to the detection and classification of major failures that can occur in underwater vehicles. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate that rapid detection and reliable classification can be obtained with these methods.

50    Xinhua Jiang, Zhiwu Huang, Tefang Chen, Xuedong Wu, "PID control and optimum of the third-order monotone nondecreasing and nonovershooting," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2001- 2006 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the paper, the necessary and sufficient condition of 2nd-order controlled object's parameters and PID controller's parameters which must be satisfied with the system's response of nonovershooting and monotone nondecreasing has deduced when the system has three real poles. Under the circumstance of the 2nd-order controlled object's parameters are fixed, this paper has made a deep research for the selection of PID controller parameters. The optimal PID controller parameters are obtained.

51    Yuncan Xue, Qiwen Yang, Jixin Qian, "Parameter estimation for time-varying system based on improved genetic algorithm," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2007- 2010 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors first analyze the drawback of genetic algorithm with traditional mutation operator in preventing GA from converging prematurely, then study its influence on the diversity of genes in the same locus, and point out that the traditional mutation, to some extent, can result in premature convergence of genes in the same locus. This will cause the loss of critical alleles. Inspired by digital technique, we import two kinds of Boolean operation into GA to develop a novel mutation operator and discuss its contribution to prevent the loss of critical alleles. The experimental results of function optimization show that the improved mutation operator can prevent premature convergence effectively, and can provide a wide range of selecting control parameters for GA. Then we present a new parameter estimation algorithm based on the improved GA. Simulation experiments have been carried out and their results show that this estimation algorithm has good tracking ability and is not sensitive to the noise.

52    Yuncan Xue, Qiwen Yang, Jixin Qian, "Variable parameter recursive incremental estimation algorithm with local polynomial approximation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2011- 2015 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach, variable parameter recursive incremental estimation algorithm with local polynomial approximation is presented. This algorithm is particularly suitable for tracking time-varying systems and is similar in computational complexity to the standard recursive least square algorithm. The superior performance of the algorithm is verified via simulation studies.

53    F.M. Dias, A. Antunes, A.M. Mota, "Automating the construction of neural models for control purposes using genetic algorithms," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2016- 2021 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the purpose of automating the process of modelling and improving the quality of the control solution, a strategy based on genetic algorithms for determining the structure of each model has been developed and tested on a real system with measurement noise. The models were produced using feedforward neural networks and were tested in different control loops such as direct inverse control and internal model control and compared with the models obtained using the expertise of a control engineer. Several difficulties are reported as being obstacles to the success of the strategy and the solutions presented. The overtesting problem and a hybrid general training/specialized training solution are the major contributions of this work.

54    A. Catarino, A.M. Rocha, J. Monteiro, "Monitoring knitting process through yarn input tension: new developments," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2022- 2027 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the knitting industry, the appearance of faults during production is an issue of major concern, since it affects quality and productivity. There exist a set of instruments and accessories for detecting faults and avoid as much as possible the generation of defects, however they are stand-alone systems and there is not an integrated information for the technician about the knitting process, capable of helping him in the maintenance and repair of the knitting machine. The yarn input tension, due to its nature, constitutes a valuable way of diagnosing the functioning of the machine. This paper presents the research conducted in this area at this university by presenting a redesigned acquisition system in order to acquire and analyse the measurement of the yarn input tension, towards a system capable of effectively detect faults and abnormalities during the production of weft knitted fabric.

55    J.J. Rodriguez-Andina, J. Farina, J. Bullon, A. Lorenzo, "Microcontroller-based monitoring of electrodes in arc furnaces for silicon production," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2028- 2032 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electrodes are fundamental elements in the operation of arc furnaces, to the extent that monitoring their state is a suitable way to check the operation of the furnace. In addition, the monitoring process allows the values of important parameters of the furnace to be determined. This paper presents the monitoring system that is currently being used at the silicon production facility of the company Ferroatlantica, in Spain. It is the result of the evolution from a previous, mainly analog, system to a microcontroller-based one. Experimental results that validate the operation of the new system are given.

56    Chun-Liang Lin, Horn-Yong Jan, "Evolutionarily multiobjective PID control for linear brushless DC motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2033- 2038 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a robust output tracking control design for a linear brushless DC motor with modeling uncertainties. Frequency-domain design specifications directly related to the mixed sensitivity function and control energy consumption are imposed to ensure stability and performance robustness. A generalized two-parameter PID control framework is developed via an evolution algorithm, which searches the available solutions over certain specified domain. The proposed design paradigm is intuitive and practical in the sense that it offers an effective way to implement simple but robust solutions covering a wide range of plant perturbation and, in addition, provides excellent tracking performance without resorting to excessive control. Experimental and numerical studies are discussed.

57    C.M. Vega, J.R. Arribas, J. Herrero, "Optimal-time control of squirrel cage induction motors with constant load torque," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2039- 2044 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Optimal time trajectories, based on the Pontriagyn's maximum principle, are deduced for a squirrel-cage induction motor with constant load torque. These trajectories are valid for acceleration and deceleration with or without the load torque and for loading or unloading the motor at constant speed and ensure the minimal time transients with the stator current limited to the previously fixed value. Moreover, the optimal trajectories places the motor, at the end of the transient, at the minimum current point, which is close to the one of maximum efficiency, thus combining the brevity of the transients with the saving of energy. An optimal time control system, that implements these trajectories is designed. The simulation results of the proposed control system are presented.

58    G. Tadmor, "Control of a dual drive to attenuate switching frequency ripple in a large permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2045- 2050 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A drive comprising a high power GTO and a fast switching IGBT is considered for a large PMSM, where torque ripple is a primary concern. The IGBT is used for attenuating ripple due to the large GTO's low switching frequency. A hierarchical, passivity-based dynamic feedback compensator guarantees global exponential stability, and a custom space vector PWM (SVM) strategy prevents stray, 0-sequence currents. The prevention of such currents between inverters is essential for the successful implementation and is addressed by the combination of the master-slave compensator structure with the matching SVM strategy.

59    S. Vaez-Zadeh, S.M. Bakhtvar, "Cascade sliding mode control of permanent magnet synchronous motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2051- 2056 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a cascade sliding mode control (CSMC) system is proposed for the control of high performance permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMS) drives. An improved sliding mode control strategy is introduced first based on a modified control law in order to reduce chattering. It is then used in the CSMC system to improve system robustness and performance. The performance of a PMS motor under the proposed CSMC is evaluated by both simulation and DSP implementation. The simulation and experimental results show the superiority of the CSMC over a linear control and the conventional SMC under the load disturbance and parameter variations.

60    A. do Prado, J.A. Heerdt, S.I.S. Junior, "Off-line identification of PWM driven induction motors using reference voltages," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2057- 2062 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this work we present a method for off-line identification of induction motors with PWM drives, i.e., the standstill estimation of all its electrical parameters. The method is achieved when we digitize the PWM driven induction motor model by considering the PWM signal from the inverter as a sequence of continuous impulses. The PWM inverter nonlinearity caused by the turn on/off time dependency of the current level in the switching transistors is modeled, allowing the method to be based only on reference voltages and measured currents. Simulation and experimental results illustrate the methodology.

61    Hai-Jiao Guo, S. Sagawa, T. Watanabe, O. Ichinokura, "A novel position sensorless driving system of brushless DC motors based on neural networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2063- 2067 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a position sensorless driving method of brushless DC motors (BLDCMs) using neural networks has been proposed. Considering the nonlinear characteristics of BLDCM and the parameter errors in the modeling, neural networks can be considered as a powerful tool. Thus, we introduce a neural network to estimate the electromotive force (EMF). Instead of directly estimating the position information from EMF, we propose a new method to estimating the position errors and then using approximate algorithm to obtain the rotor position. The results of simulation and experiment using offline trained neural networks show that the BLDCM is controlled well under load conditions. The proposed method can be believed have high possibility in practical applications.

62    P.A. Spiller, J.F. Haffner, L.F.A. Pereira, "Real-time application of simulation tools and implementation of control techniques for induction machines in Matlab/Simulink/spl reg/ environment," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2068- 2072 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main contribution of this work is the development of a Matlab/Simulink-based software environment that allows the integrated simulation, validation and fast prototyping of real-time control algorithms for induction machines. The transition from the simulation phase to the real-time prototyping is straightforward. A single modification by the user is required to perform the substitution of simulation tools by real-time tools. The algorithm developed is kept in the environment during the whole design process. Real-time tools will read sensors signals and send control signals for the drivers. Practical results were obtained and are hereby presented in order to illustrate the use and the characteristics of the platform. The use of flux estimators and current control was also exemplified in simulation and real-time implementation in such way that all the potentiality of the developed platform could be demonstrated.

63    Y.X. Su, B.Y. Duan, Y.F. Zhang, "Auto disturbance rejection motion control for direct-drive motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2073- 2078 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A simple and high performance auto-disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) only based on the rotor position measurement is proposed for motion control of direct-drive motors. The motion controller is consisted of a nonlinear tracking differentiator in the feedforward path, an extended-state observer (ESO) and a nonlinear proportional derivative synthesizer in the feedback path. The ESO obtains the estimated state of the plant and the unknown disturbance action at the plant input with simple computation using only the measurement output of the plant. The proposed method is implemented to control an AC direct-drive servomotor system to verify its high-precise and robustness performance.

64    J.D. Munoz-Frias, A. Garcia-Cerrada, "A comparative study between two nonlinear control techniques for induction motor drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2079- 2084 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a comparison is made between two nonlinear control techniques for induction motors, namely Lyapunov-integral control and conventional direct vector control. The latter uses nonlinear state feedback in an "ad-hoc" manner while the former systematically derives the nonlinear feedback laws to ensure that the output-tracking errors are zero. The comparison has been done studying their differences analytically and testing the two controllers in the same conditions. Simulation and experimental results show that Lyapunov-integral and traditional vector controllers can be applied in discrete time with low sampling frequency (2 kHz), obtaining approximately the same performance.

65    Wang Hong, Xu Dianguo, "A compact state observer of PMSM servo system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2085- 2089 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A compact state observer on PMSM for velocity estimation and rejection of torque ripple is proposed in this paper. By means of the field orientation principle of PMSM, a linear model is used in this state observer. A PID regulator is tuned in it to reject parameter variation. Since the instantaneous velocity can't be estimated truly when speed is very low because too little position pulses from optical encoder can be obtained in one time interval, a sliding compensation scheme is merged in this state observer to compensate the low estimated velocity error. Simulation and experimental results verify the validity of this scheme. The servo performance can be improved dramatically and this hybrid observer can be easily used in the PMSM servo system.

66    T.G. Amaral, M.M. Crisostomo, V.F. Pires, "Helicopter motion control using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2090- 2095 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference controller using a feed forward neural network based on nonlinear regression. The general regression neural network is used to construct the base of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy system. This neural network uses a different learning capability when compared with the classical clustering algorithm. The parameters of the general regression neural network are obtained using the gradient descent and least squares algorithms. The simplification of the neuro-fuzzy architecture is done throw the elimination of the rules, maintaining the performance of the controller. In the simulation, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller is used to control the helicopter motion in the hover flight mode position. The longitudinal and lateral cyclic, the collective and pedals are used to enable the helicopter to maintain its position fixed in space. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

67    Nai Ren Guo, T.H.S. Li, Chao-Lin Kuo, "Hierarchical fuzzy model for classification problem," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2096- 2101 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new methodology to solve the classification problem, where the fuzzy IF-THEN rule with hierarchy framework is utilized. The number of rules and the correct classification rate are the essential requirements for classification problem. The proposed scheme can acquire higher classification rate with few fuzzy partitions and fuzzy rules. The developed model comprises two stages; one is generation of fuzzy IF-THEN rules for the subsystems and the other is to determine the decision unit. The performance has been tested by computer simulations on the well-known Wine and Iris databases. Simulations demonstrate that our method under a few rules can provide sufficiently high classification rate even with higher feature dimension.

68    M.E.A. Farrag, G.A. Putrus, L. Ran, "Design of fuzzy based-rules control system for the unified power flow controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2102- 2107 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The unified power flow controller (UPFC) is one of the flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices that has the unique capability of independently controlling the real and reactive power flow at different transmission angles, in addition to regulating the system bus voltage. In this research, the mathematical analysis of the effects of the UPFC's VA rating and the system short circuit level (SCL) on the power flow are investigated to define the overall feasible operating area. Based on this analysis a new fuzzy logic controller has been proposed to improve the system performance. The controller rules are structured depending on the relationship between the series/shunt inserted voltages and the desired changes in real/reactive power flow in the power system. A power flow optimiser is designed based on real power priority logic and the on-line estimation of the SCL to define the appropriate operating point under different system contingencies. Three case studies are conducted to verify the capability of the UPFC and the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy controller at different operating conditions.

69    Faa-Jeng Lin, Chih-Hong Lin, Po-hung Shen, "Variable-structure control for linear synchronous motor using recurrent fuzzy neural network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2108- 2113 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A newly designed variable-structure controller using recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) to control the mover position of a permant magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) servo drive is developed in this study. First, a variable-structure adaptive (VSA) controller is adopted to control the mover position of the PMLSM where a simple adaptive algorithm is utilized to estimate the uncertainty bounds. Then, to further improve the rate of convergence of the estimation, a variable-structure controller using RFNN is investigated, in which the RFNN is utilized to estimate the lumped uncertainty real-time. Simulated and experimental results show that the proposed variable-structure controller using RFNN provides high-performance dynamic characteristics and is robust with regard to plant parameter variations and external disturbance. Furthermore, comparing with the VSA controller, smaller control effort is resulted and the chattering phenomenon is reduced by the proposed variable-structure controller using RFNN.

70    L.K. Wong, F.H.F. Leung, P.K.S. Tam, "Stability analysis of systems with nonsymmetric dead zone under fuzzy logic control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2114- 2119 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Many existing stability analysis methods for fuzzy logic control systems like TS fuzzy model based methods usually tackle plants that are linear with respect to control. However, these methods may be difficult to apply to plants with dead zones. This paper presents an improved stability analysis method to resolve this difficulty. Our proposed method employs a Lyapunov function to prove the stability of nonlinear fuzzy logic control systems with asymmetric dead zone and saturation. An illustrative example will be given to demonstrate the ability of the method.

71    Y.X. Su, C.H. Zheng, B.Y. Duan, "Fuzzy learning tracking of the feed-supporting system for the square kilometre array," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2120- 2125 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Encounter to the characteristics of time-varying and large delay constant of cable-feed supporting system for the next generation large radio telescope-square kilometer array (SKA), a fuzzy model reference learning controller (FMRLC) is developed to realize the feed coarse tracking. The FMRLC consists of a direct fuzzy controller, a reference fuzzy inverse model and a fuzzy learning mechanism. This FMRLC adjusts the direct fuzzy controller so that the closed-loop system acts like a pre-specified reference model using the fuzzy learning mechanism. The simulation results have shown that the tracking precision is much favorable to hold in the tolerance of fine-tuning Stewart platform, which have built a solid base for the engineering implementation of the high precision tracking of the feed for the SKA.

72    Hailong Song, Yong Yu, Ming Yang, Dianguo Xu, "A hybrid adaptive fuzzy variable structure speed controller for brushless DC motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2126- 2130 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid adaptive fuzzy variable structure speed controller (HAFVSSC) for brushless DC motor (BLDCM). The proposed controller is composed of an adaptive fuzzy variable structure control term and a supervisory control term. It has the advantages of fast response and invariance to the disturbances. In the proposed controller, the supervisory control term guarantees the stability of the system, while an online adaptive algorithm adjusts the control effort of the fuzzy controller. The algorithm brings several advantages, such as simplification of the fuzzy controller design, system dynamic response improvements, chattering reduction, and no need to know the upper bound of the perturbations beforehand. Experimental results show that the proposed HAFVSSC for BLDCM provides a high performance.

73    K. Erbatur, A. Kawamura, "Chattering elimination via fuzzy boundary layer tuning," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2131- 2136 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Chattering in the control signal is one of the most important problems met in sliding mode control applications, especially in motion control. The boundary layer approach is one of the many modifications proposed in the literature to avoid the chattering. In this approach, instead of the discontinuous sliding mode control, a high gain feedback control law is employed. The thickness of the boundary layer is an important design parameter. This paper proposes a fuzzy on-line tuning method to adjust the boundary layer thickness for the best system performance without chattering. The method features the measurement of the chattering in the control signal. Simulation results with a model of a three DOF articulated robot arm are presented.

74    Wang Panhai, Xu Dianguo, Shi Jingzhuo, "Hybrid stepping motor position servo system with on-line trained fuzzy neural network controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2137- 2142 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A digital signal processor (DSP) based two-phase hybrid stepping motor (HBSM) position servo system with integral-proportional (IP) position controller, vector control and on-line trained fuzzy neural network (FNN) controller is introduced in this paper. First, an optimized torque control mechanism and IP position controller are applied to the HBSM servo drive, but the performance of the control system is still influenced by parameter variations and external disturbances of the plant. To overcome this penalty, then, a fuzzy neural network controller is presented to generate an adaptive signal to preserve favourable module-following characteristics. Simulations and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the working of the proposed controller.

75    S.B. Saoud, D.D. Gajski, A. Gerstlauer, "Co-design of emulators for power electric processes using SpecC methodology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2143- 2148 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Emulation of CMS systems is an interesting approach to complete the validation of new digital control unit and to perform the diagnosis tasks. However to be efficient, the emulator have to run in real time in order to reproduce exactly the physical process functioning. This paper describes the design of an autonomous emulator employing the system-level design methodology developed at CECS-UC Irvine (SpecC methodology). Starting from the abstract executable specification written in SpecC language, the emulator is gradually refined and mapped to a final communication model. This model can then be used with backend tools for implementation and manufacturing.

76    Chen Hao, Su Tao, Xiao Fang, Xie Guilin, "The switched reluctance motor drive for application in electric drive bicycle based on 80C196KC single chip computer control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2149- 2154 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents the developed switched reluctance motor drive for application in electric drive bicycle. The component parts of the system, such as the motor, the power converter and the rotor position detector, are described. The schematic diagram of the developed drive based on 80C196KC single chip computer control is given. The principles of PWM control implemented by fuzzy logic, such as input control parameter, the output control parameter, the fuzzy control strategy, the language parameter, the domain, the control pattern and the decision table, are given. The software program of the 80C196KC single chip computer control system with the main procedure and the function subroutines is introduced by the diagram of the procedure. The experimental tested results of the prototype at the different rotor speed, the waveform of the phase current and the rotor speed curve at the condition of starting are also presented.

77    R.W. Wall, B.K. Johnson, "Regenerative train control networks for gas turbine powered high-speed rail locomotive with flywheel energy storage," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2155- 2160 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High-speed rail locomotives with on-board energy storage system need unconventional energy management systems for optimal efficiency. The distributed environment of controls and instrumentation is well suited to network communications even in this EMI rich environment. A network architecture description is presented along with benchmark analysis, and prototypes of a control system capable of meeting expectations for reliability, functionality and cost.

78    Hu Hu, Yong Dong Li, Yi Zeng, "Direct torque control of induction motor for railway traction in whole speed range," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2161- 2166 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a new stator flux estimator based on voltage model for direct torque control (DTC) is proposed. The flux estimator, with simple structure, can observe the phase angle and amplitude of stator flux accurately and is robust to machine parameters variation in whole speed range. The selection method of voltage vector and the start-up strategy are also presented to make DTC suitable for low-speed range traction. In the high-speed range, the torque is regulated under square wave condition. In order to obtain good steady state and dynamic performance, a DTC scheme under square wave condition are proposed. All of the methods and schemes are implemented on a 500 kW converter and a 190 kW induction motor, and are approved to be effective by the simulation and experiment results.

79    J.P. Rodriguez, C.R. Perez, "Advanced sensor for optimal orientation and predictive maintenance of high power wind generators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2167- 2172 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a smart sensor for optimal orientation and predictive maintenance of high-power wind generator insensible to turbulent air flux is showed, which enables measurement of the incident wind direction and energetic transformation efficiency. In addition, it analyses characteristic parameters concerning to structural stresses useful for maintenance tasks. This new patented sensor (PCT n/spl deg/. 200100142) extracts the suitable information from the structural deformation caused by the effect of the wind over the blades. This deformation is function of the incident wind direction, force or velocity, as well as the vibration modes of the structure.

80    Hongmei Gao, Xiang Chen, Zhang Ren, "Algorithm design for a position tracking sensor based on pattern recognition," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2173- 2178 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a pattern recognition based algorithm is developed to solve position tracking problems. In particular, the algorithm is applied to finding two dimensional position deviations along X and Y axes and to finding the rotating angle of objects through comparing the shape numbers between the saved template and the pictures of static objects captured by a 'vision' element such as a CCD camera, while the shape numbers are obtained from critical points which are determined by using the so-called directional-flow-change (DFC) method. It is noted that the size of the captured images can be reduced in our design in order to accommodate real-time application with reasonable accuracy and reliability. The algorithm is implemented and tested in a CCD camera based position tracking sensor for a real sheet of foam barrier. The experiment results show that the sensor performs very well in obtaining the pattern and finding the deviations and hence could be potentially applied to the real assembly manufacturing process.

81    Ku Chin Lin, "On the statistical and computational performance of image thresholding and determination of class number," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2179- 2184 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposed a new and fast method for bilevel as well as multi-level image thresholding. Taking the derivative of image between-class variance with respect to gray levels develops the proposed method. For bilevel thresholding, a nonlinear equation is derived to solve for an optimal threshold. For multi-level thresholding, a set of nonlinear equations is derived to solve for a set of optimal thresholds. Two parameters are introduced to automatically determine the number of classes for image classification. One parameter is designated for classifying images with obvious histogram modes. The other is more appropriate for use for images without obvious histogram modes. Computational efficiency of the proposed method and Otsu's method (1979) is discussed. Statistic analysis of performance of the proposed method versus Baysian classifier is conducted. Included are two examples to illustrate the feasibility and superiority on speed of computation of the proposed method.

82    O. Hasegawa, T. Kanade, "A vision based monitoring system for street video image," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2185- 2190 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a vision based monitoring system which classifies targets (vehicles and humans) based on shape appearance and estimates their colors from images of color video cameras set up toward a street. The categories of targets were classified into {human, sedan, van, truck, mule (golf cart for workers), and others}, and their colors were classified into the groups of {red-orange-yellow, green, blue-light blue, white-silver-gray, dark blue-dark gray-black, and dark red-dark orange}. The system tracks the target, independently conducts category classification and color estimation, extracts the result with the largest probability throughout the tracking sequence from each result, and provides the data as the final decision. For classification, we cooperatively used a stochastic linear discrimination method (linear discriminant analysis: LDA) and nonlinear decision rule (K-Nearest Neighbor rule: K-NN).

83    S. Derrouich, K. Izumida, K. Shiiya, "A combination of monocular CCD camera and inertial-sensor for range estimation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2191- 2196 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem under consideration centers on building a three-dimensional description of the unprepared environment of an autonomous mobile robot. In an image sequence, tracking is to be performed after image rectification. This intermediate process minimizes the token relative displacements between two frames and simplifies the tracking phase, because it reduces the disparity between two relative tokens and thus simplifies the matching process. In this paper we present a new hybrid approach to range estimation that combine inertial and visual based technologies, this allows us to calculate the image-space distance between the robotic head and the edge lines of the 3D environment. Two frames from the image sequence obtained from passive target tracking system, moving CCD video camera, will represent a set of data with the output of the inertial tracking system, that report the relative changes of orientations and accelerations between the two frames. By integrating these data in our algorithm the image-space distances of different 3D points was estimated theoretically and experimentally.

84    D. Huang, T.W.S. Chow, W.N. Chau, "Neural network based system for counting people," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2197- 2201 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new intelligent people-counting system is described in this paper. The proposed system is effective and flexible for the purpose of performing on-line people counting. A RBF neural network is employed for performing the classification task. Extensive and promising results were obtained and the analysis indicates the proposed RBF type classifier provides good results.

85    A. Ito, Y. Aoki, S. Hashimoto, "Accurate extraction and measurement of fine cracks from concrete block surface image," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2202- 2207 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Measurement and analysis of cracks on the surface of reinforced concrete can be an effective key for diagnosing quake-proofness of a construction or measuring material fatigue. The conventional method of diagnosis is to analyze cracks using a sketch manually produced by inspection engineers, however it takes a fairly long time and lacks quantitative objectivity. This paper proposes an automatic detection and analysis system for concrete block inspection. By employing a high-resolution camera, the cracks and displacement features are automatically extracted using an integrated image processing technique. Utilizing the proposed method, the crack scale can be measured with sub-pixel order accuracy. Automatic feature extraction and quantitative analysis of cracks are implemented to make the system efficient tool for assisting specialists in inspection procedures.

86    H. Onishi, Y. Sasa, K. Nagai, S. Tatsumi, "A pattern defect inspection method by parallel grayscale image comparison without precise image alignment," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2208- 2213 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For automatic visual inspection of patterns on printed wiring boards and/or patterned wafers, this paper presents a new defect detection method for grayscale images without precise image alignment. Most of the conventional visual inspection algorithms based on grayscale reference comparison require precise image alignment with precision of subpixel or within /spl plusmn/1 pixel; however, it is difficult to succeed in the precise image alignment in every image. While a defect inspection method without precise image alignment has been previously proposed for binary images, the expansion to grayscale images we discuss is indispensable for detecting more minute defects. We propose dynamic tolerance control based on grayscale morphology to reduce false defects on pattern edges, and use gray dilation operation so that a weakness of the original method for binary images, an inability to detect the absence of minute patterns, is overcome. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed method is capable of detecting subpixel-sized defects, and has practical detection performance.

87    L. Merino, A. Ollero, "Computer vision techniques for fire monitoring using aerial images," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2214- 2218 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents an approach to the use of aerial images for fire monitoring. It shows techniques to segment the fire on visual images and to geo-locate the fire front. Color processing is used for fire segmentation. To geo-locate the fire base, a planar surface is assumed. The homography between the image plane and the real plane can be computed from several points correspondences. This homography is later used to geo-locate the fire base. Several artificial landmarks are used to obtain an initial relation. The homography is updated as the camera moves by tracking several points over the sequence of images. The points are tracked by using a feature matching algorithm. The explained procedure has been applied to visual images of controlled field fires taken by a camera placed on a helicopter.

88    A. Gallegos-Hernandez, F.J. Ruiz-Sanchez, J.R. Villalobos-Cano, "2D automated visual inspection system for the remote quality control of SMD assembly," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2219- 2224 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present a general description of a new automated visual inspection system designed with a mechatronic approach, to address the problem of quality control in a SMT assembly process line. The system provides hardware and software facilities to be used as a test bench for new algorithms related to inspection and decision making, and it allows for remote access. We include a description of our first application to detect presence/absence or misplace of surface mounted devices using 2D analysis and 3D reconstruction. Also, we describe the remote access package developed with Jini/spl trade/ technologies to integrate our system to the Jini/spl trade/ Virtual Manufacturing Lab. This AVI system was created as a part of the Mexico-USA project in manufacturing research, MANET.

89    K. Namba, N. Maru, "3D linear visual servoing for humanoid robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2225- 2230 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We propose a 3D linear visual servoing for humanoid robot linear visual servoing is based on the linear approximation between binocular visual space and joint space in humanoid robot. It is very robust to calibration error, especially to camera turing, because it uses neither camera angles nor joint angles to calculate feedback command. Although the method is effective in 3D positioning control, the work space is limited to its front space. In this paper, we expand work space of linear visual servoing to be able to manipulate the target object in wide space. We obtain the linear approximation matrix in other space and express the matrix as the function of neck angle by using neural network. Some experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

90    Chen Qijun, W. Halang, "Development of 4 DOF planar macro-micro manipulators system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2231- 2236 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A small manipulator is attached at the tip of a large manipulator, this kind of system can be regarded as a macro-micro manipulator system. This paper presents a macro-micro manipulator system, which uses laser in endpoint operating and can be applied to trajectory tracking. This system has low inertia and wide bandwidth. A multi-stage rotational transformer with thirty pairs of poles as joint angle measurement of macro manipulator and a kind of errors correction strategy is given, which can reduce the measurement errors caused by excitation power. High accuracy and low inertia capacitive position sensor is used for joint angle sensing of micro manipulator. Joint controllers are independent, high computation ability is guaranteed by parallel process network. Fast and reliable data exchange between parallel process network and joint controller is implemented by using peripheral high speed bus chip. Experiments on continuous trajectory and Chinese character tracking showed the effectiveness of the macro-micro manipulator control system.

91    R.C. Luo, Jyh-Hwa Tzou, Cheng-Yi Hsieh, Hsiu-Hung Chou, "The development of a thermal extrusion based rapid prototyping mechatronics system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2237- 2242 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The rapid prototyping (RP) technology can greatly reduce the production cycle time and tremendously contribute to quality. The objective of this paper is to develop a thermal extrusion based RP mechatronics system which is equipped with a linear 2D planar motor. The RP material is wax. The XYZ table is controlled by a PC based multi-axis DSP motion control card. The RP material flow rate of thermal extrusion head is controlled by a PC based D/A card. The RP software technique includes uniform slicing, adaptive slicing, tool path and motion code generation. Based on the experimental results, the proposed RP mechatronics system can produce good quality RP parts.

92    F. Saito, T. Suehiro, "Toward telemanipulation via 2-D interface-concept and first result of "Titi"," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2243- 2248 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robotic telemanipulation method, which enables an operator to command various manipulation tasks from remote site using only 2D interface is proposed. The operator treats a real task environment through robot's sights as if it were a virtual one in a CAD system, and is able to set a variety of spatial task constraints easily on the spot. Two fundamental techniques, real-world drawing and parametric modeling, are explained. By incorporating the Internet, this method will enable the operator to teach robot motions ubiquitously from anywhere and offer a wide range of application.

93    Inbo Shim, Joongsun Yoon, "A robotic cane based on interactive technology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2249- 2254 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A human-friendly interactive system, based on the harmonious symbiotic coexistence of humans and robots, is explored. A new paradigm of technology, interactive technology, is investigated to seek such an overall interaction through Korperlichkeit (corporeality or embodiment). Based on this interactive technology paradigm, a robotic cane is proposed for blind or visually impaired travelers to navigate safely and quickly among obstacles and other hazards faced by blind pedestrians. The proposed robotic cane "Roji" consists of a long handle with a button operated interface and a sensor head unit that is attached at the distal end of the handle. A series of sensors mounted on the sensor head unit detect obstacles and steer the device around them. The user feels the steering command as a very noticeable physical force through the handle and is able to follow the robotic cane's path easily and without any conscious effort. The issues discussed include methodologies for human-robot interactions, design issues of interactive robotic cane, hardware requirements for efficient human-robot interactions.

94    H. Seki, M. Iso, Y. Hori, "How to design force sensorless power assist robot considering environmental characteristics-position control based or force control based," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2255- 2260 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, as one of important support for aged people, we present how to design force sensorless power assist robot assisting aged people's work and caregiver's motion. The proposed control methods in this paper are based on robust control and consider environmental characteristics because many kinds of environments exist in power assist motions. Two basic power assist methods, position control based and force control based, are compared through some experiments using a DD robot. The proposed position control based method makes use of impedance control. In force control based method, environmental observer is introduced to make robust against environmental parameter change. Both of them can realize stable power assist motion even if environmental characteristic is unknown. Some experimental results show the effectiveness of these methods.

95    R. Sanz, "Embedding interoperable objects in automation systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2261- 2265 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Substation automation systems (SAS) are software-intensive, distributed command and control systems that operate equipment in electrical substations. While traditional automation systems were built as turnkey systems based on proprietary technology, developments in automation, computing and networking have created a new generation of systems that have a main focus on interoperability. This paper introduces standardization activities in the field and, in particular, in relation with the incorporation of object technology in SAS. This paper describes the European R+D project DOTS, a real implementation of the emerging standard IEC 61850 using CORBA networking.

96    Yu-Chung Yang, Fan-Tien Cheng, "Autonomous and universal remote control scheme," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2266- 2271 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the development of information technology, the traditional information appliance (IA) will further evolve. IA in the future will enter every home with competitive pricing, friendly control interface, and the integration of wired and wireless network. Accompanied with the increasing variety and functions of IAs, more and more controllers are created and this makes the controller an inseparable part to IA. But more and more controllers subjected to different IAs make the operation difficult since you have to switch from one controller to another when you want to operate different IAs. Although there are some configurable controllers, a controller with many physical buttons on top, on the market, they must be configured with the channels of the subjected IAs first before use. In this work, the autonomous and generic remote control scheme is proposed to serve as the remote control scheme between controllers and IAs. The generic remote controller (GRC) can automatically detect the controlled subjects and dynamically download the context for the controlled subjects. Users can conveniently control different IAs without prior configurations to the GRC. The IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN devices and infrared rays are utilized with Java RMI technology to develop the prototype of GRC with the characteristics of autonomous universal controlling. LEGO RCX robots and Java Media Framework (JMF) packages are used to create some simple controlled subjects to verify the viability of this architecture. Consequently, the infrastructure, related definitions, and viability of this scheme are verified. We believe in the near future that this scheme can evolve into a practical development platform applied in various devices, such as IAs, production machines, medical equipment, etc.

97    B. Vogel-Heuser, C. Biermann, "Requirements of a process control description language for distributed control systems (DCS) in process industry," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2272- 2277 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Regarding process control engineering in plant manufacturing and process industry the changing architecture of automation arintroduced. To cope with distributed (intelligent) systems in this field the description of communication and configuration of these systems needs to be solved more efficiently. The requirements of distributed intelligent systems are summarized and a vision of a language for domain communication is introduced. The idiomatic control language is evaluated as a basis for this language. The result of the evaluation isthe enlargement of the requirements for a new language called PCDL (process control description language).

98    M. de Sousa, "MatPLC-the truly open automation controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2278- 2283 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The MatPLC is an international project to create and distribute a program similar to a PLC (programmable logic controller) for POSIX operating systems, and licensed under the GNU Public License. Considerable effort has been put into designing a robust and scalable system, which includes novel features and capabilities not found in standard PLCs.

99    Yang Jianhua, Y. Fujimoto, "A stochastic scheduling method: elementary of relative priority approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2284- 2287 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The concept of relative priority is introduced in this paper to attempt to minimize job lateness for a class of job shop scheduling, where the throwing time and delivery date are considered. A modelling methodology is proposed to illustrate the class of job shop, including its static and dynamic characteristics. The possible position of a job in a schedule is restrained by its effect on objective function value. Consequently the state space to be searched can be greatly reduced and its quality can also be improved so that it is easier and quicker to step to the minimization point. Detailed definition of relative priority is given in this paper and algorithms are discussed how to get a stable relative priority set. For both static case and dynamic case, it is possible to obtain a solution closer to optimum in the similar way. Finally data experiments show the feasibility and efficiency for proposed relative priority approach.

100    W.K.N. Anakwa, H.P. Roca, J. Lopez, A. Malinowski, "Environments for rapid implementation of control algorithms and hardware-in-the-loop simulation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2288- 2293 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Integrated control design environments reduce the time of development, simulation and real-time testing of embedded control systems. This tutorial paper describes five contemporary software and hardware tools which may be used to create integrated control design environments to facilitate rapid implementation of control algorithms and hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Examples presented include, decoupling stabilizing control of an unstable multivariable plant, digital PID control of an analog plant and PWM control of DC motor speed.

101    C. Guerrero, G. Rodriguez-Navas, J. Proenza, "Design and implementation of a redundancy manager for triple redundant CAN controllers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2294- 2299 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There is a growing interest in using the controller area network (CAN) protocol for critical control applications. In many articles studying this possibility, it is assumed that CAN controllers, which are the circuits that implement most of the protocol specification, never present faults. In this paper we present the architecture of a fault-tolerant CAN controller subsystem that allows substantiation of this assumption. Our subsystem is made up of three standard CAN controllers and a specifically designed circuit, called redundancy manager (RM), which guarantees the coordinated operation of the introduced redundancy. Said circuit his been designed to adapt to the specific characteristics of the CAN protocol and is totally compatible with other fault tolerance mechanisms that have been designed in the past for other parts of the system. After presenting the behaviour and architecture for the fault-tolerant CAN controller subsystem, we present a complete design for the RM. This design has been implemented and simulated using a VHDL tool. Results of this simulation are also shown.

102    R. Sebastian, M. Castro, E. Sancristobal, F. Yeves, J. Peire, J. Quesada, "Approaching hybrid wind-diesel systems and controller area network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2300- 2305 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High wind penetration hybrid wind-diesel systems have complex control requirements. The random nature of the wind, the cubic velocity to power relationship and the fast response of wind turbines make control goals like maintain system stability, and prescribed power quality levels, not easy to achieve. This paper deals with how to implement a distributed control system based on the controller area network (CAN) in hybrid wind diesel systems with high wind penetration. Firstly some introduction to hybrid wind-diesel systems is presented. Secondly two architectures for such hybrid systems are presented and studied mainly from the control point of view. This study concludes with a need of a distributed control, and the definition of some sensor and actuator nodes in the system. The CAN bus is used to close one of the several regulation loops presented. Some considerations about real time distributed control like clock synchronization among nodes when using CAN bus are presented. Finally some advantages of using CAN with such hybrid systems are outlined.

103    G. Aranguren, L.A.L. Nozal, A. Blazquez, J. Arias, "Remote control of sensors and actuators by GSM," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2306- 2310 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Mobile telephones have wide impact. Although they were initially designed to talk, they can be used in many other applications, which require wireless communications among machines. This paper describes a circuit designed to demonstrate this ability. It uses a GSM module that takes advantage of Global System for Mobile communication. As shown in this paper, this system can be used to develop many different applications.

104    T. Matsumaru, K. Hagiwara, T. Ito, "Incorporation of autonomous control elements in combination control of remote operation and autonomous control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2311- 2316 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper examined the combination control in which remote operation is combined with autonomous behaviours with the aim to realize the remote operation of mobile robot which moves in human-coexisting environment. In revolution, following, and slowdown which we had proposed as combination control the autonomous action element in consideration of the distance and direction to an obstacle and the speed of motion of the mobile robot at that time has been examined. Fuzzy reasoning and vector component are used to achieve this consideration. Although there was no big difference in following, mileage becomes short in revolution, and transit time was shortened in slowdown. Furthermore in order to avoid a near miss with an obstacle completely, slowdown is incorporated with revolution or following. Verification experiment in software simulation has been carried out with the same subject persons. Although it takes a little longer transit time, other special bad influence did not appear.

105    Jiming Chen, Zhi Wang, Youxian Sun, "Switch real-time industrial Ethernet with mixed scheduling policy," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2317- 2321 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There is a strong interest of using the cheap and simple Ethernet technology for industrial network control system. However, the lack of real-time services has prevented this change of used network technology. In order to realize real-time communication over Ethernet in industrial application, one must be able to bound the medium access time within an acceptable limit. But the multiple access nature of Ethernet makes it impossible to guarantee a deterministic medium access time. In this paper, we introduce the IEEE 802.1p queuing feature in full-duplex switches, and propose a mixed scheduling policy (MSP) for the lay 2 switches in Ethernet. MSP adopts different scheduling policy for different real-time requirements frames. The objective is mainly to study the worst-case response time for real-time periodic frames and the mean delay time for time-critical aperiodic frames by setting the appropriate frames priority to meet the industrial application.

106    A. Astarloa, U. Bidarte, A. Zuloaga, "A reconfigurable SoC architecture for high volume and multichannel data transaction in industrial environments," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2322- 2327 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present an architecture for electronic boards which combines the advantages of system-on-chip integration and the use of flash microcontrollers with analog capabilities. The design of the SoC follows an standard specification for interconnection architecture for IP cores. "Upgradable hardware" and "reconfigurability" features have been added to the system in order to decrease complexity and price.

107    A.C. Weaver, M.W. Condry, "Network edge services," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2328- 2332 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: NetEdge is a network edge device for the Internet that offloads the origin server by accommodating client capabilities and preferences locally. Services available include language translation, virus scanning, security and authentication, caching, image transcoding, and resolution of questions and ambiguity. We discuss how this new concept could be used as a virtual assistant to improve the client's view of available web services.

108    M. Kuorilehto, M. Hannikainen, M. Niemi, T. Hamalainen, "Implementation of wireless LAN access point with quality of service support," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2333- 2338 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The maintaining of the quality of service (QoS) of the data transfers in wireless local area networks (WLAN) is an extensive task. An implementation of an access point (AP) providing an access from WLANs to backbone wired networks is presented in this paper. The AP adapts the QoS signalling of the connected networks. The AP has been implemented in Windows NT workstation as a protocol driver and its operation has been verified. The evaluation of the driver performance encourages the usage of the AP in demanding environments.

109    J. Jimenez, E. Fernandez, J.L. Martin, U. Bidarte, A. Zuloaga, "Simulation environment to verify industrial communication circuits," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2339- 2344 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a specific verification tool for digital communication circuits is presented. Applied to devices for the train communication network (TCN) and based on bit level exhaustive simulation, electronic designs in VHDL language can be validated before prototypes are produced. For this purpose, a virtual communication network is built by means of various TCN device models which interchange data. Such virtual nodes generate VHDL signals that simulate real traffic of master and slave frames. In this way, the VHDL description of a device which will be synthesised can be verified before configuring the FPGA.

110    S.W. Talbert, A.C. Weaver, "Real-time event channel performance on a submarine communications network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2345- 2350 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This project evaluated the real-time event channel of the TAO software when running under the Sun Solaris 8 operating system. We modeled the communications channel among the RTS, NAV, and SONR units taken from the shipboard network architecture design for Virginia-class submarines. We established a baseline set of performance measurements for throughput, latency and jitter, communicating over UDP, TCP, and CORBA, running over Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and ATM OC3. Then we evaluated the performance of the CORBA event channel in the NAV data distribution scenario, including tests of the real-time event channel and the real-time features of Solaris 8. We conducted hundreds of simulations under a variety of conditions, including process-to-process communication on one machine, process-to-process with network loopback, machine-to-machine over the three networks, with and without highly loaded CPUs, with and without additional network traffic, and with and without utilizing the real-time event channel. Our most significant results were the documentation of CORBA overhead, the cost of CORBA data marshaling, and the throughput and latency measurements, using both loaded and unloaded CPUs, over Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and ATM OC3 networks.

111    M. Kohvakka, M. Kuorilehto, M. Hannikainen, T.D. Hamalainen, "PC/104 based wireless diagnostics module," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2351- 2356 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A diagnostics systems module based on PC/104 computer platform standard has been developed. A wireless diagnostics module is battery operated and connected to a diagnostics access point using IEEE 802.11b wireless local area network (WLAN) link. The diagnostics module performance is evaluated in the means of power consumption and wireless link capacity. The results show that the power consumption of a PC/104 diagnostics module is high for battery operating systems. However, it can be significantly reduced by component selection. The IEEE 802.11b wireless link performance is adequate for enabling diagnostics applications, but transfer delays can be significant with high network traffic load. The PC/104 architecture is found to be suitable for industrial use. The architecture can be easily implemented and changed for other types of applications.

112    Shing Tenqchen, Ying-Haw Shu, Wu-Shiung Feng, Bor-Sheng Jeng, "Design of an efficient RAKE receiver architecture for multiuser detection with adaptive channel estimation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2357- 2364 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose an efficient implementation scheme of wideband version of parallel interference cancellation (PIC) called regenerative PIC for multiuser detector with Rayleigh fading multipath channel and multiple access interference (MAI). Multiuser detection shall be used in the receiver. The successive PIC scheme cancels the interference of all users simultaneously. The multistage PIC suppresses the multiple access interference in multiple consecutive steps. Stage n cancels the interference by utilizing the hard symbol decision from stage n-1. The cancellation operation itself requires knowledge of the user codes, the relative code phases, complex estimates for the multipath taps, and finally hard symbol decisions for each user.

113    Yen-Shin Lai, Jennshing Wang, Zhong-Qing Lin, Min-Hao Wang, Su-Chen Tien, "Internet-based monitoring and control of fuzzy-controlled inverter system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2365- 2370 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Programmable logic controller (PLC) or standalone controller is generally applied to inverter-controlled drives, which have been widely used for some specific applications, e.g. adjustable speed drives (ASD). However, it is very difficult to perform high-level operations for intelligent control, e.g. fuzzy control, using PLC, which in general performs only sequential logic and some simple operations. Moreover, complicated data format of each standalone controller coming from different vendors, creates very challenging problems for system integration. Due to the rapid growth of the Internet, system integration can be easily realized without solving the complicated data format issue among sub-systems. The objective of this paper is to introduce the development of an Internet-based monitoring and control of fuzzy-controlled inverter system, which is potentially applied to an air-conditioning system. Based upon the powerful computation capability of server, a fuzzy logic controller can be realized, and thereby overcoming the modeling uncertainty of inverter-controlled plants. Moreover, the Internet-based system also provides data sharing and remote monitoring functions. Some experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the system.

114    R.O. Fernandez, R. Peres, "Remote monitoring and control of electronic nutrunners with embedded Internet," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2371- 2375 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we introduce the advantages of using a microcontroller with embedded Internet to automate and to integrate machines and industrial equipment with supervisory computers and process/production control servers. We also present a real application of electronic nutrunners integration in an engine production line, using devices based on microcontrollers with embedded Internet. This work confirms the facility to develop a system based on this kind of hardware, furthermore it reveals the parallel execution of several different tasks without data loss, thanks to the features offered by a real-time operational system (RTOS). It also confirms the excellent performance-price ratio of the proposed solution against other available solutions on the market.

115    J. del Pino, J.R. Sendra, A. Hernandez, J. Garcia, B. Gonzalez, J. Aguilera, J. Hernandez, J. de No, A. Nunez, "On silicon integrated inductor library design for wireless applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2376- 2380 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This contribution reports our research in developing an integrated inductor library. From a tutorial perspective the main limitations of this element, when grown on standard silicon technologies, are presented, offering measured results taken from a set of fabricated inductors and design guidelines to improve their performance. The modeling aspects are also covered, we present results for different equivalent lumped circuits and parameter extraction styles. From the designer's point of view, we state the main characteristics that a good integrated inductor library should include. We also report our proposed solution for this task consisting in a set of tools to automate the element selection such as their laying-out. This library development procedure and the associated tools cover the lack of these elements in present offered design kits.

116    M. Castro, R. Sebastian, F. Yeves, J. Peire, J. Urrutia, J. Quesada, "Well-known serial buses for distributed control of backup power plants. RS-485 versus controller area network (CAN) solutions," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2381- 2386 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Networking is increasingly becoming a feature of industrial products such as those for medical devices, vending machines, machine tool, and, the example analyzed here, modular power plants. As many such systems depend on cheap microcontrollers, a common approach to networking has been based on the combination of the available standard serial communication controller (UART) normally included in such devices and RS-485 drivers. However UART-based network protocols do have some potential disadvantages. Controller area network (CAN) offers an attractive alternative due to the availability and low cost of CAN based devices. This paper compares these two approaches in the design of a serial bus, devoted to internal interconnection in a commercial range of modular power backup systems, and describes the migration process from the first to the second solution.

117    M.D. Valdes, M.J. Moure, M.A. Dominguez, E. Mandado, "Improving industrial communications using reconfigurable devices," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2387- 2391 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fieldbuses constitute an extended solution used for communication systems and sensors in industrial applications. Nowadays there are a lot of commercial fielbuses provided by different manufacturers making difficult the compatibility between them. As a consequence, the hardware interface must be changed when several equipments of different manufacturers are combined. In order to reduce the cost of integrating different fieldbuse platforms, we propose the use of reconfigurable hardware. By this way the hardware can be dynamically reconfigured according to the software protocol required by each fieldbus. This proposal has been validated by the implementation of a WorldFIP fieldbus interface in the FPGA FLEX 10K20RC240 -4 of Altera. This paper provides a brief description of the characteristics of the WorldWIP fieldbus, and analyses the implementation results.

118    Teng Fei, Wang Chang Hong, "Modeling and real time control of Internet-distributed control system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2392- 2396 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Internet-based control system (IBCS) is being widely researched for its novel function of allowing any user to teleoperate any Internet-connected device via Internet. But the realization on the system's topology is too superficial to discover its characters and advantages. Moreover, even some successful applications have shown it is possible to use the Internet for the real time remote control, research on the feasibility are so scarce that there is not a scale for the sense of the designs of real-time control over Internet. And the problem of real-time control caused by variable unpredictable time delay and package loss of Internet is still a primary hamper in the progress of IBCS, mainly because the model of the IBCS is not studied adequately. In this paper we firstly bring forward the concept of the Internet-distributed control system (IDCS) and its topology while two useful characters, self-organization and robustness, are introduced. The IDCS combining the Internet as a part of the control system is the general model of the IBCS. Then through a mathematical model of the IDCS, we show it is a nonlinear time-variable system with random character. Furthermore we prove that in an IDCS the requirement of real-time control with a sampling interval can not be satisfied completely and the feasibility of the requirement equals the real-time-ability of the control loop. According to this theory and considering the heterogeneous character of the IDCS, we propose a cooperative stream control scheme for multiple control streams called control streams manager (CSM), which is located at each component of IDCS and provides a cooperative stream control among multiple control streams.

119    A. Nishiyama, K. Miyoshi, T. Hikita, K. Tsukamoto, M. Tsujigado, "A study on CORBA applications for sequence control in Ada95 and Java," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2397- 2402 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper studies the implementations and the performance measurements of a real-time system as CORBA application with Ada95 and Java. As an example of real-time systems, a sequence control system is considered. The first purpose of the paper is to report the implementation in Ada95-CORBA, and its performance, because there seems until now, to our knowledge, no report of the implementation using Ada95 and CORBA. The second purpose of the paper is to report the performance of the implementations in Java-CORBA compared with that in Ada95-CORBA, because Java source code is translated into Java byte code, and it is executed by interpretation, although Java execution system has generally JIT (just in time compilation) facilities or Hot Spot Technology, and from the second execution cycle it is executed in the native machine code. By the measurements, the implementation in Ada95-CORBA is stable in speed and performance, while that in Java-CORBA varies widely. Based on the investigation, Ada95-CORBA and Java-CORBA can be applied to the implementation of the distributed real-time control systems such as silo mechanisms. As an appendix, a new process composition law in CSP is proposed.

120    R. Araujo, G. Gouveia, A.T. de Almeida, "Learning variable-resolution maps for navigation in dynamic worlds," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2403- 2408 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Map building is an important component to enable autonomous mobile robots to navigate in complex unfamiliar environments. This paper introduces a new method for learning multiresolution maps for navigation in unknown and dynamic worlds. It extends our navigation architecture that integrates a multiresolution grid world model and fuzzy ART based world model. The fuzzy ART world model is composed of a set of rectangular geometric primitives, or features. In a companion paper we introduce a new method for updating the fuzzy ART model in dynamic worlds. In this paper we describe our new navigation architecture that, by integrating the new proposed map building method for dynamic worlds, is able to dynamically not only increase but also decrease local resolution according to variations in the local clutter and complexity of the world. With the new overall navigation architecture the mobile robot is able to cope with, and navigate, in changing worlds. The paper presents experimental results obtained with a Nomad 200 mobile robot that demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

121    R. Araujo, G. Gouveia, N. Santos, "Mobile robot localization using a fuzzy ART world model," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2409- 2414 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Mobile robot localization is the problem of determining the robot's pose from sensor data. The ability to know their own location in the environment is an important capability for mobile robots. It is necessary for (and necessitates) map building, and for motion planning. The navigation architecture of, integrates a multiresolution grid world model, and a fuzzy ART (FART) based world model which is composed of a set of rectangular geometric primitives, or features. This paper presents a mobile robot localization method that is based on the integration of the fuzzy ART world model and a Kalman filter. This localization approach is original in that it employs a new type of geometric feature map in the context of mobile robot localization: the fuzzy ART geometric feature. This extends the previous navigation architecture, and demonstrates the application of the FART for mobile robot localization. The mathematical model of the localization algorithm is developed and applied for the case of a map composed of FART rectangular features. The paper presents experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed localization approach.

122    F.D. del Rio, G. Jimenez, J.L. Sevillano, C. Amaya, A.C. Balcells, "Error adaptive tracking for mobile robots," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2415- 2420 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In mobile robots it is usual that the desired trajectory is memorized or previously generated. When following a trajectory, there are several possibilities attending to the way in which the actual robot state can be related with the whole trajectory. One of them is the extension of the servosystem approach, usually called "trajectory tracking". This is the only possibility if we need strict temporal deterministic requirements. But if not, other possibilities appear. One of them is called "path following", where the path's point to track is the "nearest" (under several conditions) to the actual robot's position. In this paper we present another method suitable for nondeterministic systems, which we may call "error adaptive tracking", because the tracking pace adapts to the errors. Its benefits and advantages are identified. Afterwards, we determine how to construct this method and we apply it to the case of SIRIUS, an advanced wheelchair. Then a control law that ensures asymptotic stability is extracted using the second Lyapunov method and under the error adaptive tracking approach. Finally, we show the benefits of the new method, comparing it with the trajectory tracking approach.

123    R. del-Hoyo-Alonso, N. Medrano-Marques, B. Martin-del-Brio, "A simple approach to robot navigation based on cooperative neural networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2421- 2426 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new neural navigation and obstacle avoidance model based on multiple neural networks cooperation. In the proposed system, a combination of a self-organising map and multilayer perceptrons makes use of local information to reach a final objective into a small maze, requiring neither supervision nor previous knowledge. The use of combined artificial neural network architectures in the domain of autonomous agent navigation provides promising results.

124    D. Castro, U. Nunes, A. Ruano, "Reactive local navigation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2427- 2432 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a reactive local navigation system is presented, for an autonomous nonholonomic mobile robot navigating in dynamic environments. The reactive navigation system integrates an obstacle detection method and a new reactive collision avoidance method. The sensory perception is based in a laser range finder (LRF) system. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed local navigation system in unknown environments with multiple moving objects. The comparison of results are shown, between two different approaches, a velocity obstacle (VO) approach and our own, based in the dynamic window (DW) concept.

125    R. Carelli, C. Soria, O. Nasisi, E. Freire, "Stable AGV corridor navigation with fused vision-based control signals," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2433- 2438 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents a control strategy for mobile robots navigating in corridors, using the fusion of the control signals from vision based controllers. To this aim two controllers are proposed to generate the control signals to be fused: one is based on the optical flow calculation and the other is based on the perspective lines in the corridor. Both controllers generate angular velocity commands to keep the robot navigating along the corridor, and compensate for the dynamics of the robot. The fusion of both control signals is made by using a Kalman filter. Stability of the resulting control system in analyzed. Experiments on a laboratory robot are presented to show the feasibility and performance of the proposed controller.

126    J. Palacin, A. Sanuy, X. Clua, G. Chapinal, S. Bota, M. Moreno, A. Herms, "Autonomous mobile mini-robot with embedded CMOS vision system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2439- 2444 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a prototype of a mobile minirobot with an embedded vision system. The robot control is implemented in a low cost microcontroller and the vision system is based in a proprietary CMOS imaging array. The proposed vision sensor has enough flexibility to be incorporated directly to most microcontroller-based systems without any additional electronics. The CMOS camera sensor has random access readout capabilities and the microcontroller uses the camera like a read only external memory. Therefore, the main advantage of this system is that image-processing algorithms can be incorporated directly in a low cost microcontroller, resulting on a compact vision system with decision-making capabilities. The robot autonomous capabilities have been tested in a soccer game scenario where visual tasks such as object localisation and classification are needed.

127    T. Tsuji, K. Ohnishi, "Global step planning of dynamic biped locomotion considering obstacles," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2445- 2450 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper concerns on footstep planning of a biped robot in an environment having some obstacles. A biped robot has an advantage to work in human surroundings. This is accomplished by its capability to walk over the obstacles. Though its foot placement should be discussed to step over obstacles, it is difficult because dynamic biped locomotion is a complex interaction system between CoG trajectory and stepping point. This complex system is solved by the term control method applying LIPM. It is able to adjust the walking stride and speed independently with this method. The collision detection can be achieved easily through modeling the obstacles to an off-limits on the horizontal plane. A stamp area is set in order to avoid the extreme stride alteration. Through these methods, the robot can prepare for the obstacle beforehand and select a series of footsteps that provides stable locomotion. A simulation result is shown to approve the validity of the proposed methods.

128    I. Baturone, F.J. Moreno-Velo, S. Sanchez-Solano, R.M. de Agar, A. Ollero, "Automatic design of fuzzy control systems for autonomous mobile robots," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2451- 2456 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the design and implementation of a fuzzy controller for autonomous mobile robots. The tool Xfuzzy 3.0, developed at the IMSE (Instituto de Microelectronica de Sevilla) has been used to design a controller for the Romeo 4R autonomous vehicle designed and built at the "Escuela Superior de Ingenieros", University of Seville. The paper presents the design of the controller and real experiments with Romeo 4R demonstrating the efficiency of the controller.

129    L.E. Zarate, M. Becker, B.D.M. Garrido, H.S.C. Rocha, "An artificial neural network structure able to obstacle avoidance behavior used in mobile robots," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2457- 2461 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This article presents an artificial neural network (ANN) structure applied to control a mobile robot movement in dynamically changing environments (environments with mobile obstacles). The proposed structure is a backward neural one. So, it is based on past and future positions, and on a optimal pre-established path. The past positions provide the ANN with memory of the mobile robot previous positions. On the other hand, the future positions provide the ANN with a goal, i.e., where the robot should go. Based on this information, the robot do not lose its goal, even if it has to avoid an obstacle. The results show the efficiency of the ANN in a form of simulations.

130    Y. Dohi, M. Onuki, "Volume visualization system on PC cluster," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2462- 2467 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We propose here a volume rendering system consisting of many client PC's and Gbit Ethernet hubs. The original volume data V/sup 3/ is divided Np (the number of PCs) square poles alongside x-axis, y-axis or z-axis which is nearest to the main direction of rays. Each PC performs the rendering based on its own sub volume data (V/sup 3//Np). Partial images of all PCs are transferred to adjacent PCs to superpose images with their own images. After superposition, they transfer partial results to next adjacent PCs. On our computer simulation, the system consisting of 54 sets of client PC's will accomplish the volume visualization at the speed 30 FPS.

131    K. Ng, W. Chau, Y. Siu, "An Internet security system for e-commerce," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2468- 2472 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Network security is increasing in importance as a result in the enormous use of electronic communication in business activities. RSA is the most widely used public-key cryptography algorithm in e-commerce. In this paper, a new system is proposed to provide secure communications through the Internet. The proposed approach focuses on two main technologies. First, a session key approach is used to enhance the security performance of RSA. Second, JDBC tooling is used to perform client/server data access efficiently and effectively. The system was implemented and successfully provided a reliable and secure Internet environment for business activities around the world.

132    B. Vogel-Heuser, D. Friedrich, "Integrated automation engineering along the life-cycle," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2473- 2478 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The system and engineering life-cycle in automation technology is supported by various CAE systems in the different phases and disciplines of the engineering process. To reduce faults at the system interfaces and to allow dynamic changes during the engineering process it is necessary to provide standardised interfaces for electronic data exchange. This paper describes the situation in the engineering life-cycle of plant and manufacturing automation and shows the difficulties resulting from changes in one system parameter. Different activity models are introduced and evaluated. Regarding the evaluation results the requirements of the life cycle are defined and a first approach of a life-cycle model for machinery and manufacturing automation are introduced.

133    L. Horvath, I.J. Rudas, "Integrating expert knowledge in behavioral feature based product models," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2479- 2484 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Purpose of the reported research is getting more information about nature and characteristics of feature based models of mechanical parts then developing a new approach and method to active modeling. The authors developed an extended feature and associativity driven and product model oriented approach to part modeling. Generic and part instance related knowledge is proposed to include in the model on a way that allows active application of the model. Previous research by the authors in modeling of part manufacturing processes, human-computer procedures and design intent are considered as preliminaries of the reported research. In this paper active model entities are proposed for mechanical parts. Main sources of knowledge represented in the model are modeling procedures, generic part models and engineers. Features defined in the model are compatible with international industrial standards for product models. As an introduction, paper discusses earlier results of the authors and the present scenario of the proposed intelligent modeling. Then relevant methods for application of computational intelligence in computer model based engineering systems are detailed. Next, a behavior based part model with specification and knowledge for design process is outlined. Finally, an active modeling method is proposed and possibilities for its implementation are discussed.

134    B. Delinchant, L. Gerbaud, F. Wurtz, E. Atienza, "Concurrent design versioning system, based on XML file," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2485- 2490 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electrical engineers are interested in sharing knowledge with other disciplines like mechanics, thermal, etc.. Indeed, to design an electromechanical product requires more and more skills leading naturally to the concurrent design. A collaborative work, based on several exchanges (like data, expert rules, negotiations), by mainly using Internet protocols, needs dedicated supports, lighter than technical data management system and more dynamic. In this way, the paper proposes a software called Concurrent Design Versioning System (CoDVS). It is based on XML semi-structured file standard and concurrent versions system (CVS) concept. The software allows designer to exchange information and to work in a collaborative design process. This information is versioned as the nodes of an XML tree. The paper briefly reviews several versioning methods and details the CoDVS software.

135    M. Dotoli, M. Gattagrisi, C.D. Pisani, B. Turchiano, "Automatic changeover of unwinding coils in copper wires stranding machines: a case study," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2491- 2496 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we design an automatic changeover system for unwinding coils in copper wires stranding machines for energy cables. The system is illustrated by means of a case study: the stranding department at one of the plants of Pirelli Cables & Systems, the leader manufacturer in the field in Italy. Motivations for the study are increase in production, improvement in manpower utilization and decrease in waste material. Two alternative changeover algorithms are proposed and highlighted by means of simulations. Additionally, three different technical solutions are suggested, with several recommendations for implementations. Finally, a performance evaluation is carried out, investigating the impact of the study on the plant.

136    T. Coudert, P. Berruet, J.-L. Philippe, "From design to integration of transitic systems a component-based approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2497- 2502 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a component-based approach for the design of transitic systems and their implementation on operational architecture. It considers a flow that applies from specifications to integration the same model. This model is obtained from design requirements. Two steps are then conjointly performed: validation and prototyping. Validation is based on simulation and a more formal approach. Prototyping enables choice of parameters and control elaboration. The last step is the integration. The different parts of the workshop have to be installed and controls implemented on classical programmable logic controllers or on dedicated ones: the nano-controllers.

137    Shanbin Li, Zhi Wang, Youxian Sun, "Fundamental problems of networked control system from the view of control and scheduling," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2503- 2508 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: NCS (networked control system) is a kind of feedback control systems wherein the control loops are closed through real-time control network. The existence of real-time network in the feedback control loop makes the analysis and design of an NCS complex. Conventional control theories must be reevaluated before they can be applied to NCS. Numerous research papers have investigated analysis and design of NCS from different angles. This paper aims to introduce state of arts of NCS and point out the field of further researches.

138    J. Arias, J. Jimenez, G. Aranguren, J. Lazaro, J.L. Martin, "Test workbench for electronic telecommunication systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2509- 2514 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Checking whether complex digital systems work properly is a hard, tedious and repetitive task. If this digital system involves the transmission of data through the use of communication devices, the testing becomes a hard problem to solve: signal power is low and it is prone to interference, baseband signals are complex and transmitted data is hard to detect directly in the waveform, transmission errors appear at random and most systems must be able to cope with maliciously sent frames, designed to make the system crash. Nowadays security and reliability is a priority in communication systems, so an automated process with a user-friendly interface, which is simultaneously flexible enough to enable all the feasible proofs, will no doubt enable the designer to find the possible mistakes made in the implementation. In this paper, we propose an approach to a testbench architecture, which enables the communication system designer work with any emerging network protocol, and that can be easily implemented in a laboratory.

139    W. Hudetz, M. Friedewald, "Multimedia product documentation-user requirements," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2515- 2519 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The globalisation of industry and the strong dependence of the German machine manufacturers on export has increased the importance of an up-to-date and user-oriented product documentation not only as a cost factor but as a competition factor of strategic importance as well. The use of multimedia is a promising approach to realize such an improved documentation. This paper presents the results of a survey that was conducted among the manufacturers of machines and their customers to identify the user requirements for multimedia product documentation. As a result of the analysis a number of success factors are identified. Finally some recommendations for the implementation of a multimedia machine information system are given.

140    F. Fernandez, G. Galeano, J.A. Gomez, J.M. Sanchez, "Efficient use of computational resources in genetic programming: controlling the bloat phenomenon by means of the island model," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2520- 2524 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a set of experiments that have been performed using both benchmark and real life problems. We have studied whether island-based genetic programming can save computational effort by controlling the bloat phenomenon. Results show us that this model allows us to reduce the computation resources required for finding solutions when using genetic programming.

141    Xinggang Fan, Zhi Wang, Youxian Sun, "How to guarantee factory communication with switched Ethernet: survey of its emerging technology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2525- 2530 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: More and more switched Ethernet were used to support high bandwidth real-time communication in process control, factory automation and other real-time applications. This paper first presents a comprehensive analysis of the temporal characteristics of the technologies like full duplex, congestion control, priority handling, VLAN, Spanning tree protocol, RSVP et al used by a switched Ethernet. These technologies enforce the high bandwidth real-time quality of switched Ethernet. At the same time this paper gives introductions of (m,k)-firm that specified QoS (quality of service) of switched Ethernet.

142    H.H. Li, Y.R. Wang, V. Chin, Qingling Ning, Tong Zhang, "Porting window CE operating system to broadband enabled STB devices," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2531- 2537 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: WinCE is a small footprint versatile operating system, which consists of full stack of IP protocols, Win32 APIs, and relatively complete set of graphics, windowing and event handling subsystems. Therefore we choose to port this OS to Philips broadband enabled set-top box (STB) for media streaming applications. In this paper, we describe the techniques and steps involved in this porting process. The experimental result demonstrated WinCE is a better choice to support Internet Web browsing, MPEG video streaming, and to allow the user to have a rich set of functions of word processing, email handling, spreadsheets, and other popular application programs with many to be readily added in the future.

143    S. Cavalieri, "Exploring real-time features of Java VM," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2538- 2543 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Object oriented software design is getting more and more common in the field of industrial control. In particular, Java seems extremely versatile for the development of distributed control applications. One of the main requirements of control application is a deterministic execution of the tasks, which generally feature real-time constraints. When Java language has been conceived, a little weight to the real-time requirements of applications has been given. In the last few years the limits to the use of Java for real-time applications has led to the definition of Java Real-Time platform specifications. Real-time capability of a Java virtual machine (VM) depends on a very large number of elements, among which the task scheduling algorithm, the memory management, the garbage collector algorithm and its execution policy. Knowledge of how each single internal mechanism of a Java VM influence its performance is very important to improve its real-time behaviour. This paper must be considered as a first step toward this direction, as its aim is to try to understand how real-time performance of a Java VM may be influenced by each its single component.

144    M.A. Aguirre, J. Tombs, A. Torralba, L.G. Franquelo, "Improving the design process of VLSI circuits by means of a hardware debugging system: UNSHADES-1 framework," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2544- 2547 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Due to the increase in size and complexity of VLSI integrated circuits, new design tools are necessary. Telecommunications and electronic industry demand designs that integrate intensive digital signal processing blocks and complex control tasks. Rapid prototyping techniques introduce a new stage into the design flow that overcome the drawbacks of simulation stage and shorten design times. Advanced FPGAs can host the design for its emulation and can run inserted into the final system. The benefits of their use go beyond the simple rapid prototyping approach, and are able to provide additional information and other useful tasks that are presented in this paper.

145    C. Castejon, B.L. Boada, M. Luis, "Topographical analysis for Voronoi-based modelling," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2548- 2553 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To navigate in an unknown outdoor environment a robot needs robust sensor systems to react to unexpected situations or to changing environments. Furthermore, if the robot's task is the unknown environments exploration, a fast and simple model to sense and to navigate in real-time is needed. This model depends on the terrain type and the robot's physical restrictions. The main goal in this paper is the construction of an environment model, which is useful for navigation in simple outdoor environments. This map is adapted to a long size intelligent autonomous robot, called /spl Gscr//spl Oscr//spl Lscr//spl Iscr//spl Ascr//spl Tscr/. A terrain topographical analysis is carried out to differentiate between the interest's regions for a roadmap constructor. Experimental results in real environments using a real platform are presented.

146    F.J. Argul, M. Castro, A. Delgado, F. Mur, R. Sebastian, J. Peire, "On-line energy analysis in PV buildings connected to the utility grid," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2554- 2559 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new software tool to estimate the energy flows in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) buildings. The main aim of this simulator is to predict the energy balance and economic behaviour of PV buildings connected to the utility grid so that different alternatives can be tested to optimise designs. Consumption analysis is performed by considering six parameters that determine the building's response, following a methodology based on data from monitored buildings, an internal reference building and regression analysis. Photovoltaic energy estimates are obtained by calculating solar radiation hourly values and simulating individual PV cells. The resulting energy balance and the economic behaviour of the building are then estimated and the results given in tables, diagrams and several graphic formats. As an example, a university office building located in Madrid (Spain) is presented and the conclusions reached during several simulation runs are discussed. To make the tool widely available to any potential users it has been programmed in a Java applet format and deployed on a World Wide Web server. By simply using an up-to-date WWW browser, the simulator can be concurrently run by multiple users on the Internet.

147    M. Lopez-Martinez, F.R. Rubio, "Cloud detection system for a solar power tower plant," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2560- 2565 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a cloud detection system for the operation of solar power tower plants is shown. The presence of clouds is detected at a region next to the sun, which is fundamental in order to preserve the integrity of the solar central receiver, which is located at the top of the tower of these solar plants. This system prevents the rupture of the receiver by thermal stress.

148    V.S. Diaz, A.C. Rodriguez, C.A. Balcells, D.F. del Rio, "Using virtual potential fields for electric wheelchair guidance," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2566- 2571 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: TetraNauta is an electric wheelchair guidance system intended for people with heavy motion impairments (such as persons with tetraplegia). It is specially useful when impairments also affect wheelchair steering as it is able to automatically guide wheelchairs between different points in a known environment (a hospital, a school, etc), conditioned with track marks painted on the floor. It also provides a semiautomatic navigation mode, where control is shared between user and navigation system. It is intended for learning wheelchair manipulation and as an aid in places where navigation is difficult or dangerous (i.e. for crossing narrow corridors).

149    K. Tagawa, K. Tokunaga, H. Haneda, T. Igaki, S. Seki, "Optimal design of three-IDT type SAW filter using local search," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2572- 2577 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An optimal design approach for surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters is presented. First of all, the structural design of a three-IDT type SAW filter, which consists of three interdigital transducers (IDT) and two reflectors, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem. In order to simulate the frequency response of the SAW filter, the least equivalent circuit model of IDT is employed. Then, a new local search technique based on the k-degree-neighborhood is proposed and applied to the optimization problem successfully. The proposed local search is applicable generally to the structural design of various SAW devices.

150    R. Rizzo, L. Piegari, "State of charge monitoring for road vehicle batteries," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2578- 2581 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper deals with batteries for road vehicles. In particular, battery behaviour is analysed focusing on the efficiency in different operations such as charge and discharge. The parameters of a simplified model of the battery are considered to monitor the state of charge and the efficiency of batteries for road vehicles. Data coming from the ATENA research project, by testing batteries on board of vehicles circulating in the city of Naples, are presented. There is a comparison between the results obtained from testing the batteries on the road and the results obtained from experimental tests. Experimental tests have been done on a workbench realized in a laboratory to simulate any working condition for the battery pack. The workbench is illustrated and the results are discussed and evidenced in the final part of the paper.

151    Dongchun Zhang, Ming Zeng, Baoku Su, "Rejection of nonlinear disturbance torque in servomechanism with repetitive control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. 2582- 2586 vol.3, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a repetitive control method is presented for the rejection of significant nonlinear disturbance torque in servomechanisms. The disturbance torque dealt with is assumed to be periodic in position, which is the main cause for the degradation of the system steady-state precision. A sufficient condition for stability is given. The existence of periodic steady-state error is proved, thus the repetitive control approach can be directly applied to the rejection of disturbance torque coupled to position. It should be noted that this property is also necessary for other learning algorithms based on the period-invariance property of the system. Simulation results show that with the proposed method, the steady-state error due to the disturbance torque can be effectively reduced.

152    "Authors list," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.3 , pp. i- xiv, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

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1    "IECON - 2002. 2002 28th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (Cat. No.02CH37363)," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. , 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

2    B.L. Boada, C. Castejon, L. Moreno, "Topo-geometric modeling and localization in indoor environments," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2587- 2592 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a new SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) algorithm in an unknown indoor environment is presented. SLAM is one of the fundamental problems in mobile robots. The proposed approach uses a topo-geometric map obtained from the local Voronoi diagram (LVD) using the measurements of a laser telemeter. According to estimate the robot position, the map's topological and geometrical characteristics are used. The proposed algorithm introduces a backward step, which revises all previous poses. This step is fundamental to obtain good results in large and cyclic indoor environments. Genetic algorithms are used to improve the estimated approach. In order to maintain the continuity in the global topo-geometric map, a virtual Voronoi diagram is built.

3    D. Golubovic, Huosheng Hu, "A hybrid evolutionary algorithm for gait generation of Sony legged robots," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2593- 2598 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid evolutionary algorithm (EA) for developing locomotion gait of Sony legged robots. The selection of EA parameters such as the population size and recombination methods is made to be flexible and strive towards optimal performance autonomously. An interactive software environment with an overhead CCD camera is used to evaluate the performance of the generated gaits. The experimental results are given to show that the stable and fast gaits have been achieved.

4    A.C.R. Alves, H.C. Junior, "Mobile ultrasonic sensing in mobile robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2599- 2604 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Ultrasonic detection techniques have been widely used in mobile robots navigation. Several ultrasonic sensing techniques have been developed, most of them using static sensors installed on the mobile robot. In this paper, mobile ultrasonic sensing is studied and proposed for mobile robot navigation. Results of experiments using a prototype of mobile robot show the applicability of the proposed technique.

5    T.-H.S. Li, Chang-An Lai, You-Jen Guo, "Design of fuzzy field control for a one-on-one robot soccer system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2605- 2610 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper mainly describes the operation and motion control of robots in a fixed field by a global vision system. The control object is that the host computer sends commands to the soccer robot through wireless modem due to the captured images and strategies. The target object has its specified uniform color, so we can use the RGB values to recognize and calculate its position and direction information under the given environment. We propose a real-time fuzzy field control to manipulate the soccer robot. Computer simulations and real one-on-one robot soccer games demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed methods.

6    M.J.L. Boada, V. Egido, R. Barber, M.A. Salichs, "Continuous reinforcement learning algorithm for skills learning in an autonomous mobile robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2611- 2616 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Learning endows a mobile robot with a higher flexibility and allows it to adapt to changes occurring in the environment or in its internal state in order to improve its results. Based on this idea, this paper presents a reinforcement learning algorithm which allows the robot to learn simple skills such as go to goal and contour following. In the proposed learning algorithm the robot receives a real continuous reinforcement signal. Thus, it is not necessary to estimate an expected reward. Most of the robotic applications work with continuous variables such as velocity, position, sensors readings etc. The presented reinforcement learning algorithm is able to manage continuous input and output spaces. Finally, the robot is capable of performing the complex skill called go to go avoiding obstacles from the sequencing of previously learnt skills.

7    H. Temeltas, M. Gokasan, S. Bogosyan, A. Kilic, "Hardware in the loop simulation of robot manipulators through Internet in mechatronics education," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2617- 2622 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This study is on the development of a remote simulation of robot manipulators using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system for mechatronics education. At this stage of the study, necessary hardware and software has been set-up and the actual torque components derived through Euler-Lagrange formulation have been simulated in real time on the test-bed, incorporating a joint actuator-disturbance (load) actuator pair. The required communication and user interfaces are implemented through the use of Internet technologies. The expected results have been obtained.

8    Inbo Shim, Joongsun Yoon, "Shared behavior control of a robotic cane based on interactive technology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2623- 2628 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Robotic aids, such as robotic canes, require cooperation between the human and robots. The proper control commands for such systems would be a combination of autonomous commands from robots and commands from the human rather than either autonomous commands or human commands alone. Autonomous commands can be generated by reactive control approaches that produce timely response of motor behaviors coupling perception and action. User commands can be generated by user's heuristic decisions based on tactile and auditory information about the environments. Various methods to implement the appropriately coordinating behaviors are being investigated. We outline a set of hardware solutions and working methodologies that can be used for successfully implementing and extending the interactive technology to coordinate the human and robot in the complicated and unstructured environments. To explore the potential for rich and varied interactions with the world, we let our robotic cane explore the environments with simple sensing mechanisms and we let our robotic cane's autonomous behaviors share human's flexible and reactive decision capabilities with blind user's superb tactile and auditory information processing capabilities.

9    Z. Ibrahim, Z. Aspar, S.A.R. Al-Attas, M.M. Mokji, "Coarse resolution defect localization algorithm for an automated visual printed circuit board inspection," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2629- 2634 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One of the backbones in electronic manufacturing industry is the printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. Current practice in PCB manufacturing requires etching process. This process is an irreversible process. Printing process, which is done before etching process, caused most of the destructive defects found on the PCB. Once the laminate is etched, the defects, if they exist would cause the PCB laminate to become useless. Due to the fatigue and speed requirement, manual inspection is ineffective to inspect every printed laminate. Therefore, manufacturers require an automated system to detect the defects online which may occur during the printing process. Hence, this paper proposes an algorithm for automated visual PCB inspection that is able to automatically detect and locate any defect on a PCB laminate. The defect is detected by utilizing wavelet-based image difference algorithm. The coarse resolution differenced image then is used in order to locate the defective area on the fine resolution tested PCB image.

10    C. Fernandez, J. Suardiaz, C. Jimenez, P.J. Navarro, A. Toledo, A. Iborra, "On-line quality control assessment of the production process of preserved orange segments," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2635- 2639 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes an automated visual inspection (AVI) system for quality control of preserved orange segments, which can be widely applied to production processes of preserved fruits and vegetables. Main constraints concerning these kinds of inspection applications are addressed: the need of on-line operation together with a strong requirement of economic profitability. The strong commitment of above circumstances has forced the development of a flexible and low cost AVI architecture. The data volume to be processed forced up the development of sophisticated control architecture for high-speed machine vision applications. Special effort has been put in the design of the defect detection algorithms to reach two main objectives: accurate feature extraction and on-line capabilities, both considering robustness and low processing time. These goals have been achieved combining a local analysis together with data interpretation based on syntactical analysis, which has allowed avoiding morphological analysis. An on-line implementation to inspect up to ten orange segments per second is reported.

11    H. Onda, T. Suehiro, K. Kitagaki, "Teaching by demonstration of assembly motion in VR-detection of nondeterministic search-type motion and developing of its skillful motion primitive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2640- 2645 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: "Teaching by demonstration" is a method of generating a robot program that makes a robot do the same task as the task that a human operator demonstrates. We have developed a "teaching by demonstration in VR" system that automatically generates a robot program to work in the real world after a task is demonstrated by an operator in the virtual world. This system generates a program that detects each contact state extracted from demonstration in VR and produces it by skillful motion primitives. In this paper, based on our observation that a human has the skill wherein contact state transitions are made nondeterministically, we propose a method of dealing with one of the important nondeterministic motions, "nondeterministic search type motion." Experimental results show the feasibility of the method.

12    A. Gardel, J.L. Lazaro, J.M. Lavest, F. Collange, "Multiview calibration of an active vision head," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2646- 2651 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a method to automatically calibrate a pan/tilt head using an imaging vision system is shown. The vision sub-system uses two cameras. Both cameras must be calibrated before. A pattern to perform the automated calibration has been constructed. The camera calibration, using that pattern, consists of two stages: capture the data online and calibrate offline in few seconds. The first task has been subdivided in another two: detection and tracking the pattern. To obtain the value of the parameters that govern the behaviour of the system, the 3D positions of the pattern points are matched in both cameras. The problem becomes a problem of minimising the position error of pattern points given by the active vision head to the real ones given by the external camera. Check and test the calibration of the system is straightforward viewing the residual errors obtained by the minimisation algorithm. Thus, an automated calibration of the active vision head based on a multiview approach has been performed.

13    A.R. Benaskeur, "Consistent fusion of correlated data sources," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2652- 2656 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The selection of the appropriate fusion algorithm depends on the underlying data fusion architecture. In the centralized scheme, the sources are known to be independent and the Kalman filter provides an optimal solution. Unfortunately, in the decentralized architecture, the sources become correlated and the Kalman filter cannot be applied. The covariance intersection method has been proposed as a solution to the problem of decentralized data fusion. However, it results in a decrease in performance. A new fusion algorithm (largest ellipsoid approach) that avoids both of the inconsistency of the Kalman filter and the lack of performance of the covariance intersection is proposed. The superiority of the proposed approach is illustrated using the target's tracking problem.

14    C. Vazquez, J. Garcinuno, J.M.S. Pena, A.B. Gonzalo, "Multi-sensor system for level measurements with optical fibres," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2657- 2662 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A system for measuring liquid level in multiple tanks using optical fibre technology has been developed. The oil field service industry can benefit from this intrinsically safe technology. Plastic optical fibre (POF) sensor heads are excited by a 650 nm laser. Laser diodes are housed in ST connectors to obtain compact and rough prototypes and these connectors are also used in the fibre pigtails. Optical multiplexing is used to increase the measuring safety area. POF splitters and connectors are used to combine all the receiving sensor head fibres in a single one. Frequency division multiplexing is used to address each sensor head. The global system is controlled through a user friendly software application running in a PC connected to the system via an RS-232 port. A scalable prototype with a range greater than 2 meter, good linearity, better than 1.5% FS (full scale), high accuracy and resolution is developed using a unique lens to collimate and focus the light. Measurements are taken to validate the designs. Up to 8 sensor heads can be connected in the present implementation. But a greater number of sensors can be allocated with minor modifications in the electronics.

15    R.C. Luo, K.L. Su, Kuo Ho Tsai, "Intelligent security robot fire detection system using adaptive sensory fusion method," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2663- 2668 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multisensor fire detection algorithm (MSFDA) was one of the important elements in the fire detection system for intelligent system. The paper proposed an adaptive fusion method for fire detection, and uses smoke sensor, flame sensor and temperature sensor to detect a fire. In reality, the phenomenon of the fire may have smoke, flame and high temperature. But these signals can't happen at the same time. First, we use computer simulation to improve the adaptive fusion method to be adequate. Next, we design the fire detection modular by using ionization smoke sensor (TG-135), temperature semiconductor sensor (AD590) and ultra-violet sensor (R2868). We use Taylor expression to modify the adaptive fusion method that was proposed by Ansari, and simulate to compare with results of one order, second order and third order expression. The modified adaptive fusion can provide adequate reliable fusion for fire detection. Finally, the experimental results of the fire detection module can provide exact fire detection results in a variety of conditions. The fire detection module was embedded in the security robot.

16    A. la Cour-Harbo, J. Stoustrup, "Using spread spectrum transform for fast and robust simultaneous measurement in active sensors with multiple emitters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2669- 2674 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present a signal processing algorithm for making robust and simultaneous measurements in an active sensor, which has one or more emitters and a receiver, and which employs some sort of signal processing hardware. Robustness means low sensitivity to time and frequency localized disturbances, and to white noise. This is achieved partly by using a orthogonal spread spectrum transform for modulating the signals transmitted from the emitters to the receiver, and partly by using a number of transmission channels. The method is fast since the signals are short, and since the method does not rely on previously transmitted signals. This also means that only a few calculations are needed. Furthermore, the suggested spread spectrum transform has a low complexity, a high numerical stability, and is easily implemented in simple signal processing hardware. The presented method is therefore suitable for low-cost active sensors.

17    R.C. Luo, T.C. Hsieh, K.L. Su, C.F. Tsai, "An intelligent remote maintenance and diagnostic system on mobile robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2675- 2680 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design and implementation of an intelligent multisensor based mobile robot for remote maintenance and diagnostic system. We introduce four steps to achieve remote maintenance and diagnostic. Fisrt, we use a multisensor process to solve the problem from sensors. We equip various types of sensors properly in the mobile robot subsystem. Second, we build up a good database from these sensors. Third, we establish a statistical model of the maintenance and diagnostic system. We also use regression analysis to estimate these models parameters. Fourth, we use case-based reasoning (CBR), classification and regression trees (CART) to make a decision and find out which components are faulty. Finally, we implement the remote maintenance and diagnostic system in a driver system of the mobile robot.

18    N. Sabate, J. Cerda, I. Gracia, J. Berganzo, C. Cane, J.R. Morante, "Evaluation of sensitive materials for integrated thermal flow sensors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2681- 2684 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Calorimetric flow sensors are based on a differential temperature measurement that can be performed between two sensing resistors placed at both sides of a central heating element. Typically, these elements are deposited over a thin dielectric membrane for achieving good thermal isolation. Besides the dependence of the sensor response on factors such as the chip and capsule geometry, flow regime and thermal isolation of the sensor structure, the TCR coefficient of the sensing resistors material has also a relevant influence. In this paper, we focus on the evaluation of three different sensing materials: platinum, nickel and polysilicon. Aspects like sensitivity, electrical stability and fabrication technology compatibility are analysed and their advantages and drawbacks are discussed in view of its implementation in a low cost and high yield industrial process.

19    M. Ogita, C.D. Singh, Y. Shibata, T. Hasegawa, T. Fujinami, "Mechanism and application of critical micelle concentration (CMC) detection using multimode optical fiber," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2685- 2688 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new detection method of critical micelle concentration (CMC) using a multimode optical fiber is proposed for an industrial application. A part of the cladding of the fiber is removed as a sensing region. Each sensing region of 13 cm long on a silica core of 1.0 mm/spl phi/ diameter and plastic core of 1.5 mm is immersed into a surfactant solution. The CMC result is presented corresponding to the particular concentration at which outputs from the optical fiber abruptly increase. It is also found that for using small diameter of 0.2 mm/spl phi/ silica core and 0.5 mm/spl phi/ plastic core and 1-cm-long sensing region has almost the same sensitivity as a 13-cm-long sensing region of the preceding large core, which suggests that the thinner the core, the higher the sensitivity. With increasing surfactant concentration below the CMC, the refractive index is almost constant and the optical output has no change, but the outputs abruptly increase near the CMC although the refractive index of the solution constant. The CMC detection using an optical fiber is based on the principle of adsorption effect. The data can be sent to a remote process controller through this fiber line in a real time.

20    A. Manuel, J. Del Rio, S. Shariat, H. Torruella, M. Papis, G. Olivar, J.J. Danobeitia, A. Bermudez, T. Owen, "Small size ocean bottom seismometers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2689- 2693 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We are involved in a new and small development of an ocean bottom seismometer OBS. The equipment represents the achievement of a joint work from different scientific and technological disciplines as electronics, mechanics, acoustics, communications, information technology, marine geophysics, etc. This easy to handle and sophisticated equipment allows to record useful active and passive seismicity information, as well as other wave front, with multiple applications to the marine environment research. We are in the second series prototype hoping to improve many of the aspects that keep the equipment easy to handle and useful for working in deep-water areas.

21    A. Hernandez, J. Urena, J.J. Garcia, M. Mazo, J.-P. Derutin, J. Serot, "Ultrasonic sensor performance improvement using DSP-FPGA based architectures," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2694- 2699 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Traditional ultrasonic systems are based on isolated transducers, which provide reduced information with a considerable acquisition time. To improve this performance, transducers can be associated in more complex sensors, taking advantage of some geometrical questions. Also, multi-mode techniques (simultaneous emission and reception) allow increase of the scanning frequency. These systems are able to provide more information, even for carrying out high level tasks. But they require more computational capacity to implement the new processing algorithms. First, it is necessary to measure accurately the ultrasonic times of flight, using correlation techniques. Then, geometrical and probabilistic approaches are performed to interpret correctly the measured times of flight in high level tasks, as reflector classification or mapping. This work develops a sonar sensor, and it proposes a DSP-FPGA based architecture to process the ultrasonic signal. Used algorithms are explained, and an operation mode is developed to show how the different tasks are performed by the DSP or the FPGA, according to their intrinsic characteristics.

22    S. Borromeo, J.L. Aparicio, "Automatic systems for wear measurement of contact wire in railways," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2700- 2705 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Measuring systems that detect automatically the degree of wearing of the contact wire in railways are necessary in order to carry out an efficient infrastructure management and maintenance based on contact wire condition. This paper describes automatic methods to measure the wear of overhead wires, in particular, those based on optical detection techniques. Different automatic systems that measure the wear are outlined. The measuring basis of different approaches, type of illumination and optics used, acquire and processing procedures are studied. A comparative analysis of technical solutions adopted by each of them is shown and the major advantages and disadvantages are highlighted.

23    J. Cerda, J. Puigcorbe, N. Sabate, J. Berganzo, I. Gracia, C. Cane, J.R. Morante, "Integrated micromachined gas multisensor for domestic boilers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2706- 2711 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work describes the design and characterization of a micromachined integrated gas multisensor for detection and control of the pollutant emissions in a domestic boiler. Mechanical, thermal and sensing properties have been investigated via simulation and experiments. The proposed design takes advantages of the small thermal inertia involved in the mass of the micromachined structure which has low power consumption to reach the working until 585/spl deg/C, and quick response times, lower than 20 ms. The gas sensor fabrication is based on a standard CMOS technology. The manufactured sensors consist of a thin dielectric membrane as carrier structure for a SiO/sub 2/ passivated polysilicon heater that is the support of the sensing material. The microsystem contains four independent membranes. So, the proposed procedure allows depositing different sensing materials in each one of the membranes of the multisensor in order to have an integrated sensor for different gases such as CO, NO/sub x/ and O/sub 2/. Prototypes have been manufactured and examined considering sensitivity, power consumption and thermal response time in relation to different timing and/or periodic operation modes used as heater signal.

24    B.P. Gogoi, D. Mladenovic, "Integration technology for MEMS automotive sensors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2712- 2717 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) is an enabling technology that has been used in high volume automotive applications such as pressure sensors and accelerometers for a variety of applications such as that control the engine performance as well as the safety of the occupants. MEMS sensors require an interface circuit to convert the input mechanical signal to the equivalent electrical signal that is used to generate the required control function. The integration of the MEMS sensor with the interface circuit can be achieved either in the same piece of silicon or in the package. The challenges in this integration are discussed in the paper with specific examples for piezoresistive pressure sensors, capacitive accelerometers and capacitive pressure sensors. The effects of the application environment on the performance of these sensors are also discussed in the paper. Examples of system partitioning and integration are described using a satellite accelerometer system and a tire pressure monitoring system.

25    S. Martinez, C. Serre, N. Yaakoubi, A. Perez-Rodriguez, J.R. Morante, R. Perez, J. Montserrat, J. Esteve, "Integrated inductances for Si-technology based high sensitivity biosensors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2718- 2721 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Inductive integrated devices for bio-sensing applications are simulated, designed and fabricated. These devices are based in the use of magnetic particles as markers of the biomolecule to be detected. The sensing principle of the device is related to the changes of the coil inductance determined by the presence of different densities of magnetic particles in the active device area. The devices are simulated assuming a continuous layer with an effective magnetic permeability /spl mu//sub ef/ which is given by the density of particles. This simulation has allowed analysing the influence of the different device parameters on the sensor response. Accordingly, a set of integrated coils with different dimensions (from 50 /spl mu/m up to 500 /spl mu/m) and number of turns has been fabricated using a two metal levels technology. Simulation of these devices gives inductance changes in the range 0.05-80 nH and sensitivities in the range 2-8% for /spl mu//sub ef/ = 10. The preliminary electrical characterisation of the devices agrees with their simulation, being the analysis of their sensor behaviour under progress.

26    E. Figueras, M. Morata, J.A. Plaza, J. Amirola, A. Rodriguez, C. Cane, "Characterisation of surface micromachined beams with floating gate transistor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2722- 2726 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A micromechanical beam structure has been fabricated with surface micromachining of a 2 /spl mu/m polysilicon layer and includes capacitive electrodes for excitation and floating gate MOS transistors for detection. The device is presented in two possible configuration that we call double gate (DG) or extended gate (EXTG). Preliminary results of the electrical characterisation and mechanical behaviour are presented.

27    A. Dieguez, J.L. Merino, R. Casanova, S.A. Bota, J. Samitier, M.J. Lopez, J.A. Plaza, I. Gracia, C. Cane, "A CMOS monolithically integrated gas sensor array with electronics for temperature control and signal interfacing," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2727- 2732 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A monolithically integrated gas sensor array with conventional CMOS electronics has been developed. Circuitry includes the heater driver for the temperature control and the signal interface electronics for inspection of the four sensors in the array. Because of its characteristics as robustness, small, size, low price and future capabilities with the adequate signal processing the system would be able to cover most of today's markets considered for gas sensors.

28    N.C. Cheung, K.K.-C. Chan, "Magnetic modeling of a mutually-coupled two-finger variable reluctance gripper," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2733- 2738 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Variable reluctance actuators have been used widely as low-cost, on-off type mechanical actuators, due to their inherit advantages of rugged-construction and ease-of-manufacture. This paper reports on the investigation work of applying variable-reluctance principle to the design of a novel two-finger gripper. Contrary to previous on-off type variable reluctance devices, the proposed actuator can be operated in position-control, velocity-control, and force-control modes. To enable effective control of the two-finger variable-reluctance gripper, its electromagnetic and mechanical properties have to be fully investigated, and an efficient model has to be constructed. Since the forces on the two fingers of the gripper are produced by the variation of flux, and flux is a nonlinear quantity, the electromagnetic characteristics of the two-finger gripper are much more complex than other types of devices (e.g. permanent magnet voice coil). Moreover, the existences of coupling effects make the characterization of the gripper even more complicated. In the past, most mutual coupling effects in variable reluctance machines are neglected for the sake of simplicity. However, due to the unique structure of the two-finger variable-reluctance gripper, it was found that mutual coupling can constitute significant modeling discrepancy. The work described in this paper is the first of its kind to carry out a detail study on the electromagnetic properties of a tightly-coupled two-finger variable-reluctance gripper, including its mutual-coupling effects. In the study, the flux modeling of a mutually coupled variable reluctance gripper is carried out. Magnetic equations of the actuator structure are derived and the flux model is constructed. To verify the study results, a similar two-finger variable-reluctance gripper was fabricated and its electro-magnetic characteristics were measured. When the measured results were compared with the model simulation, it was found that the two sets of data matched quite well with each other and confirmed that the model was an accurate representation of the two-finger variable-reluctance gripper. The investigation work describes in this paper enables a better understanding of mutually-coupled limited-stroke variable-reluctance actuators. Furthermore- , it produces an effective simulation model for the future design and control of this class of device.

29    Xiaopeng Wang, S.K. Panda, Chee Leong Teo, Chong Jin Ong, "Speed control of cylindrical ultrasonic motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2739- 2744 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The cylindrical ultrasonic motor (CUSM) is a novel type of piezoelectric actuator, which utilizes a monolithic PZT (lead zirconate titanate) tube as its stator. CUSM, like other types of rotary USMs, has many attractive properties that conventional electromagnetic motors do not possess, and therefore has received much attention. In this paper, three different control inputs, namely voltage amplitude, driving frequency and phase difference, are evaluated, and the voltage amplitude is finally chosen for speed control purpose. A PI speed controller incorporating linearization component is then designed based on the CUSM's frequency response. However, the steady state responses of both the open-loop and closed-loop systems show periodic speed ripples. Thus, a repetitive control (RC) compensator is proposed to work in conjunction with the speed controller to achieve speed ripple minimization. The dynamic as well as steady state performances of the speed controllers and RC compensator are verified experimentally using a 10 mm diameter CUSM.

30    M. Wada, H. Yoshimoto, Y. Kitaide, "Dynamic analysis and simulation of electromagnetic contactors with AC solenoids," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2745- 2751 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic simulator for analyzing various behaviors of electromagnetic contactors with AC solenoids. The simulator enables short-time analysis of dynamic motions of contactors compared with conventional simulation methods such as finite element method (FEM). To realize fast calculation of contactor models, whole contactor system including electromagnetic circuit, and mechanism (motions and collisions) are described and modeled by differential equations. The differential equations are solved simultaneously by the Runge-Kutta method. The short-time analysis by the dynamic simulator allows contactor designers to test various changes of parameters of a contactor such as dimensions of solenoid, power voltage and the phase, mass and inertia of mechanical parts, environment temperature, etc. In the paper dynamic modeling of contactors and the simulation algorithm using the mathematical models are described in detail followed by the comparison with experimental results for verifying the utility of the dynamic simulator.

31    A. de Castro, T. Riesgo, E. de la Torre, Y. Torroja, J. Uceda, "Custom hardware IEEE 1451.2 implementation for smart transducers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2752- 2757 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The heterogeneity of sensor interfaces has caused the creation of the IEEE 1451.2 standard. This standard proposes a common digital interface for all sensors and a set of instructions to communicate with them. Following this standard, smart networked sensors can become a reality. In addition to the interface functions, an electronic data sheet is included for sensor self-identification in order to ease the process of including new sensors in a network. This work proposes a custom hardware implementation of this standard using a hardware description language, different from the most common implementations based on microcontrollers. The main advantages are full scalability and configurability, technology independence and ease of integration in larger systems.

32    S. Katsura, K. Ohnishi, "Human interaction by a wheelchair," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2758- 2763 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Both human and robot will carry out a task which is not realizable by only each of them. From the trajectory planning by the robot and the input by human, operation of robot is newly determined. The robot's intention is respected when the direction to which the robot wants to go originally and human's input are near. On the other hand, the input by a human is respected when those values are far. In order to make the robot do soft operation, commands of human by joy stick are changed into the virtual force commands instead of position commands. In order for robot to play an active part in society, soft operation is required. Reaction torque observer is implemented in robot to detect environmental disturbance. Environmental disturbance is classified into the mode of translational direction and rotational direction. As a result, the adaptive force control in every mode is realized. The proposed method is applied to wheelchair. As a result, operationality and ride quality are improved. The experimental results show viability of the proposed method.

33    V. Diaz, D. Hernanz, J. Urena, "Using complementary sequences for direct transmission path identification," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2764- 2767 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: RADAR and SONAR, as well as communication systems transmit a signal that travels along a transmission path, reflecting on the surrounding obstacles during the transmission-reception process. The transmission channel behaves as a linear filter with an impulse response characterized by h[n] or its frequency counterpart H(/spl omega/). In such applications it is mandatory to identify the impulse response of the transmission path in order to extract time, frequency, and physical environment information (RADAR/SONAR) or to reduce the distortion effects by means of channel equalization in communication systems. Furthermore, in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels, the receiver noise reduces the accuracy of the estimation. This work presents a direct, noniterative technique for system identification by using complementary sequences in order to increase the estimation accuracy.

34    S.M. Madani, H.A. Toliyat, L.E. Olson, "Determining the electromagnetic characteristics of a slow release actuator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2768- 2772 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new method to determine the electromagnetic characteristics of slow release B1 relay, which is used in US railways. This relay operates few seconds after it is energized or de-energized. The slow operation of this relay is accomplished by short circuits loops around the magnetic core of the relay. The operation of the B1 relay is highly affected by electromagnetic characteristics of the relay, therefore, this research aimed to obtain the B-H or equivalently /spl lambda/-I curve of the relay core. Since the relay has short circuit loop around its core, it is not possible to obtain its /spl lambda/-I curve by conventional methods. Thus, different methods have been proposed, and finally the most efficient one is chosen and explained further in this paper.

35    N.J. Medrano-Marques, B. Martin-del-Brio, "A flexible tool for conditioning sensor signals based on neural networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2773- 2778 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Sensor signal conditioning represents the front-end of a data acquisition system. For this purpose, some specific electronic components are required. In industrial electronics applications the final system response should be independent of variations commonly present in the sensor output (due to fabrication process, tolerances, drifts, etc.). This paper shows a sensor conditioning procedure, based on a small neural network programmed onto a low-cost standard microcontroller. Due to its flexibility, this technique improves the sensor response, providing the same output values even for sensors with different behaviour, and without additional electronic components. Results, execution times and hardware requirements are presented.

36    R. Barber, M. Mata, M.J.L. Boada, J.M. Armingol, M.A. Salichs, "A perception system based on laser information for mobile robot topologic navigation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2779- 2784 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a perception system for topological navigation using laser information. The localization system is based on the detection of landmarks (walls, doors and corners). A search algorithm based on Hough transform techniques for pattern recognition is used. The developed system allows the topologic localization and navigation of a mobile robot using landmarks. The resulting self-localization module has been integrated successfully in a more complicated navigation system. Various experimental results show the effectiveness of the presented algorithm.

37    E. Yamanaka, T. Murakami, K. Ohnishi, "Motion control of mobile manipulator for human interaction," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2785- 2790 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper aims at the improvement in a future life using a mobile manipulator. For example, power assistance of old people and cooperative operation with a human. For coexistence of robot and human being, it is required that a person can work in cooperation with robot safety. To make this environment, this paper introduces the impedance control. When the force command by a human is added, the robot follows it. When the force command is not added, robot follows the position command. By this motion, robot can perform desired impedance motion and soft operation. This is one of the remarkable points in the proposed strategy. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by experimental results.

38    E.G. Breijo, L.G. Sanchez, J.I. Civera, A.T. Ferrando, G.P. Boluda, "Thick-film multisensor for determining water quality parameters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2791- 2796 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A measurement system for water quality determination, based on thick-film technology multisensor, is described. Diverse parameters as pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), conductivity and turbidity, are sensed by this element. It is shown that this sensor can be used in the development of more full transducers. In this way, other sensors are being developed for, organic contamination, dissolved oxygen and diverse ions. In order to bring this multisensor into being the hybrid thick-film technology has been used which gives the system the essential characteristics of miniaturization, precision and low cost. The system also has a capturing block with signal conditioning and uses computer data processing. This allows the multisensor to be the base for a future electronic tongue project in which the information gathered will be dealt with qualitatively. The system described has been developed for residual water treatment in purifier plants, water quality control in rivers, ponds and irrigation waters.

39    S. Bermejo, G. Bedoya, V. Parisi, J. Cabestany, "An on-line water monitoring system using a smart ISFET array," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2797- 2802 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this work we present a new on-line water pollution monitoring system. The system includes a smart array of ion-selective field effect transistors (ISFETs) as a front-end and also at post-processing stages in order to transmit the stored measures of ion concentrations. The intelligence in the smart sensors is provided by a blind source separation (BSS) algorithm which continuously learns from measures of how to detect the ion concentrations available in the mixed signal observed in the array's output. The computational simplicity of the BSS algorithm and its capability of continuous learning from the environment, allow the design of a low-power, cheap and small system that monitors water in real-time, and is a contrast to the classical off-line approach based on a water analysis of the extracted measures in the laboratory. The work is in progress, as part of the SEWING project (IST-2000-28084).

40    R. Grisel, R. Gallorini, N. Abouchi, "An ASIC-based capacitance meter: principle, realization and experiments," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2803- 2807 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to capacitance measurement is presented. After introducing the key features of capacitance meters and the necessity to obtain compatibility with most industrial transducers, and dealing with design issues related to achievement of accuracy, we present the circuit description. The designed circuit is based on a second-order switched-capacitor sigma-delta modulator and includes voltage output, frequency output and pulse width modulation (PWM) output. The capacitance to measure is part of the first integrator. Calibration and temperature compensation are integrated in the ASIC. We then present the ASIC architecture (CMOS 0.8 /spl mu/m) which occupies 3.7 mm/sup 2/ and give experimental results demonstrating the accuracy of the circuit. We conclude by giving the test measurements for the different parts of the circuits.

41    J.A. Garcia-Souto, H. Lamela, "Synchronous demodulation of high-sensitivity fiber-optic sensor for harsh environment electrical applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2808- 2813 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach of demodulating high-sensitivity fiber-optic sensors is presented for harsh environment electrical applications where a reference of synchronism is ever available by using the power-line signal. The principal goal of the demodulation system is to obtain the optical phase shift which is linearly related to the measurand, but the optoelectronic interrogation system that is required before shows a raised cosine transference function. Multi-cycle outputs present excellent benefits for obtaining the read-out of the optical phase evolution due to dynamic parameters, except for the ambiguity of the shift. This problem is also satisfactorily solved here with a synchronous sampling/demodulation based on the availability of a reference signal of synchronism. This technique can find multiple applications, among which the measurements at electrical equipment are highlighted. Experimental results with a vibration sensor inside power-transformers are presented here, where a fiber-optic technology is needed because of the harsh-environment, as well as a very high sensitivity for the typical magnitudes of interest. Resolution better than 1 nm of deformed elements/displacements is achieved with the sensor design and a range to resolution better than 50 dB.

42    E. Figueres, G. Garcera, J.M. Benavent, J.A. Martinez, A. Abellan, "New duty ratio control of switching converters following a reference model based scheme," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2814- 2819 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robust scheme for duty ratio control of DC-DC switching converters is presented. The proposed method adds a high gain robust loop with two controllers to the conventional single loop, achieving an analog adaptive scheme in which the voltage loop gain is not very sensitive to the changing power stage parameters: input voltage, load and component tolerances. The proposed loop improves drastically the disturbance rejection of the control system, i.e. closed loop output impedance and audiosusceptibility, while preserving stability and loop gain crossover frequency to a significant extent. Experimental results carried out on a buck prototype 5 V-5 A, 50 kHz demonstrate the superiority of the proposed scheme with respect to the conventional single loop.

43    J. Aracil, F. Gordillo, "On the control of oscillations in DC-AC converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2820- 2825 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we introduce a new control method for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) without using reference signals. This is accomplished by a feedback law associated to a Lyapunov function which guarantees the stability and robustness of the system. Furthermore an adaptive mechanism is included to cope with changes in the load. Simulations show that the performance of the proposed system meets the requirements.

44    R.H. Manno, E.G. Diez, "Direct force control for a three-phase double-sided linear induction machine with transverse magnetic flux," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2826- 2831 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The direct torque control (DTC) method is widely used for the analysis of symmetrical rotary induction machines. In this paper, the conventional rotary motor theory is extended for linear induction machine analysis. For this purpose a linear induction machine is designed and developed. in order to validate the proposed control model, results from experimental tests and simulations are presented.

45    K. Jezernik, G. Edelbaher, M. Rodic, "Sensorless control of induction motor by estimation of an extended electromotive force," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2832- 2837 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Induction motor speed sensorless torque control, which allows operation at low and zero speed, optimizing both torque response and efficiency, is proposed. The produced torque is explicitly continuous output variable of control. The magnitude and orientation angle of the rotor flux of the induction motor are determined by the output of the closed-loop rotor flux observer based on estimation of the extended electromotive force of machine. A smooth transition into the field weakening region and the full utilization of the inverter current and voltage capability are possible. The reference tracking performance of torque and rotor flux is demonstrated in series of transient characteristics by simulation results. The experimental results will be presented in the full paper.

46    J. Diaz, J.M. Lopera, M.J. Prieto, A. Martin, J.A. Esteban, "Transcutaneous battery charger using a half bridge SRC controlled by resonant current phase," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2838- 2843 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A transcutaneous battery charger based on a half-bridge series resonant converter (SRC) and controlled by resonant current phase is presented. One of the main problems of these kind of converters is the large (and variable) air gap in the transformer. On the other hand, the batteries used are mainly Li+, due their energy density; the main problem of this kind of battery is that they need to be charged carefully, in several steps. Things being so, the whole system is based on two stages: The power stage and charge controller. The first one sends the energy inside the human body; this energy transference is carried out in such a way that it will be independent of the distance between primary and secondary, even if the windings are not completely opposed. It would be desirable to perform this issue without any feedback from the secondary side. The second stage is based on an special circuit, which transform the energy sent by the first one, in order to perform the charge process in a perfect way, in terms of a Li+ battery.

47    E.J. Dede, J. Jordan, V. Esteve, C. Cases, "Reliability of current-fed inverters for induction tube welding in short-circuit conditions," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2844- 2848 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Current-fed MOSFET inverters are the usual structures for tube welding applications. In practical working conditions, short-circuit of the welding coil is very common and can damage the power transistors of the inverter if no special precautions are taken. The aim of this paper is to show what are the critical parameters in short-circuit conditions, and explain the measurements to be taken in order to have high reliability on the converter.

48    C.B. Henze, N. Mohan, C.P. Henze, R. Button, "A programmable solid-state active current limiting circuit breaker for space applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2849- 2854 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A programmable solid-state current breaker is built using a power FET controlled locally by a closed loop analog current regulating circuit which in turn is controlled by a microcontroller. The circuit breaker is intended to be used in a three wire DC power distribution system. A variety of different conditions are monitored and compared to programmable values to determine the state of the switch.

49    A. Dell'Aquila, M. Liserre, C. Cecati, "Design of a harmonic free three-phase UPS," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2855- 2860 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a novel three phase, step-up, converter for industrial UPS applications is proposed. The system basically consists of three, star-connected, boost-type DC/DC converters working together like a three-phase voltage source inverter, but with intrinsic step-up capability. The main advantages of the system are the smaller dimensions of the passive components and the reduced number of switching devices that do not need reverse voltage blocking capability. Test results show the effectiveness of the proposed system both during steady state and dynamic operations as well.

50    A. Boubakeur, A. Ouabdesselam, "University industry partnership to promote products quality," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2861- 2863 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A way to promote industrial products quality is to satisfy costumers' needs. To do that in a large cooperation economical environment, it would be better that for an identified producer and for a specified product, producer and costumer establish a partnership research relation. The best interface between them in this partnership would be the university. For that purpose, we present in this paper, our tested case of relation between Ecole Nationale Polytechnique of Algiers (ENP), an enterprise of minerals production as producer and a research centre of petroleum company as consumer.

51    A.A. Berezin, A.M. Ibrahim, "Marks and grades in current engineering education systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2864- 2869 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Most current systems of engineering education put much emphasis on grades and marks. For many students getting a degree and obtaining high marks represent the prime goal. Acquiring top quality education is a distant second at best. The school environment, the pressure from society, and hiring practices of industry help foster this culture of marks as opposed to that of education. Here we analyze some aspects of this situation, its long term consequences, and suggest some remedies to change that trend.

52    M. Manic, B. Wilamowski, A. Malinowski, "Internet based neural network online simulation tool," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2870- 2874 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Since the legendary work of McCulloch and Pitts from early 1940s and introduction of concept of artificial neuron, numerous attempts aiming to automate the process of training neural networks have been made. Neural networks, even though successfully applied in many different areas still bear significant problems with respect to adequate choice of network parameters, architecture, etc. As the concept of neural networks evolved through more than six decades, the technology also underwent tremendous changes. Educational tools aiming to help everyday users to learn, gain and apply knowledge in neural network training have evolved accordingly. Unlike many commercial or freeware tools available on market today, authors have decided to go with the implementation that would provide two significant advantages to an existing tools. In this paper authors are proposing an educational too that is characterized by both transparent accessibility with respect to hardware and software platform on one, and ease of use on the other hand. The tool is web based, therefore user is relieved of installation and setup hurdles. Besides, by employing a remote server that hosts the application, the user saves local resources for other jobs.

53    A. Almendra, C. Gonzalez, F.J. Jimenez-Leube, J. Sanz-Maudes, "Suite of educator tools to edit and browse experimental work contents with real-time measurement and validation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2875- 2879 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A set of software tools developed to facilitate the edition and presentation of the contents of experimental work is described. These tools are built to follow a learning method that uses a computer to guide and supervise the practical work in real time in a hardware laboratory. This method has been successfully applied for the last five years to an average of 450 students per year. The developed tools allow the extension of the method to any experimental matter. These tools structure a project as an electronic book that can be edited and configured on a user friendly windows style interface. A complementary browsing tool shows the content of the edited project and, depending on the browsing profile, validates the results against predetermined range data values as well as monitors the results against real time measurements. The measurement sequence is kept in a set of external files, so that they can be modified without the need of re-editing the whole project, following a modular approach.

54    J. Yepez, P. Marti, J.M. Fuertes, "Control loop performance analysis over networked control systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2880- 2885 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we discuss the suitability of standard discrete-time control models for the analysis and design of control loops implemented over networked control systems. In fact, depending on the specific control loop topology, different control approaches may apply. We distinguish between control approaches that offer synchronous and asynchronous actuation. Through simulation results we show that the performance of control loops closed over communication networks can be improved using approaches that support asynchronous actuation. This leads us to conclude that there is a need for more control approaches relying on the asynchronous actuation paradigm.

55    M. Sevillano, T. Ariza, F.R. Rubio, J. Fornes, "Implementing the CORBA notification service for JavaIDL," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2886- 2891 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays, the usefulness of distributed object techniques is proved. CORBA is one of these techniques. It allows communication between remote processes in an easy and flexible way. This technology is being widely used in commercial telecommunication and manufacturing systems, amongst others. The notification service has been defined in the CORBA common object services specification in order to simplify the communication of events. This issue is especially important in manufacturing systems to inform the different components of the distributed system of events that have taken place in other elements of the system. In this article the basic concepts about developing a part of this service for JavaIDL are presented.

56    I. Calvo, M. Marcos, D. Orive, I. Sarachaga, "Using object oriented technologies in factory automation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2892- 2897 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the use of OO technologies, in particular the use of Unified Modelling Language (UML) in factory automation. The authors have proposed an architecture to access remotely industrial plants. This papers focuses in the so-called virtual plant model, that contains the information of the plant that is remotely accessible. In order to show the use of UML class diagrams, the virtual plant model of simple manufacturing cell is developed. The remote actions are grouped in user profiles and from them the class diagrams that form the virtual plant are designed. The virtual plant model is contained in the application server that acts as a middleware between the plant and the remote users. Although these classes have been identified for a very simple case study, they may be extended and enriched according to the needs of new applications.

57    L. Camara, J.M. Gomez, J. Samitier, J. Bosch, "Smart transducer systems working in communication networks within the IEEE-1451 standard," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2898- 2902 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We show our work developed on smart transducer systems controlled via communication network such as CAN or Ethernet. We have chosen the IEEE-1451 standard as a basic lines to fit. This normative tries to settle down a new concept in the way of working with transducers, simplifying and unifying the procedure and hardware needed. We have worked within the IEEE1451 standard, implementing complete nodes according to this normative. Each node includes two subsystems, a STIM and an NCAP.

58    T. Yakoh, "Synchronized TDMA in multi hop network to stabilize transmission time," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2903- 2908 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this article, transmission time in multi hop networks is discussed. In general, transmission times caused by a router vary according to the router's load and traffic of networks. So when two nodes communicate with each other via some routers, real-time property can never be ensured even if these nodes are a part of subnet organized by conventional factory communication systems. To stabilize the transmission time, this article propose to revise factory communication protocols so as to synchronize the assignment of time-slots for a periodical communication for each side segments of routers. A very simple example of synchronized time-slot assignment method is also shown.

59    T. Sauter, M. Lobashov, G. Pratl, "Lessons learnt from Internet access to fieldbus gateways," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2909- 2914 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Interconnections between fieldbus systems and IP-based networks have become a useful way to gain remote access to automation data. Current solutions are dominated by approaches based on Web technologies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that there are alternatives and to report on experiences. In a case study, SNMP, LDAP, and SQL have been used as high-level access protocols. We review the architecture and typical functions of a gateway and discuss the mutual implications of the high-level protocol. The results from the case study suggest that none of the protocols is ideally suited for remote access due to shortcomings in either the protocol itself or the way data are described and managed. Therefore, proprietary solutions will persist.

60    C. Schwaiger, T. Sauter, "Security strategies for field area networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2915- 2920 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the interconnection of factory communication networks and the Internet the long-neglected security aspects of such systems gain increasing importance. This mainly has to be attributed to the awareness to security issues on the Internet that has grown in recent years. While many security practices found in the Internet environment are applicable to the field of factory communication new challenges arise most evidently seen in the often more stringent real-time requirements and the deployment of such systems in environments that are not under the control of the owner, as is the case in remote meter reading.

61    A. De Carli, S. Falzini, R. Liberatore, D. Tomei, "Intelligent management and control of fuel gas network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2921- 2926 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design procedure of an advanced controller for the fuel gas network of a refinery is illustrated. Its purpose is to improve the performance of the heat generators using fuel gas and fuel oil as combustible and to reduce the operation that reduce the refinery efficiency. Soft computing approaches are widely used to attain the desired results. Fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms allow attaining the desired results. A simulation model of the fuel gas network functionality allows to design and to validate the advanced controller functionality. Dedicated simulation test focused the obtained advantages in the management of the refinery process.

62    K. Gulez, N. Mutoh, M. Ogata, F. Harashima, K. Ohnishi, "Source current type double-active filter application with triple-LISN for EMI noise problem in induction motor control systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2927- 2932 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The source current detection type AF has a merit of robustness to the load variation, but a problem of the resonance between the AF (active filter) and an LC (inductance-capacitance) filter often arises if an LC filter is connected parallel to the AF. In this paper, double-LISN (line impedance stabilization network) circuit based AF, resonance analysis and the simulation results comparing with experimental ones are studied and discussed.

63    J. Matas, L.G. de Vicuna, J.M. Guerrero, J. Miret, O. Lopez, "Feedback sliding mode control linearization of a single phase active filter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2933- 2938 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of feedback linearization techniques to a single-phase active power filter via a sliding mode control approach. The sliding control surfaces are designed by imposing a desired dynamic behavior on the system, which allows us to determine the main parameters of the sliding mode controller. This procedure leads to a switching surface, which provides robustness with regard to external disturbances, and a good dynamic response of the filter.

64    P. Rodriguez, R. Pindado, J. Bergas, "Alternative topology for three-phase four-wire PWM converters applied to a shunt active power filter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2939- 2944 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an alternative three-phase four-wire converter for active power filter applications. The topology of this converter consists of four switch-legs, and it uses a "split-capacitor" in the DC-bus. In this converter, three legs are destined to control the injected currents in utility lines, while the fourth leg assures a balanced voltage sharing in the DC-bus capacitors. This converter solves the problem of DC-bus voltage imbalance in the three-leg split-capacitor converter. Moreover, this topology allows each leg to be controlled independently, so injected current control is simpler than in the four-leg full-bridge conventional converter, which utilizes a single capacitor on the DC-bus side. In this sense, a simple constant-frequency current control technique is proposed. In this paper, an analytical study and a verification by simulation are conducted.

65    J. Prieto, P. Salmeron, J.R. Vazquez, J. Alcantara, "A series-parallel configuration of active power filters for VAr and harmonic compensation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2945- 2950 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new design method for the control implementation of a combined series-shunt active power filter (load compensation active conditioner, LCAC) for electrical power quality improvement is proposed. This active conditioner allows to cancel source voltage harmonics, to symmetrize the supply voltage, and to eliminate current harmonics and reactive/unbalanced load currents. The study of the higher harmonics passive filtering behaviour has permitted an enhancement of the compensating performance of the active conditioner. Practical case results are presented to support the performance of the new control design.

66    W. Koczara, J. Matraszek, "Clean reactive power compensator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2951- 2956 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: New method is proposed to compensate reactive power of fundamental current component. New clean reactive power compensator CRPC is presented. True sinusoidal voltage wave inverter is connected to the supply system through inductance. Connection to supply system by natural shaped voltage source does not produce additional distortion. Control system using space vectors of currents and voltages provide very stable operation also in transient states. Compensator voltage space vector follows supply system voltage vector. By difference in amplitude and phase angle fully controllable active and reactive power flow is achieved. Compensator is able to work without external DC voltage source. Stable DC link capacitor voltage is achieved according to demands by control of active power flow. Externally referenced control system of compensator is proposed. Analyses and multi feedback control system of sinusoidal voltage wave inverter is proposed. Results of simulation study are presented.

67    M. Ulieru, A. Geras, "Emergent holarchies for e-health applications: a case in glaucoma diagnosis," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2957- 2961 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper extends the holonic enterprise paradigm to the medical domain. A medical holarchy is a system of collaborative medical entities (patients, physicians, medical devices, etc.) that work together to provide a needed medical service for the benefit of the patient. Representing holons as software agents enables the development of e-health environments as web-centric medical holarchies with a wide area of application in tele-medicine. The back up of latest wireless and advanced communication technologies enables emergence of medical holarchies for ubiquitous healthcare. A case study in glaucoma progression monitoring illustrates the benefits of our approach.

68    D.T. Pham, M.H. Awadalla, "Neuro-fuzzy based adaptive co-operative mobile robots," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2962- 2967 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on the development of intelligent multi-agent robot teams that are capable of acting autonomously and of collaborating in a dynamic environment to achieve team objectives. Fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy based mechanisms are proposed that enable these robots automatically to generate co-operative behaviours and to adapt their performance during the specified time of the mission. These abilities are important because of uncertainty in the environmental conditions and because of possible functional failures in some team members. The improvement in team performance is achieved by updating the control parameters of the robots based on knowledge acquired on-line. These techniques are applied to a simulated team of mobile robots performing two different proof-of-concept tasks: dynamic target tracking and co-operative box pushing, The results show that the robot team is able to achieve adaptive cooperative control despite dynamic changes in the environment and variation in the capabilities of the team members.

69    P. Leitao, F. Restivo, "Holonic adaptive production control systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2968- 2973 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Manufacturing systems are a stochastic, dynamic environment, with new jobs arriving continuously to the system, certain resources becoming unavailable and additional resources introduced. In order to support this particular environment in distributed manufacturing it is necessary to introduce new mechanisms to implement dynamic, distributed scheduling, specially to face disturbances. This paper presents an overview of the manufacturing scheduling problem and some techniques available to handle it. To solve the problem of stochastic, dynamic reaction to disturbances an adaptive control approach is described, based in the holonic manufacturing paradigm and the autonomy degree concept, which each operational holon uses to allow the balance between competition and cooperation.

70    M. Hopf, "Agent-controls for manufacturing-technical marketing perspectives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2974- 2977 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the new information and communication technology the opportunities for innovative and improved products have dramatically increased for the manufacturers of manufacturing and machine control systems. But also the product life cycles for this type of investment goods are reduced in consequence to the innovation speed. With the upcoming agent technologies a radical change compared to incremental innovations like the communication technologies can be expected. Extensive technology and product marketing is required to be successful in the future.

71    R. Schoop, A.W. Colombo, B. Suessmann, R. Neubert, "Industrial experiences, trends and future requirements on agent-based intelligent automation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2978- 2983 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The integration of both, the "agent-based manufacturing automation" and the "intelligent manufacturing system" paradigms is currently presented as the principal basis for making the intelligent automation of manufacturing systems an industrial reality. The concept of "agent" associated with production units, i.e., hardware and/or mechatronics components, is recognized by theoreticians and practitioners as "physical agent or production agent", which is closely related to the holonic manufacturing paradigm, developed during the last decade. This paper presents an overview of the latest results reported about the industrial application of this new emerging "intelligent automation technology". As one result of different industrial automation roadmaps, and taking into consideration the experience reported by the authors and other producers of automation systems, a set of challenges for future intelligent automation systems is first presented. These challenges can be met only if key enabling technologies (KET) are developed, optimized and/or adapted. This work addresses some of these KETs, and then it discusses and summarizes a set of technology research initiatives (TRI) that have to be started to support the development of the addressed KETs. Finally, a group of technology standardization initiatives (TSI) associated with the KETs is proposed, which complete the set of future requirements on the main subject of this report, i.e., agent-based intelligent automation.

72    H. Tomita, S. Hata, K. Kishimoto, "General aspect of human sensory factors for total product life cycle-HUTOP," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2984- 2989 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This study aims at establishing an "advanced human technology" framework, meant to help design human-friendly business models, as well as manufactured products and manufacturing systems. Toward the new manufacturing system, we have proposed an entirely new product life cycle concept based on the dual viewpoints of customers and producers, which is applied technologies that evaluate human factors like sensibility, knowledge and intelligence. It is realized in the HUTOP concept that aims to acquire the requirements of individual customers and use them in designs, and maintain both worker's satisfaction and productivity under coordinating human and machine.

73    H. Koshimizu, "Basic features of human factors in total production system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2990- 2994 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As the first step of HUTOP (human sensory factors for total life production) project, basic considerations on human factors underlying the total production life cycle were executed. By comparing HUTOP production system with the current one, human sensory factors were extracted and analyzed to enhance HUTOP system which is on the www network. Analysis of HUTOP cycle, data processing model for human factors and classification were provided by means of IDEF0 diagram and the related investigations. Finally common technologies to fabricate human factors into HUTOP process were clarified and classified along planning, personal designing, virtual prototyping, virtual factory and delivery/recycling/maintenance processes. This paper demonstrates an outline of these considerations.

74    G.K. Knopf, A. Sangole, "Intelligent systems for interactive design and visualization," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 2995- 3000 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Intelligent systems for interactive design and visualization require technologies that reliably generate surface and solid models from acquired spatial data, user hand gestures and verbal instructions; and seamlessly integrate this information into the overall product design process. The deformable spherical self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is a versatile modeling tool that is able to create 3D shapes from numerous arbitrarily ordered N-dimensional data vectors. The data may be surface points on existing objects or multi-dimensional feature vectors obtained through experimental observation. The SOFM develops a topologically ordered lattice that provides information about magnitude and connectivity between neighboring vectors in the original data space. The shapes generated by the deformable SOFM can be displayed, reoriented, analyzed, and modified in an immersive virtual reality environment (IVR). This paper describes how the spherical SOFM can be used to reconstruct the shape of an existing object from measured coordinate points and be modified using shape transformation techniques for virtual 3D free-form design.

75    R. Yamada, K. Kishimoto, "Development of an augmented reality based 3D catalog for electronic commerce," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3001- 3006 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses augmented reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of electronic commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies augmented reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

76    S.G. Schar, M. Arial, H.-J. Zuberbuhler, H. Krueger, "Distributed co-operative design systems supporting human factors with "communicate-it"," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3007- 3012 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High productivity demands in the manufacturing industry fosters the search for efficiency through the whole product life cycle. This trend and the increasing flexibility requirements in production, make effective co-operation a crucial issue. Group-ware designed for distributed co-operation, as well as videoconferencing technologies have the potential to make co-operation independent from time and space. The integration of videoconferencing in CSCW-tools would be an improvement, but this suggestion also raises many questions. Communication needs and task parameters must be optimised in order to support effective solutions for distributed cooperation. Initial research shows the importance of person-oriented information in distributed settings.

77    S. Hashimoto, K. Wakitani, T. Anezaki, "Recent research in WP 3-2 of HUTOP Project-haptic interface and programless image inspection," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3013- 3018 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two topics from the Work Package 3-2 of HUTOP Project are introduced. One is a haptic interface to realize intuitive communication between human and machine. Gesture and touch feeling play important parts in our daily life as nonverbal media for emotional human communication. Therefore, it is important and effective to introduce haptic and gesture interface into production processes such as display, design, modeling, teaching and control. We proposed a hand-shaped force interface for the autonomous mobile robot that is designed to take physical communication with the user via haptic/force interaction in the first part of the paper. The second half of the paper describes a new type of visual inspection system. When inspection equipment based on visual recognition is integrated in a production site, the recognition logic is custom designed to satisfy the specific inspection specification, normally requiring constant attention and recognition program modifications by specialty engineers. In order to improve the situation, this paper proposes a "Programless (programming-free) visual recognition technology", a core technology used in inspection equipment that can autonomously improve recognition algorithm by feeding human know-how back into the system.

78    H. Sawada, Y. Kawai, H. Moritani, "Gestural manipulation of intuition-driven monitor with the detection of human sensory factors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3019- 3024 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Humans are able to communicate with each other by using not only verbal media but also the five senses. A display device called intuition-driven monitor has been developed by combining an LCD display, flexible arm, angle sensors and a CCD camera. The display is manipulated by a user with his direct operations by hands and gaze. The joint angles are measured by angle sensors, and the three dimensional position and posture of the display are calculated in real time by the computation of the system geometry. A user is able to explore virtual space and manipulate virtual environment with the sense of haptics.

79    T. Kaihara, S.I. Iwamiya, "Delivery and service systems with human sensory factors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3025- 3030 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Service field, which includes four sub-areas: distribution, recycle, maintenance and advertisement, is regarded as the final contact point between products and customers. Human factors of supplier and demanders should be mainly handled at this field in the total product lifecycle. In this paper, we focused on two research themes, "Study on the audio-visual communication of product information in multimedia" and "An operational methodology in distribution, manufacturing system, supply chain management (SCM) and recycle flow management", as WP4 research activities in IMS (intelligent manufacturing system)-HUTOP (human sensory factors for total production life cycle) project. The first research is concerned with the sensing technology of the products so as to develop multimedia based one-to-one advertisement system. Supply chain management based on multi-agent paradigm is the main subject in the second research item.

80    M. Sasaki, K. Kishimoto, A. Ohuchi, K. Wakitani, T. Kaihara, "Integration of human sensory factors in total production system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3031- 3036 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: HUTOP has so far promoted research activities on human technology element technologies over 3 fields, that is, "design field", "manufacturing field" and "service field". We are going into a phase to examine the total integration for verification of effectiveness of HUTOP concept; we first promote our examinations concerning preparation of evaluation indexes and standards, with "what sensitivity data to be handled here" and "what sensitivity data to be handled in what manner" as the examination points. In this paper, the integration of human technologies, and the whole image of positioning of each work package sorted out from the view points of "customer satisfaction" and "worker satisfaction" are described.

81    H. Hirata, H. Morimoto, N. Okabe, "A new technique in the strength reliability evaluation and design simulation of the ceramic mechanical components," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3037- 3041 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: When ceramic strength evaluation was done, it was shown that the evaluation of the effective volume was important. Then, a problem in the calculation of the effective volume was shown. An error of the usual method which calculate the effective volume by using the algorithm of the volume integral calculus of finite element method became very large. It considers that an error becomes big because power index of the integral function becomes very large when effective volume is calculated. Three new techniques were proposed to solve this problem. These three proposed methods show near value with the theory answer.

82    M.T. Moskowitz, A.M. Hodge, R.W. Newcomb, "A diaphragm-gate transistor for MEMS microphones," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3042- 3046 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present a process that can be manipulated to build pressure transducers very simply, using standard post fabrication procedure. This process is cost efficient, requiring but one extra step subsequent to standard MOSIS fabrication. Strategically placing hollowed insertions, and filling with hydrofluoric acid, allows for the etching of an underlying gate oxide. The resulting cavity turns the layer above it into a diaphragm that produces an output voltage in commensurate with air pressure impingent on the surface. We present an analog circuit used to handle the output signal, and discuss future possibilities for using this device as a microphone.

83    J.M. Quero, J.J. Brey, "A generic MEMS sensor based on differential measurement," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3047- 3051 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There are industrial applications where an accurate estimate of a radiation source position is needed. In this paper, a sensor based on differential measurement is presented. This sensor provides an accurate signal proportional to the incident angle of radiation. A large gain factor is possible with the proposed structure of the microsensor. As a result, a robust, low-cost device is achieved. The goodness of this approach makes it suitable for several new applications.

84    R. Fritschi, C. Dehollain, M.J. Declercq, A.M. Ionescu, C. Hibert, P. Fluckiger, P. Renaud, " A novel RF MEMS technological platform," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3052- 3056 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel MEMS technological platform for RF passive components, namely RF MEMS switches, tuneable capacitors and high-Q suspended inductors, is reported. The proposed process employs a metal (Al, AlSi or Cu) as active movable layer and amorphous silicon or polycrystalline silicon as sacrificial layers, providing multi-air-gaps. Various types of substrates like bulk silicon and SOI can be used. Full-dry releasing of suspended beams and membranes is performed with SF/sub 6/ or XeF/sub 2/, with unrivalled yield/reproducibility compared with any other wet etching techniques. The platform is used to validate new MEMS architectures and concepts, such as the suspended-gate MOSFET that can serve as both RF capacitive switches and tuneable RF capacitors.

85    A. Luque, J.M. Quero, "High pressure valves in MEMS: theory and applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3057- 3061 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, utility and applications of high pressure microvalves are discussed. In addition, a design of a new high pressure microfluidic valve is presented. Simulation results have proven the valve useful for driving pressures up to 10 atm. Here, a way of building such valve is described, along with the whole fabrication process needed to realize it.

86    J.L. Merino, S.A. Bota, F.J. Garcia, J. Samitier, B. Niessen, E. Cabruja, J. Bausells, A. Ferre, R. Jimenez, J. Bigorra, "A MCM module for modern power window control in automotive applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3062- 3067 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a multichip module system for automotive applications is described. The MCM substrate is a IMS (isolated metal substrate), which has been used for integration of analog signal processing stages, complex logic circuits and even power transistors. The functionality of the door module implemented with this MCM, is the control of the power window motor with antipinch feature. A prototype that also includes central lock control, courtesy light control and drivers for communication of the module to the rest of the vehicle electronic systems has been completed.

87    Joo-Ho Lee, K. Morioka, H. Hashimoto, "Physical distance based human robot interaction in intelligent environment," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3068- 3073 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Physical distance based human robot interaction in intelligent environment is introduced in this article. Since intelligent environment possess lots of sensors and intelligence and they are distributed among the environment, people in the environment are monitored and supported with many services. To monitor people in the space, sensors to watch them are necessary and how to place the sensors is a big issue. Human robot interaction is an open problem that many people try to solve. When high accuracy localization on people and robot is achieved, physical distance based human robot interaction become possible. The possibility of achieving the interaction in intelligent space is shown with some experimental results.

88    T. Shibata, K. Wada, K. Tanie, "Tabulation and analysis of questionnaire results of subjective evaluation of seal robot in UK," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3074- 3079 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes research on mental commit robot that seeks a different direction from industrial robot, and that is not so rigidly dependent on objective measures such as accuracy and speed. The main goal of this research is to explore a new area in robotics, with an emphasis on human-robot interaction. In the previous research, we categorized robots into four categories in terms of appearance. Then, we introduced a cat robot and a seal robot, and evaluated them by interviewing many people. The results showed that physical interaction improved subjective evaluation. Moreover, a priori knowledge of a subject has much influence into subjective interpretation and evaluation of mental commit robot. In this paper, 440 subjects evaluated the seal robot, Paro by questionnaires in an exhibition at the Science Museum in London, UK. This paper reports the results of statistical analysis of evaluation data.

89    Y. Takama, "Topic-sensitive keyword map generation for intelligent interaction," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3080- 3084 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An immune network metaphor is proposed to improve the expressive power of a keyword map. As the information environment such as WWW grows, the role of information visualization systems becomes important. Compared with the ordinary keyword map, in which only the distance between keywords is a clue to understand it, the proposed method adds the additional information such as landmark and its related keywords into a keyword map. Experimental results show that the immune network metaphor can obtain the keyword map that emphasizes the topic distribution based on the landmarks, with small variance per execution. The proposed system will be the essential foundation for realizing intelligent interaction between the user and the system.

90    K. Sugawara, T. Watanabe, "A study on foraging behavior of simple multi-robot system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3085- 3090 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the cooperative behavior of multi-robot system in which each robot has a very simple interaction method. The task of the robots is to collect pucks distributed in the field. In this paper, we choose three types of puck distributions and evaluate the performance of the group. At first, we take up the task to collect pucks to unfixed point, and discuss their performance focusing on the relationship between the number of robots and the number of pucks in the largest puck cluster. Secondly, we take up the task to collect pucks to a fixed point. In this paper, we especially take up two types of puck distribution, fractal distribution field and clockface arranged distribution field, and discuss their performance. Thirdly, we take up the task to collect pucks in case that the interaction range between each robot is finite. Here we show the performance of the group focusing on the relation between the number of robot, interaction range, and the number of collected pucks per a robot. Lastly, we refer to the relation between their collective foraging behavior and emergence of swarm intelligence mainly focusing on the number effect of the system.

91    H. Kobayashi, "Development on wearable robot for human power support," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3091- 3096 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To the paralyzed or those otherwise enable to move on their own we have been developing a "muscle suit" providing muscular support as a wearable robot. Muscle suits are worn and use a McKibben artificial muscle driven by compressed air. Because actuators are sewn into a garment, no metal frame is needed, making a muscle suit very light and cheap. Most medical and welfare apparatuses were developed for caregivers rather than patients in need of nursing, causing patients to lose their own identity and a positive attitude. With the muscle suit they could control their movement by their own will. The muscle suit is very helpful for both muscular and mental support. Thus, since it is applicable directly to human as a wearable robot, it is based on a concept different from conventional robot technology.

92    S.S. Washburn, K.G. Courage, "New technology for conducting red light running studies," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3097- 3102 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Red light running (RLR) has developed into a significant problem in the United States, as well as many locations worldwide. One of the main problems in combating RLR is the difficulty of obtaining field data to assess the problems and effectiveness of countermeasures at individual intersections. Recognizing the importance of this problem, the University of Florida Transportation Research Center has initiated a program to develop the hardware and software required to support productive and effective field studies. The central element in the data collection scheme is the Red Light Running Analysis Package (RLRAP), which provides the enabling technology to observe vehicles in violation of a red signal by superimposing the status of all traffic signals on a video image of the complete intersection. This allows us to do something that has never been possible before, namely to see all of the vehicles and all of the signals at the same time. Because it supports a new type of study that has been nearly impossible to perform in the past, RLRAP has the potential to become an important tool in the traffic safety toolbox. This paper describes the development and deployment of the RLRAP system. As a result of this development, we are now able to undertake the long overdue task of a large-scale data collection effort that will produce new insight into the causes and countermeasures for RLR, as well as other traffic phenomena at signalized intersections.

93    R. Ghaman, D. Gettman, L. Head, P.B. Mirchandani, "Adaptive control software for distributed systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3103- 3106 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Traffic control systems in the United States evolved from electro-mechanical time-clock based to computer-based in late 1970s. The research and development sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration resulted in mainframe computer based centralized systems called Urban Traffic Control Software (UTCS). The key aspects of these systems were second by second command and control by the central computer of electro-mechanical controllers at each intersection. The communication technologies at the time were twisted pair time division multiplexing with a maximum of 12 intersections per pair of communication cable. A majority of the urbanized cities in the U.S. implemented such systems. In the 1990s, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) started research called adaptive control software (ACS). This research generated four adaptive traffic control software prototypes called RHODES, OPAC, RTACL and ATCS. The key aspect of the RHODES, OPAC, and RTACL is that the control software is decentralized with link by link short time prediction of traffic demand. ATCS extended the UTCS approach to include adaptive capabilities. This research constitutes a major advancement in traffic signal control since the deployment of UTCS.

94    Zhen Li, M. Kyle, B.K. Johnson, "A controller interface device based suitcase tester," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3107- 3111 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A computer software based suitcase tester emulator for testing traffic controllers is described. The software emulator utilises a controller interface device (CID) to communicate between the computer and the traffic controller under test, providing the ability to program the suitcase tester to model pulse and presence detectors and program their settings. The CID interface provides the ability to simultaneously test a large number of traffic controllers. The future applications using this emulator are explored.

95    R.W. Wall, J. Bennett, G. Eis, "Creating a low-cost autonomous vehicle," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3112- 3116 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Autonomous vehicles are equipped with a variety of instrumentation and controls depending upon the mission of the target vehicle. One of the biggest challenges in developing low risk autonomous vehicles is keeping the cost down. Leveraging from low cost instrumentation developed for high volume consumer applications, inexpensive microcontrollers, ultrasonic sensors and a global positioning systems result in a low-cost autonomous vehicle that will navigate to a desired location with obstacle avoidance. This paper describes the design of a low budget autonomous vehicle using a modified radio control car chassis equipped with a GPS and ultrasonic sensors to navigate to a predetermined geographical location with obstacle avoidance. The focus of the project was to determine how much capability could be achieved on a minimal budget. A budget shows that high performance can be readily achieved using low cost processors and commercially available instrumentation. Since the system is battery operated, attention is given to power consumption.

96    A. Dell'Aquila, M. Liserre, V.G. Monopoli, C. Cecati, "Passivity-based control of a single-phase H-bridge multilevel active rectifier," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3117- 3122 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a passivity-based controller for a H-bridge multilevel rectifier feeding a number of DC buses. The balance of the DC voltages under different operating conditions and a satisfactory dynamic behaviour at load step changes are guaranteed through the independent control of each H-bridge multilevel switching function. Thus a new modulation strategy is proposed to obtain a multilevel voltage waveform on the basis of the knowledge of the desired switching function of each converter. Many test results are reported to verify both the passivity-based control and the new multilevel modulation strategy.

97    S. Munk-Nielsen, R. Teodorescu, M.M. Beck, J.K. Pedersen, "A three level natural clamped inverter (NCI)," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3123- 3128 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a zero voltage switched resonant inverter where focus is put on obtaining low power losses. Using zero voltage switching reduces the power losses of the inverter switching devices, however it is realized that the resonant circuit, introduced to obtain the zero voltage switching, is a major source of power loss that must be limited. This paper presents an inverter topology where low resonant circuit losses are obtained by the following strategy: keep IGBT switches out of the resonant circuit. The result is a three level converter with a voltage stress quite similar to that of the auxiliary resonant commutated pole (ARCP) inverter, but with a significant different control of the resonant circuit. Next, it is discussed how to obtain a low power loss design of the resonant circuit. It is concluded with help from experimental results that the use of an air core inductor instead of a magnetic core will give lower losses, particular at no-load or light load situations, and a quality factor of the resonant circuit of 200 is obtained. Finally measurement on a 55 kW resonant inverter is given.

98    M.M. Prats, J.M. Carrasco, L.G. Franquelo, "Effective space-vector modulation algorithm for multilevel converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3129- 3133 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an effective modulation algorithm for voltage source multilevel converters. This method permits the on-line computation of the switching sequence and the on-state durations of the respective switching state vectors corresponding to the modulation of multilevel inverter drastically reducing the computational load. Therefore a stored information from a memory or a table is not necessary in this algorithm. This modulation technique permits an economic and simply electronic implementation. The simulation results show an excellent performance of the proposed modulation technique. It has been developed to be programmed in very low-cost microcontrollers and it could be implemented as a hardware module inside the microcontroller in order to increase its efficiency and performance.

99    M.M. Prats, R. Portillo, J.M. Carrasco, L.G. Franquelo, "New fast space-vector modulation for multilevel converters based on geometrical considerations," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3134- 3139 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an fast and simple modulation algorithm for voltage source multilevel converters for calculating the switching times and the space vectors using simple geometrical considerations. This method provides an online computation of the nearest switching vectors sequence to the reference vector and the on-state durations of the respective switching state vectors without trigonometric function calculations, look-up tables or coordinate system transformations which increases the computational load corresponding to the modulation of multilevel converter. The low computational cost of the proposed method is always the same and it is independent of the number of levels of the converter.

100    June-Sung Kim, Tae-Jin Kim, Dae-Wook Kang, Dong-Seok Hyun, "A novel method of the harmonic analysis by the multi-carrier PWM techniques in the multi-level inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3140- 3145 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with a novel method in order to analyze the harmonic characteristics in the multilevel inverter. Generally, the magnitude of harmonic components is different according to the carrier PWM techniques, modulation index (M/sub i/), and the level of multi-level inverter. The previous papers analyzed the harmonic characteristics from the viewpoint of the space vector. Hence, the calculation of the harmonic vector becomes difficult and complex in 4-level or more than 5-level. However, the proposed method of this paper reduced an amount of calculation and simplified the process of calculation by using the relationship between reference voltage and output phase voltage to load neutral. This paper analyzed the harmonic and it is applied to the multi-carrier PWM techniques in 5- level and other-level of cascaded inverter system.

101    Y. Tipsuwan, Mo-Yuen Chow, "Gain adaptation of networked mobile robot to compensate QoS deterioration," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3146- 3151 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performance of a robot operated over a data network does not only depend on a control algorithm used, but also on network conditions. Providing network QoS (quality-of-service) to a networked robot system could significantly improve its system performances. However, the network QoS can degrade due to several factors, such as congestion and interference, and can affect the overall system performances. We propose a gain adaptation approach to compensate deteriorative changes in network QoS in order to maintain the performances of a robot system as much as possible. The approach is demonstrated by path tracking control of networked differential drive mobile robot over a QoS enabled network. The simulation results show that when the gain adaptation is applied, the robot can effectively tolerate network QoS deterioration, and increase the overall system robustness. The concept of gain adaptation can be easily extended to other network-based control applications.

102    N.B. Almutairi, Mo-Yuen Chow, "PI parameterization using adaptive fuzzy modulation (AFM) for networked control systems. I. Partial adaptation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3152- 3157 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: When using an IP network in control systems, a network-induced time delay is generated, which has adverse effects on the networked closed-loop control systems such as performance degradation and system destabilization. In this paper, we propose an intelligent controller using fuzzy logic on top of a PI gain to adaptively compensate for the IP network-induced time delay in time-delay sensitive networked control system (NCS) applications. One of the advantages of this proposed fuzzy logic compensator is that we do not need to completely redesign the existing PI controller, but simply modulate the PI controller action with the output of the intelligent fuzzy logic controller. In part I of this paper, a partial adaptation scheme to tune the consequent parameters for this fuzzy logic modulator is presented. Numerical simulation of a network-based controlled DC motor is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme over a direct PI controller parameter tuning. In part II of this paper, we propose the full adaptive fuzzy modulation (AFM), where both consequent parameters and membership functions parameters are tuned adaptively.

103    N.B. Almutairi, Mo-Yuen Chow, "PI parameterization using adaptive fuzzy modulation (AFM) for networked control systems. II. Full adaptation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3158- 3163 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For pt.I see ibid., p.3152-7 (2002). The partial adaptive fuzzy modulation (AFM) applied to IP networked PI control systems were given in Part I. In Part II of this paper, we propose a full adaptive fuzzy modulation control scheme and compared it with two other tuning methods to compensate for the IP network-induced time delays in IT networked PI control systems. In the first tuning method, we adaptively tune the PI controller parameters directly. In the second tuning method, we use partial adaptive fuzzy modulation (AFM), i.e., tune the consequent parameters in the fuzzy rules only with a fixed membership function parameters in the antecedent part and fixed PI controller parameters to their nominal values. In the full AFM, not only the consequent parameters to be tuned adaptively, but also the membership functions parameters in the antecedent part are tuned adaptively. Numerical simulation of a network-based controlled DC motor is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed full AFM control scheme over other controllers.

104    J.R. Pimentel, M. Salazar, "Dependability of distributed control system fault tolerant units," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3164- 3169 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We investigate two types of fault tolerant units (FTUs) suitable for dependable distributed control systems and numerically evaluate their reliability and mean time to failure (MTTF). A simple simulation-based methodology to numerically evaluate dependability functions of a wide variety of fault tolerant units is presented. The method is based on simulation of stochastic Petri nets. A set of 15 FTU configurations belonging to five groups is analyzed. Groups 1 and 2 belong to the node oriented category whereas groups 3 through 5 belong to the application oriented category. The methodology allows a quick and accurate evaluation of dependability functions of any distributed control system design in terms of the type of FTU (i.e., node or application), replicas per group, replicas per FTU, and shared replicas.

105    Kyung Chang Lee, Suk Lee, "Performance evaluation of switched Ethernet for networked control systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3170- 3175 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The real-time industrial network, often referred to as fieldbus, is an important element for building automated manufacturing systems. Thus, in order to satisfy the real-time requirements of field devices such as sensors, actuators, and controllers, numerous standard organizations and vendors have developed various fieldbus protocols. As a result, IEC 61158 standard including Profibus, WorldFIP, and Foundation Fieldbus was announced as an international standard. These fieldbus protocols have an important advantage over the widely used Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) in terms of the deterministic characteristics. However, the application of fieldbus has been limited due to the high cost of hardware and the difficulty in interfacing with multi-vendor products. In order to solve these problems, the computer network technology, especially Ethernet (IEEE 802.3), is being adopted by the industrial automation field. The key technical obstacle for Ethernet for industrial applications is that its nondeterministic behavior makes it inadequate for real-time applications where the frames containing real-time information such as control command and alarm signal have to be delivered within a certain time limit. The development of switched Ethernet shows a very promising prospect for industrial applications due to the elimination of uncertainties in the network operation that leads to the dramatically improved performance. This paper focuses on the application of the switched Ethernet for networked control systems. More specifically, this paper presents an implementation method for using the switched Ethernet for industrial automation along with the performance evaluation on an experimental network testbed.

106    S. Soucek, T. Sauter, G. Koller, "Impact of QoS parameters on Internet-based EIA-709.1 control applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3176- 3181 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Distributed control applications relying on network-based communications are becoming increasingly popular. Obviously, the network performance has a strong influence on the control application and must be taken into account during the design. This paper investigates the effects of network delay and jitter on a control loop and discusses design issues for the example of an EIA-709.1 control application used over the Internet. Simulation results show that the overshoot behavior of the control depends linearly on the delay distribution.

107    Bo Liu, J.F. Frenzel, "A CMOS neuron for VLSI circuit implementation of pulsed neural networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3182- 3185 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This article presents a CMOS implementation of a biologically-inspired neuron. The neuron accommodates multiple excitatory and inhibitory inputs with digital weights and generates a pulse-width modulated output waveform of constant frequency based on the level of activation. The behavior of this implementation is demonstrated and it is shown that combinations of neurons form a complete logic set for realizing Boolean functions.

108    R.B. Wells, B. Barnes, "Delay-resistor implementation of integrators in biomimic artificial neurons," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3186- 3190 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to leaky integrator implementation in biomimic artificial neurons. In this implementation, the delay inherent in MOSFET devices due to their parasitic capacitance is used in place of explicit capacitors to obtain a leaky integrator function. The resulting circuit realizes a nonlinear integrator with differing integration risetimes and falltimes. The MOSFET resistors are operated in the triode region. We discuss how such issues as gate bias levels and input/output signal swings affect the dynamic response of the integrator.

109    T. Soule, YingYin Chen, R.B. Wells, "Evolving a strongly recurrent neural network to simulate biological neurons," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3191- 3195 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this research we use evolutionary techniques to evolve recurrent neural networks that produce a pulsed output when triggered by a constant valued input. Networks of several different sizes and configurations are successfully evolved demonstrating that this is a robust technique. The resultant networks can be used as approximations of certain types of biological neurons or of central pattern generators.

110    V. Kantabutra, E. Zheleva, "Gradient descent with fast gliding over flat regions: a first report," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3196- 3200 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present a new type of error backpropagation gradient descent algorithm. In the new algorithm, unless the error is already very small, we move along quickly ("glide") in flat regions. This algorithm seems intuitively appealing because flat regions should be "safe" regions where the error doesn't usually change much over distance. Using a simple 2-layer, 3-neuron neural network that computes the XOR function as a test bed, we find that for small to moderate learning rates, this algorithm converges significantly faster than conventional backpropagation gradient descent with the same learning rate outside of flat regions. For example, at eta=0.5 the new algorithm converges about 3 times as fast as the conventional one. However, the new algorithm is riskier than the conventional one and tends to diverge at higher learning rates. While the new algorithm already has some practical value, it could be even more useful if the divergence problem can be solved. Some ideas that may lead to its solution are given at the end of the paper. This work represents an early attempt to conquer the vast flat regions in an error curve, turning the known properties of flat regions to our advantage.

111    W. Sienko, W.M. Citko, B.M. Wilamowski, "Hamiltonian neural nets as a universal signal processor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3201- 3204 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents how to find an architecture for very large scale lossless neural nets, which can be used as Haar-Walsh spectrum analyzers. This analysis relies on the orthogonality of weight matrices W, where W could be Hurwitz-Radon matrices. The unique feature of these nets is the possibility to treat them either as algorithms or as Hamiltonian physical objects (Haar-Walsh Signal Processors).

112    T. Lund, M. Aguirre, A. Torralba, "Making use of CORDICs and distributed arithmetic to produce a field-programmable fuzzy logic controller in an FPGA," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3205- 3208 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Techniques from digital signal processing (DSP) have been used to perform some of the problematic operations needed in a fuzzy logic controller. These techniques have enabled the development of circuits which are not only compact but also scalable, so that we do not suffer as high a rate of increase of the use of resources as for conventional circuits when the accuracy of the controller or the number of inputs or membership functions is increased. Circuits have been developed so that a complete, reprogrammable fuzzy logic controller can be fitted into a medium-sized FPGA.

113    R.B. Wells, "Modulation channels in biomimic artificial neurons," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3209- 3214 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Biological neurons achieve their rich variety of waveform modulation patterns through a variety of specific signaling processes. In this paper we examine some of the principal mechanisms by which biological signal processing takes place. We introduce a new artificial neuron structure modeled upon these processes and discuss the signal processing architecture suitable for mimicking real neurons in silicon.

114    N. Dharia, J. Gownipalli, B.M. Wilamowski, O. Kaynak, "Multi dimensional second order defuzzification algorithm (M-SODA)," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3215- 3220 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multi dimensional second order defuzzification algorithm (SODA) minimizes the hardware requirement and ensures easier implementation of a fuzzy controller as compared to the LUT and the triangular membership approach when extended to multiple dimensions. In this paper we have put forward the extension of the SODA to multiple dimensions. Fuzzy controllers can handle multiple inputs and outputs however size of the fuzzy table grows exponentially with each input added. In this paper we put forward the extension of SODA into 4 dimension using three six bits input, (8 /spl times/ 8 /spl times/ 8) and (4 /spl times/ 4 /spl times/ 4) fuzzy look up tables (LUT) were used each having 512 and 64 values respectively. The system uses three inputs, the upper three bits of each input are used for addressing the exact position of the nearest data point in the look up table, and the rest of the input is the information about the membership function. The advantage of this method over other defuzzification methods like the LUT and the triangular membership function approach is its extensibility to multiple dimensions with the efficient usage of a relatively smaller look up table, which minimizes the hardware requirement and ensures easier implementation. In this paper we also demonstrate the extension of the method to more than 4 dimensions.

115    Y. Ota, "VLSI structure for static image processing with pulse-coupled neural network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3221- 3226 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An electronic hardware model of a pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN) and an effective image processing technique using the PCNN are proposed in this paper. The behavior of the presented neuron circuit mimics actual biological neuron in such a way that a frequency-modulated pulse train is generated and its pulsing frequency depends upon the magnitude of an input excitation. The presented electronic neuron model finds a number of useful applications in the field of image processing. Among several features of the PCNN, an effective filtering technique is particularly exploited and its performance is compared with traditional filtering methods in this paper. Furthermore, an innovative way to determine one of the image quality elements, "image sharpness", is proposed using the PCNN. Particularly, a neuron coupling behavior which is one of the main characteristics of the PCNN is analyzed and shown to demonstrate the determination of "image sharpness" for a given input image.

116    M. Citron, M. Corradin, S. Buso, G. Spiazzi, F. Fiori, "Susceptibility of integrated circuits to RFI: analysis of PWM current-mode controllers for SMPS," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3227- 3231 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis of the effects of radio frequency conducted interfering signals (RFI) on integrated circuits (ICs). After reviewing the basic results of the susceptibility analysis of operational amplifiers and smart power integrated circuits, the behavior of several pin-to-pin compatible control ICs for PWM current-mode switching power supplies (SMPS) has been tested in the presence of both continuous wave interfering signals (CW) as well as of pulsed noise signals (underground condition). The tested ICs were selected between some common models available on the market. The variations of the primary functional parameters (inner voltage reference, switching frequency, etc.) are evaluated in different test conditions. The paper gives a comparative view of the results, focusing on the key macroscopic effects.

117    V. Mehrotra, Jian Sun, S. Chandrasekaran, "Ultra compact DC-DC converters for the digital age," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3232- 3237 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Needs for high efficiency and high power density DC-DC converters to support energy-efficient and reliable digital systems are discussed. DC-DC converters with a power density of about 100 W/in/sup 3/ and efficiency greater than 90% at 100 W/3.3 V and 1.5 V outputs are reported. Key technologies in the areas of integrated magnetics, circuit topology, packaging and thermal management that have enabled this performance are also described. Finally, new component, circuit and packaging technologies necessary for achieving 500 W/in/sup 3/ power density for future low-voltage, high-current DC-DC converters are discussed.

118    W.H. Wolfle, W.G. Hurley, "Power factor correction and harmonic filtering for AC/DC converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3238- 3243 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The mains current in an AC/DC converter contains periodic current pulses, due to the action of the rectifier and the output buffer capacitor. The high current peaks cause harmonic distortion of the supply current and low power factor. The harmonic currents can almost be eliminated completely by introducing active power factor correction. The design parameters and the output voltage characteristics of such a converter are investigated in general and verified by experimental results. This principle achieves a power factor near to unity, but is costly and voluminous. Investigations of the harmonic current limits defined in the standard IEC/EN61000-3-2 lead to a harmonic filtering approach, rather than power factor correction, as harmonics are not completely avoided, but reduced to the permitted level. This paper investigates the required filter inductance for compliance with the standard for class D equipment. A novel inductor, with a self-adapting filter characteristic, is introduced by the authors as the most cost effective and least voluminous solution. The new sloped air-gap (SAG) inductor is investigated and its performance in a power supply is verified by experimental results.

119    A. Soto, P. Alou, J.A. Cobos, J. Uceda, "The future DC-DC converter as an enabler of low energy consumption systems with dynamic voltage scaling," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3244- 3249 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The energy consumption in notebooks and multimedia terminals limits autonomy, high performance and further reduction of size. The DVS represents an alternative solution to current techniques that dramatically reduces energy consumption in digital systems. The power supply becomes a very important part of the system as it enables the voltage scaling. This paper analyzes the requirements and challenges for these power supplies, highlighting the interesting solutions and the research trends.

120    S.C.O. Mathuna, P. Byrne, G. Duffy, Weimin Chen, M. Ludwig, T. O'Donnell, P. McCloskey, M. Duffy, "Packaging and integration technologies for future high frequency power supplies," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3250- 3256 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reviews data from the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors to establish where DC-DC converters are headed in the first decade of the new millenium. It focuses on the high performance computing (high current, fast response, high power density) and portable/hand-held (low profile) sectors. Magnetics and power device packaging technologies needed to allow power supplies to move to operating frequencies in the 1MHz to 10MHz region are discussed. It introduces the concept of magnetic components fully embedded (windings and core) in PCB and silicon offering low profile and low losses at high frequency. It also reviews developments in wirebond-free power packaging such as flip-chip assembly that offer low profile, reduced parasitics and increased thermal performance. Finally, consideration is given to the changes in the power electronics industry that may need to be addressed to enable these new technologies to play a strategic role.

121    Feel-Soon Kang, Cheul-U Kim, Sung-Jun Park, Han-Woong Park, "Interface circuit for photovoltaic system based on buck-boost current-source PWM inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3257- 3261 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a current-source-inverter based on a buck-boost configuration and its application for residential photovoltaic system. The proposed circuit has five switches. Among them, only one switch acts as chopping, and the other determine the polarity of output; therefore, it can reduce the switching loss. Because the input inductor current is operated on the discontinuous conduction mode, high power factor can be achieved without additional input current controller. So the overall system shows a simple structure. The operational modes are analysed in depth, and then it was verified through the experimental results using a 150 W prototype.

122    T. Mishima, T. Ohnishi, "Power compensation system for partially shaded PV array using electric double layer capacitors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3262- 3267 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the power compensation and control system for the partially shaded photovoltaic (PV) array is presented. The proposed system utilizes electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs), which has some advantages, e.g. the high density of output power, the long lifetime, compared with other energy storage devices. This system is constructed by the simple combination of EDLCs-bank and a relay. Comparing with the prevalent measures, the proposed system can realize more efficient usage of generation power from PV array. The feasibility of the system is investigated and verified from some simulation results.

123    K.C.A. de Souza, M.R. de Castro, F. Antunes, "A DC/AC converter for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3268- 3273 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work proposes a static DC/AC system for grid-connected PV systems. The converter is made of an inverter, a high frequency transformer and a cycloconverter. Both converters operate with constant switching frequency and duty-cycle. The design, principle of operation, control circuits and the characteristics of the system is presented. In addition to the theoretical analysis, simulation results are shown to validate the principle of operation of the converter as part of a grid-connected system.

124    V. Salas, M.J. Manzanas, A. Lazaro, A. Barrado, E. Olias, "The control strategies for photovoltaic regulators applied to stand-alone systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3274- 3279 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the study of the control strategies enclosed in photovoltaic charge control, including maximum power point trackers (MPPTs). It was simulated and evaluated using simulating tool Simulink/spl reg/. It is supposed to be integrated on a photovoltaic stand-alone systems where it is very important to maximize the efficiency of its power source: the array of photovoltaics panels.

125    B.M. Wilamowski, Xiangli Li, "Fuzzy system based maximum power point tracking for PV system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3280- 3284 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Maximum power point tracking for PV systems traditionally uses either perturbation and observation method or incremental conductance method. Both methods require modulation of the output voltage and this leads to significant power loss. In this paper, a method, which senses output circuit voltage and short circuit current and use the above two parameters for optimum control with a fuzzy controller, is introduced. The short circuit current of PV cell represents illumination, and the output circuit voltage carry on information about the temperature.

126    S. Alepuz, A. Gilabert, E. Arguelles, J. Bordonau, J. Peracaula, "A new approach for the connection of a three-level inverter to the power grid for applications in solar energy conversion," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3285- 3290 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper studies the connection of a photovoltaic energy system to the AC mains by means of a 3-level voltage source inverter (VSI). A proposal for modeling and controlling the inverter is presented, in order to have full controllability of the power transfer and the DC-link voltage balance. The steady-state, the transient analysis and the large-signal operation are studied and the control is implemented combining a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and gain-scheduling technique. The method is verified using large signal, nonlinear discrete and averaged simulation models.

127    A.A. Bayod, J.A. Dominguez, J. Mur, J.J. Melero, "Combined system for reactive power control in wind farms," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3291- 3296 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Operation of wind turbine installations may affect the steady-state voltage in the connected network. The voltage fluctuations imposed by the wind farm will depend on the characteristics of the grid. This paper presents a combined system of a capacitor, a thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) and a small-rated active filter (PWM-VSI) whose goal is to obtain a regulation of reactive power in wind farms with a generation of harmonic currents very reduced. The electrical analysis and filtering characteristics are discussed theoretically and several situations are simulated.

128    R. Pena, R. Cardenas, J. Clare, G. Asher, "Control strategy of doubly fed induction generators for a wind diesel energy system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3297- 3302 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new control structure for a variable speed wind diesel energy system based on doubly-fed induction generators to provide energy to an isolated load. Both generator rotor currents are controlled using an indirect vector scheme approach using a d-q reference frame with the d-axis aligned with the stator flux. The scheme uses a common DC bus for the rotor side inverters and a stator side inverter to enable sub and super synchronous speed operation for both machines. The generator driven by the diesel engine regulates the stator flux magnitude and controls the q-axis rotor current in order to assure the orientation of the reference frame. The speed of the diesel engine is changed depending on the load in order to reduce the fuel consumption. The electrical torque of the generator driven by the wind turbine is controlled to track an optimum speed where maximum energy is extracted from the wind. Results are presented for load impacts and the tracking of the optimum speed both for the diesel and the wind energy system.

129    R. Cardenas, G. Asher, R. Pena, J. Clare, "Power smoothing control using sensorless flywheel drive in wind-diesel generation systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3303- 3308 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel control strategy for power smoothing. The system is based on a sensorless vector controlled induction machine driving a flywheel. The problem of regulating the voltage against input power surges or sudden changes in load demand is addressed. The induction machine is controlled to operate in a wide speed range by using flux weakening above rated speed. A speed observer is used to obtain the rotational speed in the whole speed range. The observer parameters are adapted during flux weakening in order to obtain close tracking of the flywheel speed. Experimental results for the operation of the flywheel drive between zero to more than twice base speed are presented and discussed. The system described in this paper is suitable for wind-diesel generation or stand alone wind energy systems.

130    H. Bindner, P. Lundsager, "Integration of wind power in the power system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3309- 3316 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Wind power is going through a very rapid development. It is the fastest growing power source in the world, the technology is being developed rapidly and wind power is supplying significant shares of the energy in large regions. The integration of wind power in the power system is therefore now an issue in order to optimise the utilisation of the resource and in order to continue the high rate of installation of generating capacity, which is necessary in order to achieve the goals of sustainability and security of supply. This development of the wind power from just being a negative load to have power plant like features of course also bring with it large challenges. These challenges include connection of wind farms to weak grids, securing power quality, reduction or elimination of power fluctuations, prediction of power output and changes in operating strategies of conventional power plants. Many of these challenges can be faced by the application of power electronics in wind turbines or in wind farms, but many of them will also require other technologies to be developed such as fuel cells and energy storage. The key issues for success is the utilisation of power electronics and information technology. The paper highlights, through examples (from Denmark and from finalised and current research work), the challenges and present the current research direction.

131    C.V. Nicolas, F. Blazquez, D. Ramirez, M. Lafoz, J. Iglesias, "Guidelines for the design and control of electrical generator systems for new grid connected wind turbine generators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3317- 3325 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The planning and operation of the electric power supply system should be affected by large penetration of wind power systems connected to it. This paper begins with a discussion about the main technical issues that can appear in networks with high level of penetration of wind systems, and shows how the variable speed wind generators could be a useful tool to resolve most of these issues, due to its capability to regulate the electromagnetic torque, and the active and reactive power delivered from each of these systems. The paper continues with a review of the most important technologies used today in variable speed wind generator systems, focusing the attention in the main operation issues of each of them. The paper concludes with the presentation of developments that are being done in our department in order to resolve these problems in future designs.

132    S. Hurtado, G. Gostales, A. de Lara, N. Moreno, J.M. Carrasco, E. Galvan, J.A. Sanchez, L.G. Franquelo, "A new power stabilization control system based on making use of mechanical inertia of a variable-speed wind-turbine for stand-alone wind-diesel applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3326- 3331 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper is described the development of a new wind-diesel generator system which is based on standard diesel generators connected to MADE AE-56 wind turbines. Such wind-turbines have variable-speed, variable-pitch operation and they are regulated under a special patented control algorithm, devoted to stabilization of grid frequency. One of the most important advantages deduced from the behaviour of the complete system is the continous improvement of the power quality, in terms of frequency and voltage stabilisation as it is shown from the exposed results. This is a required feature in islanding power systems, which is achieved with the presented stand-alone generation system. The control algorithm is being based in DSP operation and the complete system is being built with MADE's technology.

133    M. Sanz, J.F. Sanz, D. Botero, M. Navarro, F.J. Val, J.J. Melero, J. Sallan, A. Llombart, "Optimal integration of renewable energies in a pumping station for irrigation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3332- 3337 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we analyze optimal integration of wind and water energy in a pumping station for irrigation. The pumping station is also sized to fit watering needs for traditional crops and for thistle crop (Cyanara Cardunculus) with energetic aims. This study has been done in the area of "Alcala de Gurrea" (Zaragoza), and data acquisition process were carried out over one year.

134    S.A. Gomez, J.L.R. Amenedo, "Grid synchronisation of doubly fed induction generators using direct torque control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3338- 3343 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new control system for grid synchronisation of a doubly fed induction generator used in variable speed wind turbines. A direct torque control (DTC) scheme is used for synchronisation and running processes. The proposed control system allows high performance, i.e., grid connection with zero currents and high dynamic behaviour when loading the doubly fed induction generator.

135    J. Balcells, V. Parisi, D. Gonzalez, "New trends in power quality measuring instruments," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3344- 3349 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One of the challenges in all supply systems is the control of power quality (PQ). The assessment of PQ in distributed supply systems implies the synchronized measurement of a great deal of different parameters at different points and with different requirements. The choice of suitable parameters, sampling rates "aggregation operations" and periods to obtain data containing the maximum information on possible "quality faults", using minimum memory space and minimum processor resources is one of the major problems of PQ instrumentation. An additional problem in distributed systems is the synchronization of data acquisition at different points. This paper presents the design of an instrument for PQ measurement, based on a previous analysis of CPU and memory needs. The inclusion of a high resolution real time clock with GPS synchronization allows the comparison of measurements at different points of the grid. Software for transient capture, with a trigger based on wavelet transform is also presented.

136    J.J. Brey, A. Castro, E. Moreno, "Fuel cell power system fed with industrial hydrogen waste," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3350- 3354 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this project is to introduce clean fuel cell technology into an industrial plant located in Valladolid (Spain), to improve the whole process efficiency and reduce the environmental impact at the same time. This plant is devoted to aluminium treatment and produces a waste gas flow containing 500 m/sup 3//h of impure hydrogen, which is actually burned in a torch. The goal is to install a fuel cell generating power for the plant from that hydrogen after it has been properly purified; another important objective is to design an energy flow management system able to couple the required and the available electric power.

137    J.J. Brey, A. Castro, E. Moreno, C. Garcia, "Integration of renewable energy sources as an optimised solution for distributed generation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3355- 3359 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to show how important an appropriate management of energy flows must be in the new electric generation plants. These new plants should be technologically "cleaner", more efficient and reliable day by day, and are also expected to lead to lower investment and exploitation costs. The integration of renewable energy sources (RES) with new technologies (fuel cells and hydrogen) will lead to situations involving different equipment with different electric interfaces, opening clear paths for more suitable devices and techniques to be implemented. Those related objectives would be achieved in a higher degree as far as power electronics would be developed.

138    J.T. Bialasiewicz, E. Muljadi, "RPM-SMA-based modeling of photovoltaic panels as energy sources in renewable energy systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3360- 3365 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the inclusion of a photovoltaic panel or PV array in the simulation of power systems that use renewable energy sources. It appears as a part of the PV array-inverter assembly that uses the inverter to perform DC to AC energy conversion. In an isolated operation, the inverter dictates the frequency and regulates the output voltage of the system. In addition, it balances the power in the systems. In systems with diesel generators, the PV array-inverter assembly is used as a preprogrammed power source and operates in the slave mode. Simulation case studies for both modes of operation are presented. In addition, we discuss the simulation of a power system, in which the master function can be switched between the diesel generator and the PV array-inverter assembly.

139    F. Filippetti, M. Artioli, "Simple ideas for light but robust signal processing of electromechanical systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3366- 3371 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: After a short overview about the problem of finding simple global indicators for a signal, which can summarize the aspect or the behaviour of the whole signal itself, some highlights are given on two simple ideas to formulate a light algorithm for some kinds of signal processing. On one hand, they can be useful to find global characteristics as end point of the signal processing; on the other hand, they can be used as pre-processing techniques to simplify the job of other processing techniques that can be applied next. An example is given about an algorithm to detect whether a periodical signal has a regular shape, as expected, or with undesired disturbances.

140    C. Demian, G. Cirrincione, G.A. Capolino, "A neural approach for the fault diagnostics in induction machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3372- 3376 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The motor current signature analysis has been considered as a standard for both electrical and mechanical fault detection in three-phase induction machine. However, even if the spectrum analysis is well known and has been published intensively in the literature, the problem of automatic classification for fault detection is still open. The aim of this paper is to present a new neural network approach for fault and speed detection using the current spectrum analysis. After the presentation of an original database creation, the classification using a particular neural network is developed. This network is conceived in order to output the posterior probabilities of class membership of the input, which allow the estimation of the level of confidence of the classification. Then, the classical motor slip detection algorithm is verified and the classification is experimentally performed on a squirrel-cage three-phase induction machine. The efficiency of the iteration process is shown together with the confusion matrix for the current spectrum analysis in the proposed method.

141    J.R. Stack, R.G. Harley, T.G. Habetler, "An amplitude modulation detector for fault diagnosis in rolling element bearings," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3377- 3382 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As rolling element bearings begin to fail they induce characteristic fault frequencies in the vibration of an electric machine. These characteristic fault frequencies tend to modulate the electric machine's frequencies of natural mechanical resonance. Therefore, an amplitude modulation (AM) detector, similar to the bispectrum, is proposed. This new tool is especially designed to detect instances of AM when the measured magnitude of the characteristic fault frequency itself is not significant (e.g. incipient bearing faults). A normalized version of this detector is also presented to assist in the interpretation of results. Computer simulations as well as actual bearing vibration data are used to confirm the proficiency of this proposed AM detector in identifying bearing faults.

142    E.L. Bonaldi, L.E.B. da Silva, G. Lambert-Torres, L.E.L. Oliveira, F.O. Assunco, "Using rough sets techniques as a fault diagnosis classifier for induction motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3383- 3388 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the ongoing research on rough sets based classifier applied to induction motors fault diagnosis through motor current signature analysis (MCSA). The results of mechanical failures detection and how a rough sets based classifier is used as a monitoring system using current signature analysis in predictive maintenance are described in this paper.

143    J. Ramon, S. Rodriguez, "Wireless applications development based on web technology conference on industrial electronics," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3389- 3393 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Due to the outstanding technological improvement of mobile devices (telephones and palm tops), which has occurred, together with the wide field of choices that covers wireless technology (WAP, 802.11b, Bluetooth, GPRS, GSM, etc.) Telvent Interactiva has developed a wireless business line based on experience on web technology. Therefore, thanks to our effort and our R&D department hard work on wireless technologies, we continue giving support and portability to our customers with improvements and updates which appear every day in the market.

144    J.A. Sagrista, "Wireless broadband: what services are to come?," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3394- 3397 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The advent of new network technologies has not always been accompanied with applications appealing enough to convince end users to buy terminals and contract for services. Some network technologies have been waiting for the killer application to come for months or even years. Wireless broadband networks are not an exception to the above statement. In this paper some applications that could take advantage of the new generation wireless networks are discussed.

145    C. Gonzalez, "Integrated Telemedicine System in Andalusia," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3398- 3402 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design of the Andalusian Public Healthcare System fulfils two main objectives: universal cover and quality healthcare. Our aim is to adequately provide for the healthcare needs of all citizens throughout the entire region. Telemedicine plays an important part in achieving these objectives and assures every citizen access to adequate healthcare regardless of geographical location. Our concept of Telemedicine is an integrated system that involves all levels of healthcare and is aimed at improving the medical care service afforded to the citizen. The Andalusian Integrated Telemedicine System was launched in 1999 as an Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health Project and was co-funded in its initial stages by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). The project has been devised in various implementation stages. Although these different stages do not necessarily correspond to implementation continuity, they do achieve results insofar as they provide the healthcare professional with an ordered knowledge of the tools he will have at his disposal. This affords essential training and skills in the use of these new technologies without adversely affecting the usual work carried out by professional staff or the normal day to day running of the Health Centre. We are expanding the Telemedicine System to the rest of the Andalusian Autonomous Region. This global set-up should be in place within the next four years. The plan to carry out this expansion will involve the collaboration of various public and private entities including Provincial Councils in the Autonomous Region of Andalusia, The Andalusian Regional Government Ministry of Employment and Technological Development and the CITIC Foundation, which, through the project known as COSMOS TIC, will develop some fundamental aspects of Telemedicine. This Foundation is comprised of 28 different Andalusian companies. The system has been devised to: guarantee equitable access for all patients to healthcare services at the Accident and Emergency Coordination Centres and Hospitals whenever and wherever required; ensure the best use of resources (helicopters, ambulances, etc.) in accident or emergency situations and avoid unnecessary patient transfers to hospital as well as a long list of other possibilities aime- d at providing better healthcare for the citizen which will be introduced in due course.

146    F.J.M. Garcia, J.G. Franquelo, A.G. Vazquez, "WTA6:Wstock," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3403- 3406 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The WStock project deals with the application of wireless technology to the needs of the industrial and services sectors. This document describes the development of a project by SADIEL in which a system integrates wireless technology with business management systems based on a corporate ERP (enterprise resource planning) application.

147    H.A. Chan, Sing Lin, "Standards and deployment issues in wireless data networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3407- 3412 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Implementation issues have played a key role on various wireless data network standards. 3G Wireless standard attempted to converge to global broadband wireless data network to serve multimedia applications. Yet the rapidly declining price in existing 2G wireless service, the excessive fees in 3G spectrum licence, and the slow-down in business growth had resulted in delay in the deployment of 3G. Bluetooth technology had been expected to grow rapidly as the low-cost solution for short-range wireless network, but the required price drop was delayed to 2002. The delay in both the long range 3G Wireless Network and the short-range Bluetooth network had created an opportunity for the rapid growth of 802.11b WirelessLAN in 2001. As 802.11b network continues to grow, service operators had also used 2.5G technology to provide wireless data services.

148    J. Banos, "Testing of Bluetooth products in the industrial environment," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3413- 3418 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Wireless technologies are being introduced in the industrial environment mainly as a means to eliminate communication cables with robots, machines, etc. At the same time these wireless systems are being produced in manufacturing plants. Checking the performance of manufactured products and assuring they meet the design specifications is a very important task. In this paper the testing needs and requirements as well as the development of a novel test system for wireless Bluetooth devices is presented.

149    M. Elena, J.M. Quero, S.L. Toral, C.L. Tarrida, J.A. Segovia, L.G. Franquelo, "CARDIOSMART: intelligent cardiology monitoring system using GPS/GPRS networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3419- 3424 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Cardiosmart project is based on a portable terminal for the acquisition, pre-processing and transmission of cardiac signals and the GPRS network (PAC) used to send the ECG signal to a host computer in the medical services provider centre or a specialist consulting room. The PAC terminal includes a GPRS modem for data transmission, a GPS device to provide an accurate location of the patient, and an intelligent heart pathology detection system. The objective of this project consists of the development of a European Cardiology On-line Monitoring System using GPRS/GSM wireless communication technology. The utilisation of electrocardiogram transmission will improve efficiency of medical care and service for patients if they could be monitored constantly by health care providers. A direct and almost instant medical support is provided, specially to those patients that vanish during a heart attack.

150    P.G. Alarco, "GTVP (public way task management)," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3425- 3427 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: GTVP is an innovative and practice solution to improve the operability, reliability, control and information flow, reducing inspection and management costs in the public ways and spaces. This application runs on PDA operating system software. The GTVP is based on GIS tools applications where the spatial data is included for its functionality.

151    A.C. Chen, "The evolution of wireless mobile data communication technologies and their market opportunities," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3428- 3433 vol.4, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The cellular industry has been very successful in providing voice services to consumers and business. The next big opportunity for wireless networks will be differentiation based on data and multimedia services. Wireless service providers face ever-increasing pressure to offer innovative services, new capabilities, and make more efficient use of spectrum. In order to meet these needs, existing wireless networks have evolved with new technology both in the air interface and the core network. Specifically, the wireless mobile data communication technologies have evolved from the circuit switched second-generation (2G) networks to 2.5G and then to the third generation (3G) networks and beyond. The paper describes how the revolution of wireless communications, the wireless mobile data industry, evolution of wireless mobile data communication technologies, the wireless mobile data market and the failing barriers to wireless data proliferation.

152    "Authors List," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.4 , pp. 3435- 3448, 5-8 Nov. 2002.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available