Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference 

Vol.1 ,   6-6 Nov. 2005           Access to the IES Annual Conference on IEEE XPLORE     IE Transactions Home Page




1    "Human adaptive mechatronics -- interaction and intelligence," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 11- 11, 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

2    "Towards intelligent distributed systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 13- 13, 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

3    B. Pourdeyhimi, "Electrotextiles: challenges and opportunities," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 14- 14, 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

4    "Electrotextiles: challenges and opportunities," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 15- 15, 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

5    "Tutorials," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 18- 22, 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

6    "Panel sessions," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 23- 23, 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

7    H. Oya, K. Hagino, H. Mukaidani, "Robust non-fragile controllers for uncertain linear continuous-time systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with a design problem of robust non-fragile controllers for linear continuous-time systems with uncertainties which are included in both the system matrix and the input one. In this paper, we deal with two classes of control gain perturbations and show that sufficient conditions for the existence of the robust non-fragile controller are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, illustrative examples are presented.

8    H. Tanabe, K. Suyama, "Robust model predictive control with a pair of plant models," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes new robust model predictive control with a pair of plant models. Its simple control law based on intuitional control strategy can deal with model uncertainty especially in time-delays appropriately, which causes frequently fatal problems in process industry.

9    Y. Taing, L. Pavel, "H/sup /spl infin// optimal control design for time dependent tones within erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we propose the application of H/sup /spl infin// control within optical networks. Specifically, we aim to suppress the cross-gain modulation effects within erbium-doped fiber amplifiers owed to pilot tone disturbances used for optical monitoring. Based on the characteristics of these pilot tone disturbances, we design an H/sup /spl infin// controller to improve transient performance of optical channels within the network. Within this paper the control system design is described and simulation results are presented.

10    Xuemei Zhu, Jun Xu, "Estimation of time varying parameters in nonlinear systems by using dynamic optimization," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The estimation of time varying parameters in nonlinear dynamic systems remains as an open problem. In this work, we propose a new approach to addressing this problem by using dynamic optimization. The system is described by a rigorous model which is a set of nonlinear differential and algebraic equations with unknown parameters. The sequential quadratic programming and the orthogonal collocation methods are used to solve the dynamic nonlinear optimization problem. An efficient procedure is presented for calculation of the sensitivity coefficients, gradients and optimization. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated by estimating tray efficiencies of a pilot distillation column.

11    D.F. Coutinho, L.P.F.A. Pereira, "A robust Luenberger-like observer for induction machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A Luenberger-like observer is proposed to the state estimation of induction machines subject to rotor resistance variation and load disturbance. The observer gain is designed in order to minimize these effects on the state estimation performance in an H/spl infin/ sense, where the stability of the error dynamics is guaranteed. The proposed conditions are cast in terms of state-dependent linear matrix inequalities that are solved efficiently using standard software packages. Simulation results demonstrates the performance of the approach.

12    S. Ryvkin, D. Izosimov, E. Palomar-Lever, "Digital sliding mode based sensorless control of an electromechanical system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is intended to explain the basic ideas related to designing digital algorithms using unmeasured mechanical variables (but observed without sensors), to control electromechanical systems digitally. The main idea is to simplify algorithms by using a linear discrete-time model without any variable limitations. Original references limiter based on the digital sliding mode for the exception of the variable limitations influences is proposed and designed. The simulation confirmed high dynamic accuracy, simplification of the digital control algorithm, and reduction of the computing capacity requirements of the controller.

13    Gwo-Jia Jong, Shih-Ming Chen, Te-Jen Su, "The LMS combined fuzzy algorithm for co-channel interference (CCI) transmission system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In recent years, many adaptive algorithms have been proposed for improving co-channel interference (CCI) problem. In this paper, we adopted the concepts of adaptive filter combined fuzzy logic algorithm with the amplitude-locked loop (ALL) separation system in order to improve the signal distortion interferences of co-channel and noise. The ALL system can be separated the dominant and the subdominant signal from each other. On the other hand, the perfect demodulated output signals of the ALL system is adopted the spectrum or frequency doubly. Using the proposed adaptation algorithm to calculate the optimal weight coefficient and minimize the value of mean-square error (MSE) under the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNRc). Therefore, we addressed the adaptive fuzzy estimation model to overcome the disadvantages all about that before. Furthermore, from the simulated results of convergence time and the value of MSE, we found the performance of proposed adaptive filter algorithm with fuzzy methodology is better than adaptive LMS algorithm in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel case.

14    Y. Li, B. Li, Z. Sun, Y.D. Song, "Fuzzy technique based close formation flight control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper studies a fuzzy logic method for close formation control of multi-UAVs. To account for the aerodynamic impacts of leading UAV on the trailing UAV, a fuzzy algorithm is developed to track and maintain close relative planar spacing during close formation maneuver. The algorithm is refined using a self tuning technique without communication link to provide robust positioning of the aerial vehicles. It is shown that in the absence of measurements from the leading aircraft the algorithm provides sufficient estimation and control of lateral and longitudinal spacing to maintain stable formation flight within the vortex disturbance. The developed fuzzy algorithms function satisfactorily in the presence of dynamic uncertainties. Theory proof and simulation verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

15    Yao-hong Qu, Quan Pan, Jian-guo Yan, "Flight path planning of UAV based on heuristically search and genetic algorithms," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Flight path planning of UAV is a complicated optimum problem. The research in this field is usually classified as two directions: optimal path planning without considering the computation cost and real-time suboptimal path planning. Aimed at the two problems, this paper presents two methods of path planning of UAV. One method is based on heuristically search. In this method, we search the threat net by using A-star algorithm. A shortest suboptimum path is obtained, which is composed of the lines on the Voronoi diagram, and then considering the UAV's turn constraint, the path can be smoothed by geometry method. The other method is based on genetic algorithm and potential fields technology. Because potential fields, however popular, have shortcomings, viz, trap situations due to local minima, the genetic algorithm is introduced. In this method, Firstly, construct the threats' Delaunay triangle net based on the principle of nearest neighborhood and a safe planning path goes across the lines of the triangles. Then designate each point (position of a threat) on the left of the path a index 0 and on the right 1 and only designate the points of line which is not passed the same symbol. Thus, based on the directions of passing the lines of Delaunay triangle, a kind of encoding is designed on the principle of "Left 0, Right 1". At last, a global planning path can obtained by the genetic algorithm and potential fields technology. At the same time, simulation results of the two path planning methods are given.

16    W. Qiao, R.G. Harley, "Indirect adaptive internal neuro-control for a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) connected to a power system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel indirect adaptive internal neuro-controller (IAINC) using two radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) and actual signals is presented in this paper for controlling a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) with energy storage devices, which is connected to a small power system. The one RBF network is the neuro-identiiler to identify the dynamics of the plant model at all times, and the other RBF network is the neuro-controller to drive the plant outputs to the desired values. The proposed IAINC needs no mathematical model of the SSSC or the power network. Simulation results show that the IAINC offers improved transient performances over the conventional PI controllers used by the SSSC over a wide range of system operating conditions.

17    M. Iwase, H. Shoshiro, K. Furuta, "Analysis of intermittent control systems by human operations," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Human adaptive mechatronics is the coined name for a research project at Tokyo Denki University sponsored by Ministry of Education, Sports, Culture, Science and Technology (MEXT). Human adaptive mechatronics consists of human and mechatronics, and aims to develop Mechatronic systems adapting and assisting human operations. In this paper, the human control action of human-in-the-loop system is studied paying attention to the sampling effect via visual feedback. To analyze the performance of human operations with such factors, the swing-up of a pendulum by human was studied.

18    F. Han, X. Yu, J. Hu, "A new way of generating grid-scroll chaos and its application to biometric authentication," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new circuit design is proposed for generating grid-scroll chaos in the phase plane by using a second-order linear system with a control of double-hysteresis series. The double-hysteresis series is constructed in a systematic way by using the basic double-hysteresis building blocks. With the proposed scheme, the number of scrolls can be arbitrarily assigned, and the multi-scroll chaotic attractors can be placed anywhere and can cover any chosen area in the phase plane. The grid-scroll chaotic attractor is applied to biometric (fingerprint image) authentication. In this application, a two-dimensional (2D) discrete chaotic image is created from these grid-scroll chaotic attractors. Some of the parameters of the 2D chaotic image are extracted from the stable global structure of fingerprint image, and used to derive the encryption key at a terminal. Decryption, minutiae extraction and matching are fulfilled at the central server.

19    N.M. Botros, A. Akaaboune, J. Alghazo, J.R. Shell, "Synthesis of the growth hormone secretion mechanism using nonlinear analysis and CAD tools," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The goal of this paper is to develop a hardware realization of growth hormone (GH) secretion mechanism based on a biomathematical nonlinear delay differential equation theoretical model. Behavioral modeling of the mechanism is developed with the aid of hardware description language (HDL) simulator. We have simulated the antagonistic and stimulatory interaction of growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatotropin release inhibiting factor (SRIF). The simulation is synthesized using computer aided design (CAD) tools and downloaded into a combinational complex programmable logic device (CPLD)/field programmable grid array (FPGA) Xilinx XSA-50 microchip. The microchip sequentially outputs the decimal equivalents of the respective hormones. The chip is tested by comparing its output with that of the simulation. Our results show that the outputs of the chip and the simulator are identical.

20    P.G. DeLima, G.G. Yen, "Multiple objective evolutionary algorithm for temporal rule extraction," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Autonomous linguistic rule extraction involving temporal dynamics is an application of growing interest for its relevance to both decision support systems and fuzzy controllers. In the presented work, rules are extracted by and evaluated using three qualitative metrics (i.e., rule inaccuracies, antecedent/consequent mismatches and lack of supporting evidence in the dataset) based on their representation on the truth space diagram. Each metric is then treated as an independent competing optimization goal and multiple objective evolutionary algorithm is used to obtain a set of optimal non-dominant rules. Each representing the best rule observed from the given dataset. Novel techniques for data preprocessing and rule set postprocessing are designed. Data collected from an experimental hot and cold water mixer is used to validate the proposed procedure.

21    Haibing Hu, Qingbo Hu, Zhengyu Lu, Dehong Xu, "Optimal PID controller design in PMSM servo system via particle swarm optimization," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel PID controller design method is proposed in the paper for PMSM Servo system using particle swarm optimization (PSO). The detailed procedures for optimal PID controller design are summarized in terms of the principle of particle swarm optimization. In order to overall optimize the performance of the system step response, a new evaluation strategy (fuzzy hamming distance) is introduced for evaluating the performance. Comparisons between the results obtained by GA method and those by PSO method are made. The simulation and experimental results show that the PSO method can locate the optimal or near optimal parameter space and achieve a higher quality solution than the GA method. Hence it affords a new and better optimization tool for optimal PID controller design in complex and coupled systems.

22    C. Blanc, V. Chritin, E. Van Lancker, A. Rufer, B. Genevay, M. Nicollerat, "Acoustic mapping for active transformer quieting applications based on a modular DSP platform," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Laboratoire d'Electronique Industrielle has realized an active noise controller. The system is designed to efficiently attenuate low frequency transformer noise where passive methods are either ineffective or tend to be very expensive. This paper describes an acoustic mapping experiment: two loudspeakers simulate a transformer, the noise is measured by a 15 microphones antenna and the DSP calculates an acoustic map with the beamforming method. Simulation and experimental results are presented.

23    Y. Murahashi, S. Doki, S. Okuma, "Realization of 1-bit IIR filter based on delta-sigma modulation under consideration of hardware implementation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A 1-bit signal processing based on delta-sigma modulation is described. Additionally a 1-bit IIR filter based on delta-sigma modulation is proposed and described how to realize and design. The input and output of 1-bit IIR filter is a delta-sigma modulated 1-bit signal. Proposed filter treats an output signal of delta-sigma modulator directly, therefore, compact signal processing system can be realized. As examples of 1-bit signal processing, this paper presents about two filters: Butterworth filter and graphic equalizer (GEQ). The desired frequency response can be obtained by using proposed method.

24    Y. Liang, D. Dewasurendra, P. Bauer, "Practical aspects of system stabilization with minimum data rates," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Distributed control systems implement feedback links over computer networks to transmit quantized data with finite precision. Uncertainties introduced by quantization errors can degrade the designed closed-loop performance or even destabilize the closed-loop system. The theoretical lower bounds on minimum stabilizing data rates over the feedback links were recently found for large classes of systems. In this paper, we propose several practical implementations using floating point quantization and state feedback to achieve these theoretical lower bounds. In particular, we analyze two system realizations, viz. for digital systems with plants implemented by microcontrollers where the designer has access to internal data registers and those originating from analog counterparts where no such information is available. Simulation results show that these realizations can actually achieve and in particular cases even beat the theoretical minimum. They are of significant value to the system designers.

25    Mohit Kumar, R. Stoll, N. Stoll, "Min-max tuning of fuzzy models with uncertain data," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This study deals with the robust tuning of a fuzzy model with uncertain data in a deterministic framework. We consider the on-line identification of an interpretable fuzzy model without making any assumption and requiring a priori knowledge of upper bounds, statistics, and distribution of data uncertainties. The tuning of the fuzzy model parameters is based on the robust (min-max) solution of a regularized least-squares constrained optimization problem. The simulation studies are carried out to show the better performance of our approach.

26    Shu-Chun Zhang, Si-Hua Liu, Guang-Da Hu, "Tracking a ballistic target with unscented iterative Kalman filter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Tracking a ballistic object in the reentry phase by processing radar measurements has attracted much attention of researchers, to make the estimations more accurate, the idea of iteration is often used in the process of updating which has no relationship with dynamics of the system. In this paper a new iterative method using unscented transform (UT) named UIKF is presented, the simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness.

27    M. Takahashi, K. Kawabata, K. Saitoh, M. Sugahara, H. Asama, T. Mishima, "Protein crystal state discrimination method by extracting line features on the image," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In recent years, several automated crystallization systems are developing for realizing high-throughput X-ray structure analysis. However, evaluation process of growth state of protein crystallization samples is not automated yet. This paper proposed a method of state discrimination for crystallization samples experiments. Especially its target is to discriminate between diffractable extract (crystal) and the others. Human experts observe the shape and size of the extracts to evaluate the growth state of the sample. Therefore, we utilize to extract line feature from the image of the sample, and to discriminate the state by using discriminant analysis as a classifier based on line features. Due to verify the performance of the proposal method, we experimented to discriminate using the images which are taken by an automated crystallization system; TERA. As a result, correction ratio was over 80%.

28    H. Takami, S. Nakano, K. Ichige, R. Ishii, "A spectrum extrapolation method for image magnification," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There are many kinds of interpolation methods to magnify an image. These methods proposed how to insert values between two neighbor values in an image. In general, a high-frequency band outside of a band-limitation cannot be obtained by using interpolation methods. Therefore a magnified image by an interpolation method blurs. This paper presents an extrapolation method to estimate high-frequency band theoretically. In the proposal method, we exploit the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and the discrete Hilbert transform (DHT) in order to divide a frequency response into three components, a magnitude response, a minimum phase response and an all-pass phase response. These three responses are extrapolated respectively. Applying this method to an image, we can obtain a better image than that by using interpolation methods. By using a high pass filter, we verified that the obtained magnified image shaped the silhouette and had a spectrum in a high frequency band.

29    Jonathan Chang Yung-Cheng, Fan-Tien Cheng, "Application development of virtual metrology in semiconductor industry," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Daily wafer fabrication in semiconductor foundry depends on considerable metrology operations for tool-quality and process-quality assurance. The metrology operations required a lot of metrology tools, which increase FAB's investment. Also, these metrology operations will increase cycle time of wafer process. Metrology operations do not bring any value added to wafer but only quality assurance. This article provides a new method denoted virtual metrology (VM) to utilize sensor data collected from 300 mm FAB's tools to forecast quality data of wafers and tools. This proposed method designs key steps to establish a VM control model based on neural networks and to develop and deploy applications following SEMI EDA (equipment data acquisition) standards.

30    L.F. Wang, "Modeling and adaptive actuator failure compensation for a rocket fairing vibration control system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the actuator failure compensation problem for a Boeing rocket fairing vibration control testbed system. A baseline vibration reduction controller is studied and the deleterious impact of unknown actuator failures on system performance is evaluated. An adaptive compensation scheme is proposed for modifying the baseline controller design to accommodate some typical actuator failures whose values, pattern and time instants are uncertain, using a stable adaptive law for parameter adaptation in the presence of parameter uncertainties. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of adaptive actuator failure compensation scheme, verifying that the adaptive design is able to ensure the closed-loop signal boundedness and asymptotic output tracking in the presence of actuator failures.

31    D. Klimanek, B. Sulc, "Evolutionary detection of sensor discredibility in control loops," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: When operating control loops, we can encounter hidden malfunctions, usually caused by the sensors used for measuring the controlled variables. These sensors often do not stop operating completely (which would be easy to recognize); they only start to provide slightly wrong measurements of the controlled variables. If the differences between the measured values and real values are not extreme, there is only a very small chance that the operator will recognize any malfunction of the sensor, assuming that there are no additional sensors available in the control loop for performing a hardware check. The problem is as follows: although the control loop seems to work properly, the consequences of such a small sensor malfunction (sensor discredibility) can become substantial and expensive (for example, we can imagine a combustion ratio control where some deviations from an optimal ratio value have no principal influence on the operation of the device, but late discovery of an increase in harmful emissions may be very costly). This paper concentrates on two new ideas: detection of sensor discredibility as a way that replaces usual hardware redundancy and saves the costs of additional measurements; and the use of sensor discredibility detection as a means of improving the function of a controlled system by avoiding hidden impreciseness in the control loop operation.

32    J. Farina, J.J. Rodriguez-Andina, J. Bullon, A. Lorenzo, "Thermo-electrical characterization of electrodes in arc furnaces for silicon metal production," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Temperature greatly influences the electrical behavior of electrodes in arc furnaces used for silicon metal production. Therefore, the thermo-electrical characterization of electrodes is a fundamental task for on-line monitoring and diagnosis of the operation of the furnace. Much work has been carried out in the independent characterization of the thermal and electrical characteristics of the electrodes, from which it has derived the need for a joint analysis. This paper describes the application of a combination of thermal and electrical measurements for monitoring and diagnosing the operation of the furnaces. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the ability of the proposed methodology to avoid or at least mitigate the effect of critical failures.

33    Kuo-Kai Shyu, Cheng-Lung Jen, Li-Jen Shang, "Design of sliding-mode controller for anti-swing control of overhead cranes," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this study, the anti-swing control problem for an underactuated overhead crane system is considered. The minimizing the swing angle and maximizing the speed of load transfer are contradict to each other, which means that the stability of swing dynamics and accurate trolley position control with uncertainties is hard to implement simultaneously by using fewer actuators. In this paper, an anti-swing control scheme is designed based on the sliding-mode control to satisfy the strict specification on the swing angle and accurate trolley position control in spite of load mass uncertainty. Simulation results show that the proposed control guarantees the asymptotically stability of sliding surface and stabilize the swing dynamics with exponential decay.

34    A. Tay, H.-T. Chua, W.-S. Ho, Y. Zhou, "A thermoelectricity-lamp based integrated bake/chill system for photoresist processing," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The design of an integrated bake/chill module for photoresist processing in microlithography is presented, with emphasis on the spatial and temporal temperature uniformity of the substrate. The system consists of multiple radiant heating zones for heating the substrate, coupled with an array of thermoelectric devices (TEDs) which provide real-time dynamic and spatial control of the substrate temperature. The TEDs also provide active cooling for chilling the substrate to a temperature suitable for subsequent processing steps. The use of lamp for radiative heating also provide fast ramp-up and ramp-down rates during thermal cycling operations. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrate via simulations based on first principle heat transfer modeling. The distributed nature of the design also means that a simple decentralized control scheme can be used to achieve tight spatial and temporal temperature uniformity specifications.

35    V. Vaitkus, A. Gelzinis, R. Simutis, "New methods and technologies for deflection yoke tuning," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A high quality deflection yoke (DY) is one of the most important factors for a high quality monitor. The role of the deflection yoke is to deflect electron beams in horizontal and vertical directions. If the magnetic field is formed incorrectly, misconvergence of beams may occur resulting in blurred image on the screen of the monitor. The magnetic field of DY may be corrected by sticking one or several ferroelastic shunts on the inside surface of the deflection yoke. Also some secondary balance parameters need to be controlled. Because of the complexity of the process it is not easy to determine how to stick the shunt. Therefore, intelligent decision support system (IDSS) is highly desirable in industry. This paper presents several modelling and search methods for deflection yoke tuning.

36    Jili Tao, Ning Wang, "Neuron control based on RBF network and fuzzy scheme for a direct drive robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The neuron control method based on RBF network and fuzzy scheme is proposed for a direct drive robot. In this intelligent control system, the RBF network is used to update the weights of neuron controller on-line according to the nearest neighbor-clustering algorithm. And a fuzzy scheme is designed to tune the neuron controller gain on-line. With the example of a direct drive robot manipulator with uncertainties and external coupling, the experiments of applying the proposed control method are made. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently control the independent joint of the direct drive robot.

37    Jung-Shik Kong, Byung-Jae Jung, Bo-Hee Lee, Jin-Geol Kim, "Nonlinear motor control using dual feedback controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the control of multiple nonlinearities included in a humanoid robot system. A humanoid robot has some problems of the structural instability basically, which leads to consider the control of multiple nonlinearities caused by driver parts as well as gear reducer. Saturation and backlash are typical examples of nonlinearities in the system. The conventional algorithms of backlash control are based on fuzzy algorithm, disturbance observer and neural network, etc. However, it is not easy to control the system that is employed by only single algorithm because the system includes multiple nonlinearities. In this paper, a switching PID is considered for a control of saturation, and a dual feedback algorithm is proposed for a backlash control. To implement the above algorithms, the system identification is firstly performed for the minimization of the difference between simulation and experiment. After that, the switching PID gains are determined using genetic algorithm for removing limit cycle by saturation. The control algorithm is applied by dual feedback concept based on disturbance observer. All the processes are investigated through simulations and are verified experimentally in a real humanoid system.

38    M. Vasak, L. Mladenovic, N. Peric, "Clustering-based identification of a piecewise affine electronic throttle model," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Piece wise affine (PWA) model comprises several affine dynamics defined over polyhedral regions in the regressor (state+input) space. Identification of a PWA model is very often a starting point for the controller synthesis of hybrid systems. In this paper we extend the clustering-based procedure for identification of a piece wise autoregressive exogenous (PWARX) model proposed in [Ferrari-Trecate et al., 2003]. By exploiting a priori process knowledge we choose an appropriate linear transformation of the regression vector for a better and more efficient identification of the process nonlinearities. We significantly reduce the computational complexity of the classification algorithm for finding the complete polyhedral partition of the model domain. This modified clustering-based procedure is used to identify a PWARX model of the electronic throttle-a highly nonlinear component that regulates air inflow to the engine of a car.

39    Y. Ohta, K. Mori, K. Yukimoto, R. Mishio, "On-line reference management for discrete-time servo systems under state and control constraints," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a method of discrete time servo systems design and on-line management of reference signals so as not to violate state and control constraints. The stabilizing and reference shaping controllers are designed off-line by solving LMI optimization problems that takes into account both LQR characterization and state and control constraints. Our managed reference is a piecewise constant signal which is determined online. The better performance of the proposed approach for cases that the initial state is disturbed is demonstrated through an example.

40    C.E. Lin, C.W. Hsu, Y.S. Li, "Enhancement of GPRS surveillance system into real time control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Mobile communication has presented its wide coverage, high reliability of data transmission with acceptable delays in surveillance applications. A CPU is designed to activate transmission control protocol (TCP) to connect into Internet through general packet radio service (GPRS). For real time control, this route can reversely be implemented to switch into user datagram protocol (UDP) to receive command and forward to actuators. A microprocessor control circuit is designed to enhance real time control function into one single embedded system architecture. The proposed system architecture is discussed with demonstration of a remote car control and airship control.

41    C.D. Onal, A. Sabanovic, "Bilateral control with a reflex mechanism on the slave side," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this work, we are presenting a sliding mode controller approach for bilateral control. The controller consists of sliding mode force and hybrid (force/position) controllers for master and slave sides, respectively. Main issues such as transparency and time delay have been addressed in the derivation and the implementation of the controller. The approach takes the overall system (unified master and slave sides) as one system and therefore uses the transparency aims of the other approaches as the means for the derivation of the controller. It also makes use of a "reflex mechanism" to protect the slave side and its environment in case of large time delays, which disables the operator to react in time. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is evaluated experimentally and a maximum position error of one step increment of the encoder and a maximum torque error of 3/spl times/10/sup -6/ Nm are achieved.

42    N. Nakazawa, K. Yamada, T. Matsui, I. Itoh, "Development of welfare support-equipment for personal computer operation with head tilting and breathing," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes support-equipment of operating a personal computer for users who have an obstacle on the regions of upper limb. The user wears a head set device with an angle sensor, and holds a plastic pipe connected to a pressure sensor in his or her mouth. Tilting his or her head and breathing are used for a mouse cursor operation and characters input. The voluntary tilt angle range and breath strength are memorized to the controller beforehand, so that operations can be performed without fatigue by considering user's body situations. In mouse operation, cursor can be moved according to the tilt angle, and click operations are executed by breathing in or out to the plastic pipe. In characters input, character board on which LEDs are distributed with a matrix form is prepared for indicating HIRAGANA characters in front of a CRT monitor. Tilting motions change the indicated character and breathing motions can input the selected character.

43    R. Cardoso, H.A. Grundling, "Reference generation for harmonics cancellation, displacement power factor correction and unbalance compensation under unknown fundamental frequency," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes schemes for current reference generation for shunt active filters under unknown fundamental frequency. The schemes are based on the linear Kalman filter and provides current reference to compensate harmonics, the displacement power factor related to the load and unbalance. Since the Kalman filter uses a mathematical model that includes the value of the fundamental grid frequency and, in some applications, this value can vary, it is necessary to update the filter model with the correct frequency value. Therefore, this paper also proposes the use of on-line identification of the fundamental frequency of the power system. The identified frequency is used to update the Kalman filter model.

44    G. Willmann, D.F. Coutinho, L.F.A. Pereira, "A robust discrete-time controller for DC-AC inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a robust control strategy for DC-AC power inverters based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI) framework. More precisely, a constant discrete-time state feedback controller is proposed taking into account the average model. The strategy assures the local stability of the closed-loop system for all admissible linear load variation while minimizing the effects of nonlinear loads. Practical results show the advantages of the approach over classical control design techniques.

45    W.M. Siti, A.A. Jimoh, D.V. Nicolae, "Strategy for power quality improvement and maximum demand smoothing," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a distributed strategy for improving the power quality and maximum demand smoothing is presented. Many authors have presented the power quality improvement as a centralized issue, which implies high power capability of compensators. Based on multi-functionality of specific switching-mode converters, a decentralised model is presented. A discussion of simultaneity of different functions is presented in details. The results of this paper are intended to be a guideline for application designers.

46    W. Hernandez, "Robust control of a buck-boost DC-DC switching regulator for the electronic systems of next-generation cars," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the buck-boost DC-DC switching regulator based on PWM techniques is used to supply a robust, stable negative voltage source to the electrical and electronic systems of next-generation cars, which will have to perform not only under 42 V technology, but also with many automotive electrical and electronic systems which have been designed to work under the soon-to-be obsolete 14 V technology. In this research H/spl infin/ integral control techniques are applied to the problem of designing a low-cost robust voltage regulator based on PWM techniques. Furthermore, QFD techniques are used as tools to better focus on the application of these voltage regulators to the automotive industry and the cost of their implementations. Moreover, the present robust control approach allows us to deal with uncertainties and modelling errors in the switching regulator due to nonlinearities and changes in the operating conditions, neglected dynamics, components' tolerances, external disturbances, and so on. The experimental results show the importance of using robust control techniques when designing power converters for the next-generation cars.

47    P. Liutanakul, S. Pierfederici, F. Meibody-Tabar, "Load power compensations for stabilized DC-link voltage of the cascade controlled rectifier/inverter-motor drive system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 8 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The necessity of the compactness of the converters in many applications imposes the reduction of the size of their different components when it is possible. In this paper, the cascade of a grid connected voltage controlled rectifier and an inverter supplying a motor is considered and the effect of diminution of DC-link capacitor (C/sub 0/ on Fig.1) on the stability of the DC-link voltage is investigated using small-signal linearization and impedance criterion. The output impedance of the controlled rectifier is studied in both cases of DC-link voltage control (DC-VC) and DC-link energy control (DC-EC). The input impedance of the inverter-motor stage, for which the control is based on the classical field orientation, is also explained. In ideal case, if the power delivered by the controlled rectifier can track the load power, the DC-link voltage remains almost constant even in transitory state. Under this condition a low value of C/sub 0/ could ensure the stability of the DC-link voltage. Then, three methods of power load compensation, i.e. a decoupling matrix, a nonlinear feedback compensation and the feedback linearization technique, are proposed and studied for stabilizing the DC-link voltage. The results are illustrated by means of digital computer simulations of complete induction motor and controlled rectifier models with full order linear closed loop flux observer.

48    B. Lu, X. Wu, A. Monti, "Implementation of a low-cost real-time virtue test bed for hardware-in-the-loop testing," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Over the years, many real-time systems have been proposed for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. However, these environments are single platform, single solver, and based on costly commercial products. The high cost of these systems often makes them infeasible in many applications. To provide an efficient solution for HIL testing, a very low-cost, multi-solver, hard real-time simulation environment, the real-time virtual test bed (VTB-RT), has been developed in the University of South Carolina, completely based on open-source software and off-the-shelf hardware. In previous publications, the VTB-RT has already been successfully applied in many fields, such as real-time simulations, power electronics controls, and digital controller designs. This paper presents a detailed but general implementation procedure of the VTB-RT from the software and hardware points of view. The readers could follow this procedure to build the VTB-RT or their own real-time systems. Besides, in this paper the application of the VTB-RT is extended to motor drive systems, which have even higher time critical requirements. For verification purposes, a well-known DC motor drive system is realized using the VTB-RT and the consistency of the experimental results with the theoretical results proves the reliability of the VTB-RT.

49    L. Charaabi, E. Monmasson, M.-A. Nassani, I. Slama-Belkhodja, "FPGA-based implementation of DTSFC and DTRFC algorithms," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, authors present a FPGA-based implementation of direct torque and stator flux control (DTSFC) and direct torque and rotor flux control (DTRFC) with and without use of space vector modulation (SVM) for induction motor drives. Indeed, due to their similar structures but also their differences, this set of algorithms is a good example to show the effectiveness of a FPGA-based modular approach to implement sensorless control induction motor drives. Therefore, the chosen solution is based on a custom hardware architecture designed by assembling a set of building blocks. These blocks are tested and organized in a library of intellectual property (IP) modules for easy re-use. Each block is geared toward specific algorithm function (flux estimator, hysteresis controller...). Besides, a special attention is given to the algorithm refinement which allows finding the optimum fixed-point data word length. Finally experimental results are shown which validate the proposed approach.

50    X. Wu, A. Monti, "Methods for partitioning the system and performance evaluation in power-hardware-in-the-loop simulations. Part I," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the interfacing schemes for power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) simulations are studied. In Part I, different simulation/hardware interfaces are introduced, and a novel interfacing scheme based on the time-variant first-order approximation of dynamics of the hardware under test (HUT) is proposed. The performances of different interfaces are compared through the decoupled simulation of first-order systems. More advanced performance evaluation methods are introduced in part II.

51    X. Wu, A. Monti, "Methods for partitioning the system and performance evaluation in power-hardware-in-the-loop simulations - Part II," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel method to determine the performance of the power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) experiments is introduced. This method is based on wavelet transforms, and hence gives detailed information about the PHIL simulation results in terms of time and frequency. This method is used to compare the performance of the decoupled systems with different simulation/hardware interfaces introduced in Part I. Frequency analysis is also adopted to determine the performance of the PHIL experiments.

52    W.M. Siti, A.A. Jimoh, D.V. Nicolae, "Load balancing in distribution feeder through reconfiguration," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The electrical distribution system is to ensure that an adequate supply is available to meet the estimated load of the consumers in both the near and more distant future. This must of course, be done for minimum possible cost consistent with satisfactory reliability and quality of the supply. In order to avoid excessive voltage drop and minimize technical loss, it may be economical to install apparatus to balance or partially balance the loads. It is believed that the technology to achieve an automatic load balancing lends itself readily for the implementation of different types of algorithms for automatically rearranging the connection of consumers on the low voltage and of a feeder for optimal performance.

53    Hye-Jin Lee, Won-Sang Ra, Tae-Sung Yoon, Jin-Bae Park, "Robust pinch estimation and detection algorithm for low-cost anti-pinch window control systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A practical pinch torque estimator based on the Kalman filter is proposed for low-cost anti-pinch window control systems. To obtain the accurate angular velocity from Hall-effect sensor measurements, the angular velocity calculation algorithm is proposed by including the measurement noise reduction logics. Apart from the previous works based on the angular velocity or torque estimates for detecting the pinched condition, the proposed pinch detection algorithm makes use of the torque rate information. To do this, the torque rate is augmented to the system model and the torque rate estimator is derived by applying the steady-state Kalman filter recursion to the model. The motivation of this approach comes from the idea that the torque rate is less sensitive to the motor parameter uncertainties. Hence, the proposed scheme minimizes the anti-pinch window control system's exposure to the false alarm. To detect the pinched condition, a systematic way to determine the threshold level of the torque rate estimates is also suggested via the deterministic estimation error analysis. Experimental results certify the pinch detection performance of the proposed algorithm and its robustness against the motor parameter uncertainties.

54    L.A. Pereira, D. da Silva Gazzana, L.F.A. Pereira, "Motor current signature analysis and fuzzy logic applied to the diagnosis of short-circuit faults in induction motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents the development and the practical implementation of a system for detection and diagnosis of interturn short-circuits in the stator windings of induction motors. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and fuzzy logic techniques are utilized in order to achieve that. After a brief description of the MCSA, the causes of short circuits are discussed and characterized with frequency relationships and frequency spectra. Subsequently, failure diagnosis techniques based on fuzzy logic are presented. Afterwards, the results of the practical implementation of fault detection and diagnosis system are shown and commented. MATLAB 6.0 and built-in toolboxes (DSP blockset, fuzzy logic and real-time workshop) are used as a development tool. The implemented and tested method showed efficiency as the practical results corresponded to the predicted with the developed system. The results obtained present a great degree of reliability, which enables them to be used as a monitoring tool for similar motors.

55    S. M-Mahmoud, L. Chrifi-Alaoui, V. Van Assche, D. Pinchon, J.-M. Castelain, P. Bussy, "Sliding mode control based on field orientation for an induction motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Sliding mode control is popular method for achieving robust tracking of nonlinear systems. The state is forced onto a manifold in state space by discontinuous control. This manifold is so that staying on it implies convergence to the state space origin. In this paper, the nonlinear sliding mode speed and flux control (SMC) based on field orientation for an induction motor drive is proposed, based on the transformed state coordinate representing the speed and flux magnitude dynamic. With the proposed control of speed and flux amplitude, the controlled induction motor drive possesses the advantages of robustness to parametric uncertainties and disturbances. Finally, some simulation results are given to validate the proposed controllers.

56    A. Dusa, G. Deconinck, R. Belmans, "Dependable communication middleware for residential electrical installations," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The domestic consumer has to take advantage of the opportunities from the liberalized energy markets and this calls for technological support, without which the changes threaten to remain rather theoretical. In the following we describe a proposed ICT solution for the communication in the new intelligent electrical residential installations.

57    M.A. Shamsi-Nejad, S. Pierfederici, J.P. Martin, F. Meibody-Tabar, "Study of AC modulated hysteresis current controller for a single phase voltage source inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performances of AC current supplies depend on the characteristics of its current controller. In this paper, we study a large bandwidth AC-current controller combining the robustness properties of a hysteresis controller with constant switching frequency of PWM technique. A high frequency average model is proposed for this modulated hysteresis regulator to study its dynamic properties. A second approach of modeling, based on the construction of a three-dimensional bifurcation diagram allows studying the nature of the cycle described by the state trajectory and to prove that the system operates with a fixed switching frequency. Design rules of control parameters of this controller are explained and its robustness properties are tested by numerical simulation.

58    Yaping Du, Ning Wang, "Neuron model-free control with fuzzy tuning parameters for hydraulic turbine generators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Under the operating conditions of various guide vane opening, the characteristics of a hydraulic turbine generator unit show much difference in parameters. In order to control hydraulic turbine generators efficiently, the neuron model-free control method with fuzzy tuning parameters is proposed in this paper. In this control system, the neuron is designed to produce the control signal in model-free way, and the neuron controller parameters are tuned by using the fuzzy algorithm. With an example, the experiments are made. The simulation results show that the proposed neuron model-free controller has good performance, fast transient response and strong robustness.

59    P. Dang, F.L. Lewis, "Controller for swing-up and balance of single inverted pendulum using SDRE-based solution," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a design of nonlinear controller for the underactuated systems by taking inverted pendulum as an example. The design of the controller is based on one of the recently proposed methods by Cloutier et al. for designing nonlinear controller, state dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) method. The effectiveness of this controller is verified by conducting a real time experiment for the swing-up and balance of single inverted pendulum on a linear track. One of the important aspects of using SDRE controller is that only one controller is required for both swing-up and balance as compared to other strategies where switching between controllers is performed. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SDRE control over the LQR control for the same control parameters in the linear range. The procedure for solving Riccati equation in real time is also highlighted.

60    Huang Jiao, Ou Jieyun, Wang Yi, "Embedded temperature Web controller based on IPv4 and IPv6," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper firstly analyses the disadvantages of traditional instrument and the advantages of embedded Web technique applied to temperature controller. Then a new concept of utilizing MCU as servers is put forward, rising a feasible solution to seamless connection between field control devices and Internet and completely realizing remote monitor and control. According to this new concept, the design scheme of an embedded temperature Web (ETWC) controller with 8-bit microprocessor as its core on the base of IPV4 and IPv6 protocol is presented. In order to make the ETWC work availably during the interim between IPv4 and IPv6, dual-stack technology, as one of the characters of the ETWC, is applied. For the communication protocol is important to the ETWC, the implementation of the embedded TCP/IP protocol is one key point of it. Not as the standard protocols used in PC, the protocol stack is modularized which can be properly adjusted according to application requirements of the system. So the reduced and design methods of the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols and the implementation of the HTTP finite state machine are presented in detail. Moreover, a testing network of IPv6 and its results are presented. Finally the paper points out the future trend of the embedded Web technique.

61    F.C. Teng, F. Jiang, B.T. Tan, "Retrofitted test bench for testing analog controllers implemented by field programmable analog device," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A real-time control bench is retrofitted to provide the facilities for the testing and designing of analog controllers implemented by integrated circuit (IC) chips. The IC chip works on the principle of field programmable analog device (FPAD) whereby adjustment of controller parameter can be executed within several microseconds in real-time. Design of the test bench is based on the concept of hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) which allows physical plants to be replaced by the simulated target processes. The usage of the retrofitted test bench is demonstrated by a system comprising of a linear plant model, which is built using MATLAB Simulink library blocks plus a linear controller implemented by a FPAD based chip. Some practical data generated by the test bench are included.

62    C. Guibert, E. Foulon, N. Ait-Ahmed, L. Loron, "Thrust control of electric marine thrusters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of the control of thrust generated by conventional bladed propeller of marine thrusters and moved by an electric motor. This paper described a control law based on the estimation of the thrust using two features: an extended Kalman filter to observe the torque and an reversed hydrodynamic model of the propeller to control the thrust by a proportional-integral controller. The performances and robustness of this control law is compared to a PI controller without estimator and to the model-based-velocity control.

63    B. Lu, H. Choi, G.D. Buckner, "LPV control design and experimental implementation for a magnetic bearing system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a linear parameter-varying (LPV) control design method is evaluated experimentally on an active magnetic bearing (AMB) system. LMI synthesis conditions for control design of affine parameter-dependent systems using parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions are proposed. A speed-dependent LPV model of the AMB system is derived. Speed-dependent model uncertainties are identified using artificial neural networks (ANNs), and a parameter-dependent uncertainty weighting function is approximated for LPV control synthesis. Experiments are conducted to verify the robustness of LPV controllers for a wide range of rotor speeds. This LPV control approach eliminates the need for gain-scheduling, and provides better performance and less conservativeness over a wide range of rotational speeds than controllers designed with constant uncertainty weighting functions.

64    Yong Chen, Xianzhong Dai, Zhengda Meng, "A practical strategy to layout adjustment of mobile robot based reconfigurable material handling system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The reconfiguration process, i.e. the layout adjustment, of a reconfigurable material handling system (RMHS) plays an important role in the planning of a reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS). This paper gives a new definition of RMHS, and presents a novel method based on graph theory and logic calculus for configuration modelling of a robot-based RMHS. The method is developed with full consideration of the reconfigurablility of robot and the system respectively at machine-level and system-level. To tackle the reconfiguration problem of a RMHS, an indirect method including two stages is developed. Firstly according to the material handling task, the optional configurations can be deducted by adopting first-order logic calculus. Secondly the discrete dynamic programming with a novel stage partition strategy is investigated to select appropriate configurations for the completion of the reconfiguration process of the RMHS. Numerical study demonstrates that the robot-based RMHS of practical sizes can be effectively and rapidly reconfigured to accommodate transportation changes.

65    N. Gulec, M. Unel, "Coordinated motion of autonomous mobile robots using nonholonomic reference trajectories," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Modeling coordinated motion of a group of autonomous mobile robots has received significant research interest in the last decade. Previous studies have revealed that avoiding collisions with obstacles and other robots is one of the main problems in the area. Considerable amount of research effort has been concentrated on the definition of virtual forces for the generation of reference trajectories for a group of autonomous mobile robots engaged in coordinated behavior. If the mobile robots are nonholonomic, this approach fails to guarantee regulation of the tracking errors since the reference trajectories might not satisfy the nonholonomic constraint. In this work, we introduce a novel coordinated motion model inclusive of a new online collision avoidance algorithm. The proposed model enables online generation of reference trajectories for coordination among a group of autonomous nonholonomic mobile robots in terms of their linear and angular velocities; hence the reference trajectory automatically satisfies the nonholonomic constraint. Several coordinated task examples have been presented and the proposed model is verified through simulations.

66    S. Sakamoto, F. Hara, H. Hosokai, H. Kinoshita, Y. Abe, "Parallel-link robot for pipe inspection," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In air conditioning equipment, it is very important to diagnose in-pipe corrosion for preventing various troubles such as water leakage, deterioration of performance and so on. We have been developing a pipe diagnostic system for decreasing the time and workload of the inspection and improving the accuracy of the diagnosis, especially a pipe thickness measuring robot with ultrasonic probe which can conduct inspections from outside of the pipe. Existing inspection robots using ultrasonic probes are not suitable for measuring the entire surface of pipes because they use rails fixed to the pipe for scanning, or even if they have unfixed rails and can move along the pipe, they cannot measure joints such as elbow. Therefore, we propose a new pipe inspection robot with parallel-link mechanism, which has a circular rail for scanning the ultrasonic probe, a manipulator for setting the rail and a mobile robot for moving along the pipes. The manipulator and the mobile robot are constructed with the parallel-link mechanism. The feature of this robot is that it can pass elbows and so can measure every section of them. In this paper, we describe the robot mechanism and control method, and the results of experiments with the robot.

67    Y. Nagaonkar, B. Call, S. Cluff, J. Archibald, D.J. Lee, "Autonomous mobile robotic system with onboard vision using configurable logic," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Robotic systems with real-time onboard vision processing capabilities are normally bulky or expensive. To process vision locally in real-time requires hardware resources capable of fast and efficient vision processing. Vision processing utilizes a lot of computational power. So onboard vision processing can present a challenge to a designer of robotic systems. In this paper we describe our design using a configurable computing environment for high-speed onboard vision processing to create a truly autonomous small scale robotics system. Using only onboard processing, the robotic system is able to navigate in an enclosed environment with vision cues. The target application in this case was robot soccer, but the concept of using configurable logic in vision systems can be extended to other applications. The functioning of the system was verified in a robot soccer competition which was held in the department. In the competition the robots successfully scored multiple goals using the vision system described in the paper. Video of the competition will be available for the conference presentation.

68    J. Anderson, D.J. Lee, J. Archibald, "Hardware implementation of feature density distribution algorithm for autonomous robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the hardware implementation of a feature density and distribution algorithm used for autonomous robot navigation. This algorithm is implemented on a Memec Virtex-II board, taking advantage of the parallelism to decrease the processing time and complexity of the algorithm. By comparing consecutive frames against each other and calculating the expansion rate of the features found in the images, we are able to determine how far away we are from the objects we are viewing. This rate of expansion is found by performing a linear search between the two images, using a scalar and a shift to find the best match of the feature between the two images. Once this match is found, a time to impact in terms of frames is calculated and with such information, the robot is able to discover the distance to the object and make plans accordingly.

69    Qijun Chen, Huali Xie, P. Woo, "Vision-based fast objects recognition and distances calculation of robots," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To meet the necessity of fast vision process in four-legged league of RoboCup, this paper presents a vision-based fast method of objects recognition and distances calculation. The image is segmented online according to the threshold obtained offline by applying OPENCV offered by Intel Corporation. By the use of a tree-based union find with path compression, a merging method is implemented to find the regions and to find the objects. According to the camera model, the distances between objects and robots are calculated by the inverse transformation from two dimensions to three dimensions. The experimental result shows the validity.

70    Wenming Yang, Jilin Liu, Huahua Chen, "Automatic extraction of moving objects in video sequences based on spatio-temporal information," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The emerging video coding standard MPEG-4 describes video sequences as video objects before coding, which enables various context-based functionalities for multimedia applications and improves the coding efficiency as well. Extraction of moving objects in video sequences is a significant technology for implementing the emerging object-based video coding standard MPEG-4. Automatic extraction method has been main development trend in comparison with semi-automatic method in that it needs no manual intervention and can reach the real-time requirement. However, to extract moving objects in video sequences automatically and exactly is not an easy business. In this paper, an algorithm for automatically extracting video moving objects based on spatio-temporal information is proposed. At first, initial binary moving mask representing moving regions is obtained by high-order statistics model based on temporal motion information. Then, Markov random field (MRF) classification model is established based on image primitives to attain the more complete and credible binary moving mask. Afterwards, an improved watershed algorithm based on non-linear transform is developed to segment moving regions processed by morphological opening and closing. Finally, moving objects are extracted by employment of ratio method on spatial and temporal results. Satisfying experimental results are achieved, which illustrates the efficiency of proposed algorithm.

71    D.L. Cardon, W.S. Fife, J.K. Archibald, D.J. Lee, "Fast 3D reconstruction for small autonomous robots," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The reconstruction of the 3D structure of a static environment is a powerful capability applicable to robot navigation. We present a novel approach to determine the 3D positions of a sparse set of points tracked by a small autonomous robot in a static environment. Using noisy feature tracking and a rough estimate of the essential matrix, our method has a relatively low computational cost and runs at frame rate (15 fps) on a small FPGA-based robot platform. The working implementation demonstrates the power of FPGA hardware/software co-design in small robotics applications. In addition, we describe our implementation of a real-time image derivative computation system for use by our vision algorithm. We present results of using our method to navigate a test environment.

72    Huahua Chen, Zezhong Xu, "Local 3D map building and error analysis based on stereo vision," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present a local 3D map building method based on stereo vision for autonomous land vehicle (ALV). We achieve the 3D coordinates under the camera coordinate system (C-CS) from the disparity map firstly. Then we develop the conversion between the C-CS and the ALV coordinate system (ALV-CS) to acquire the local 3D map which reflects the actual scene basically. And the method is highly real-time and meets the need of ALV navigation. Furthermore, combined with the binocular stereo vision system, the error of the method is analysed based on the 2D prediction error from camera calibration and the disparity error from stereo matching, and the error item that describes the depth error between the built data of the scene point and the actual one is computed. The experiment to compensate the built 3D map is done and the result shows that the item can improve the precision of 3D map effectively.

73    E.M. Suwal, B.K. Johnson, H.L. Hess, J.C. Fisher, "Real-time playback hardware-in-the-loop simulation of traffic systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the development of a software-controlled embedded system to evaluate the effect of communication latencies in hardware-in-the-loop simulation of traffic systems. The tool uses the controller interface device (CID) hardware developed for hardware-in-the-loop simulation with modifications made to the firmware to support real-time playback (RTPB). RTPB simulators have been used in power systems as a cheap alternative to real-time simulators. In some cases RTPB is the only possible simulation method. This paper presents the application of RTPB to traffic simulations using actual traffic controller hardware.

74    J.R.B. Sousa, A.M.N. Lima, A. Perkusich, "Modeling and analyzing power consumption in sensor networks nodes based on differential hybrid Petri nets," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents a formalism based on Petri nets to model, to simulate and to analyze hybrid systems. This formalism is named differential hybrid Petri nets (DHPNs). The formalism proposed incorporates the main elements of the semantics of the hybrid automaton and the expressiveness of the Petri nets. This formalism is applied to model the energy consumption of a sensor node for a wireless sensor network. The proposed modeling approach is quite general and can be applied to other classes of hybrid systems.

75    M. Kishi, Y. Funatsu, T. Azuma, K. Uchida, "Gain-scheduling controller design for TCP/AQM considering router queue length and time-delay," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we design active queue management scheme for dynamical models of computer network based on control theory. TCP/AQM (transmission control protocol/active queue management) network models are nonlinear and including time-delay. Taking these characteristics into account explicitly, we propose a new design method of AQM controller. Especially, paying attention that time-delay is depend on queue length clearly, we suggest an appropriate gain-scheduling controller based on new type of linear parameter varying (LPV) systems with parameter-dependent time-delay. Effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by using matlab and ns-2 (network simulator ver. 2).

76    L. Horvath, I.J. Rudas, "Virtual intelligent space for engineers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Computer descriptions of engineering objects such as elements and structures of products, results of tests and analyses, and engineering processes for design, analysis, and manufacturing of products have been integrated. The resulted complex product models support lifecycle management of product data. Engineering utilizes advanced characteristics of modeling software such as analysis of behaviors, adaptive actions for controlled modifications of engineering objects, selection of optimal sets of parameters, etc. The next step of integration is hoped to establish virtual intelligent space where all outside and inside effects are reacted by high level model to simulate a physical intelligent space. The authors conceptualized a virtual intelligent space as a well-organized structure of descriptions and behavior definitions for engineering objects that identified in a physical space. Sensor signals in physical intelligent space are replaced by received change information, processing of change information is done by behavior analysis, and actuators are replaced by adaptive action generators. In this paper, a new virtual intelligent space idea is introduced for virtual engineering systems. Following this, methods for including intelligence into these systems are explained and detailed. Finally, characteristics of virtual intelligent space for engineering are briefed.

77    M. Niitsuma, H. Hashimoto, "An evaluation of spatial memory based on human performance," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes the spatial memory which aids human activity in a working environment. The spatial memory regards three-dimensional space as mass storage of computers, i.e. three-dimensional point is treated as an address of stored knowledge such as various documents, images and commands for machines. Consequently, we can access a stored knowledge by indicating the point using our own arms, which we named "human indicator". In this paper, we implement a prototype of the spatial memory system which is supposed to be utilized for a desk work. The implemented system is evaluated from the viewpoint of human performances.

78    Chen Meicheng, Fang Yanjun, Xu Jun, "Implementation of fully integrated automation with Profibus," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an integrated approach for implementing fully automation with Profibus technology. We studied the frame of Profibus protocol and the communication model for Profinet components. A scheme for developing Profibus slave was proposed. Aiming at the interoperation between Profibus devices and other fieldbus devices, a scheme for designing fieldbus protocol conversion gateway was also presented. Other kinds of fieldbus devices can connect with Profibus network via the gateway. Profibus devices can be directly encapsulated in Profinet components, and through a gateway, other kinds of fieldbus devices can also be encapsulated with Profinet.

79    Zaiping Chen, Xiaowei Yao, Xunlei Yin, "Research of schemes on integration of fieldbus system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There are many sorts of fieldbus coexisting in the industry but they cannot communicate with each other because of different protocols used in these fieldbuses. In a factory normally there are different kinds of fieldbuses utilised in systems, in which information communication each other is often needed. Therefore, scheme of different kind of fieldbus system integration that can realize data communication between different protocol fieldbus should be investigated. In this paper, integration techniques involving equipment level and system level are introduced respectively, in which the integration of FCS based on gateway, FCS based on NetDDE, FCS based on OPC and FCS based on industrial Ethernet proxy, four approaches to fieldbus system integration are proposed, and the advantages and disadvantages of these schemes are discussed and analysed respectively.

80    J.A. Carvalho, A.S. Carvalho, P.J. Portugal, "Experimental analysis of outage times for PROFIBUS network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Distributed control systems operation strongly depends on the communication system performance. Therefore, their analysis becomes an important aspect to be considered, particularly in situations where communications have real-time constrains and the network operates on faulty environments. In this paper the behavior of PROFIBUS network in the presence of faults is analyzed. This analysis is performed in an experimental base supported by a real network. The network operation is disturbed through a set of fault injection experiments from which performance metrics related with PROFIBUS outage times are evaluated.

81    R.W. Wall, A. Huska, "Design platform for plug-and-play IEEE 1451 traffic signal," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach for integrating traffic controllers with signals and sensors is being investigated that involves the plug and play distributed sensor technologies that conform to the IEEE 1451 standard. The components and basic architecture of the IEEE 1451 standard are described in this paper. Preliminary work has resulted in an inexpensive hardware and software development platform. Using this platform will facilitate determining operating performance and identifying development challenges involved with implementing a distributed sensor network for traffic control. Proof of concept calculations suggest that the IEEE 1451 network approach has sufficient bandwidth to manage the information requirements. A map for future development work is suggested.

82    C.J. Menon, "A single network solution for safety-related applications using CANopen," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Every now and then a simple idea can be elected as the best idea. Many times we look to make things more complex instead of looking at existing solutions to see if they can be modified to work. Historically, safety-related systems used only mechanical backups which were specialized. In only a few application fields or pilot projects the mechanical systems are replaced by electronic solutions. But having separate network solutions does not really simplify the solution. In its current usage, CAN, does not have all the requirements necessary for use in safety-related applications. Even after adding CANopen as the higher-layer protocol specific needs were not met. After exploration of these deficiencies, the CANopen framework for safety-related applications was created. This framework allows the use of safety-related and non-relevant communication on the same network. The basic idea is to transmit each safety-related message twice using different message identifier. The data is bit-wise inverted as well with a time-out attributes assigned. CANopen can now be used for safety-related applications. If CANopen is the solution, then a one microprocessor can be the single solution for the application within a device.

83    J.J. Garcia, C. Losada, F. Espinosa, J. Urena, A. Hernandez, M. Mazo, C. de Marziani, A. Jimenez, E. Bueno, F. Alvarez, "Dedicated smart IR barrier for obstacle detection in railways," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents an intelligent system, which allows to detect obstacles in railways, based on optical emitters. The sensorial system is based on a barrier of emitters and another of receivers, placed each one of them at one side of the railway. Apart from the disposition of the sensorial system, a codification method of the emission is also presented in order to detect the reception or the non-reception of transmissions between an emitter and a receiver. Obstacle detection is carried out by the lack of the reception in the detectors. A solution is proposed to reduce the number of false alarms related to these systems, by taking advantage of the high redundancy in the measurements. A high reliability under adverse conditions is achieved with the developed system, being possible to detect the presence of obstacles, and to inform about their position.

84    R. Joost, R. Salomon, "Advantages of FPGA-based multiprocessor systems in industrial applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Today, industrial production machines must be highly flexible in order to competitively account for dynamic and unforeseen changes in the product demands. This paper shows that field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are especially suited to fulfil these requirements; FPGAs are very powerful, relatively inexpensive, and adaptable, since their configuration is specified in an abstract hardware description language. In addition to the benefits resulting from using an FPGA, the case study presented here shows how FPGAs can be used for implementing a sophisticated multiprocessor architecture. In the course of presentation, this paper furthermore argues that due to the excellent tool support and the availability of reusable functional modules (also known as intellectual properties) this approach can be adopted by almost any industrial hardware designer.

85    H. Seki, T. Sugimoto, S. Tadakuma, "Straight and circular road driving control of power assisted wheelchair based on balanced assisted torque," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a straight and circular road driving control scheme for power assisted wheelchair. Power assisted wheelchair which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the performance of the straight and circular road driving must be further improved because the two wheels are driven independently. This paper proposes a straight and circular road driving control scheme based on the balanced assisted torque between the two wheels. The balanced assisted torque is determined from the proportion of the human input torque to the right and left wheels. Some experiments and subjective evaluation show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

86    H. Seki, S. Tadakuma, "Velocity pattern generation for power assisted wheelchair based on jerk and acceleration limitation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a novel velocity pattern generation scheme for power assisted wheelchair based on jerk and acceleration limitation. Power assisted wheelchair which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people. As one of the high performance control systems for the power assisted wheelchair, this paper proposes a real-time velocity pattern generation scheme to improve the ride quality and safety. The proposed system generates various velocity patterns with the limited jerk and acceleration and human's intent can be well reflected in the velocity patterns such as the driving distance. Some experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

87    J. Doval-Gandoy, R. Pasandin, B. Fernandez, "Sharpened of saw blades by electrical discharge machining," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electrical discharge machines have undergone rapid improvements in capability, economical operation, speed and flexibility. In fact, electrical discharge machining (EDM) is now the fourth most popular machining process, selling more than all other processes except milling, turning and grinding. Ninety percent of EDM applications in the world are used to produce molds, stamping dies, extrusion dies, forging dies, tool fixtures and gauges. Other applications include aircraft part production and medical parts. This paper presents the complete design of an electrical discharge machine. The design includes the computer numeric control (CNC) system, and the power supply. In order to optimise the process an adaptive control algorithm has been implemented. The main application of this machine is for sharpening diamond disks, although it can be used for machining materials as: carbon steel, stainless steel, iron, copper, etc.

88    H. Zhou, Y. Liu, "Incremental point-based integration of registered multiple range images," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Integration and reconstruction of object surface model from range images captured from different viewpoints is a primitive problem for the application of laser scanning systems in reverse engineering and industrial inspection. Normally all these range images have to be first transformed into a global coordinate system, space divided algorithm is then employed to integrate and reconstruct the object surface model. But the final output cannot in general guarantee to be a single, smooth and water-tight surface due to large registration errors, noisy points and limited resolution of point sampling. In this paper, we propose a practical system for integrating registered range images from different views. The new method not only combines advantages of points based and mesh based integration such as flexibility and incremental property, but also fixes their shortcomings such as shape distortion, thick surface or difficult determination of grid size. It can also process both unstructured and structured points. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and accurate for the integration of registered range images from multi-views with relatively large registration errors and heavy scanning noise.

89    Hao Zeng, Beng Siong Lim, Geok Hong Phua, Zhongqiang Ding, Leck Leng Aw, Toh Khoong Tan, Xiang Li, Kiah Mok Goh, Pin Tat Hee, Yan Chuan Goh, Kok Kee Yuen, "Electrode verification and management system for automation of EDM process in mould industry," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to remain highly competitive, mould makers are compelled to shorten lead-time to produce mistake free complex mould for high value quick-turnaround products. One of the critical processes in mould making is the electro-discharge machining (EDM) process, which uses a large variety of precisely machined electrodes for making thin walls and sharp pockets. Potential sources of errors, particularly from manual processes such as setup and presetting of electrodes, programme preparation, electrode sequence validation and management of a large amount of electrodes with relevant offset data, make it extremely difficult to meet the delivery lead-time. This paper describes an innovative low cost, easily adaptable shop-floor solution to eliminate manual intervention and potential errors. It can be easily integrated with existing brands and models of EDM machines and tool pre-setters. It eliminates all manual entry of critical data, provides a method to combine programme and to merge offset values for the available electrodes, and validates both the electrode sequence and the precedence relationships between the finishing and roughing tools. The system architecture, criteria for sensor selection, placement and data synchronization, together with sequence verification are also described. With the help of such a system, it is possible for operators to manage several EDM machines concurrently together with an avalanche of orders, electrodes and offset values without any stress.

90    R.C. Luo, Cheng Lung Chang, Yen Lin Pan, Jyh Hwa Tzou, "Rapid tooling using laser powered direct metallic manufacturing process," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Rapid tooling (RT) has recently become more important due to the requirement of rapid manufacturing in industrial automation field. RT can be used to produce temporary mold even permanent mold in mass production and to speed up compressed time into market. It makes more benefit from design stage to mass production. This study aims to develop the rapid tooling using laser powered direct metallic manufacturing process and identify process parameters of laser cladding. A metallic powder feeder system, a three-axis motion control system, a Nd:YAG laser system, a shielding gas supply system, and dual powder nozzle are integrated into the hardware architecture of laser powered direct metallic rapid tooling system. We attempt to find out the better process parameters of laser cladding by the Taguchi's method. This system has been successfully demonstrated and some metallic RT molds and plastic injection molded part are fabricated through this proposed method.

91    A. Lahrech, C. Boucher, J.-C. Noyer, "Accurate vehicle positioning in urban areas," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present in this paper a method for land-vehicle navigation systems which fuses GPS and dead reckoning data especially in urban areas where GPS outages can happen. The DR sensor here computes the differential odometry of the vehicle. In order to improve the positioning accuracy, our algorithm also fuses the road map database of a GIS. The digital road map here is modeled as a measure described by a set of node locations and road bearings. This measurement equation allows a direct modeling of the map errors and uncertainties that can be embedded in the filter, and it is initialized by a matching procedure that uses the Mahalanobis metric as a statistical distance criterion. Based on a centralized fusion scheme, the filter sequentially processes the available measurements. We present experimental results from an urban transport network scenario in presence of GPS outages, which shows the benefits of the proposed method for the vehicle positioning.

92    M. Bierhoff, F.W. Fuchs, "DC link harmonics of three phase voltage source converters influenced by the pulse width modulation strategy-an analysis," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: DC link current harmonics are the predominant factor to be considered for dimensioning DC capacitors in three phase PWM voltage source converters. In this article an analysis of the DC link current harmonics applying double Fourier series is derived. The analytical results for the DC link current spectra of continuous and discontinuous PWM are presented and compared with measurement results taken from a converter test setup. A good match between theoretically expected and actually obtained experimental results can be stated. Moreover significant differences between the investigated modulation strategies regarding their DC link current spectra can be found.

93    P. Rodriguez, J. Pou, A. Luna, D. Ghizoni, J. Guo, G. Francis, R. Burgos, D. Boroyevich, "Three-dimensional SVM for modular power electronics systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Space vector modulation (SVM)-based on the explicit control of converter switching states-is not the most suitable approach for the modulation of modular power electronics systems due to its apparent lack of modeling flexibility. This paper addresses this issue by presenting a new analytical standpoint for the analysis of SVM in modular power conversion systems, namely power electronics building blocks (PEBB)-based systems. Specifically, the paper presents a mathematically and physically sound modulation technique for PEBB-based converters developed by means of a three-dimensional (3D) space-vector representation. As a result, a processing efficient three-dimensional space-vector modulation algorithm is proposed (3D-SVM). The algorithm itself rests on the well-known carrier-based pulse width modulation technique, therefore it does not require any trigonometric calculations, definitions of optimal sequences, and direct control over the switching states of the three-phase converter. The proposed 3D-SVM technique is verified by simulation and experimental results obtained with a three-phase power converter using 33 kW IGBT-based PEBB modules.

94    J. Rey, J. Doval-Gandoy, C.M. Penalver, O. Lopez, A. Nogueiras, A. Lago, "Evaluation system for current source converter modulation techniques," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Modulation techniques have been the subject of intensive research during last decades. They are used for generating switching patterns for several converter topologies. Nowadays, there are many proposals of modulation strategies applied to current source converters (CSC) and to voltage source converters (VSC). This paper presents an evaluation system for analyzing the characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of several modulation techniques used in CSC. This tool includes the study of carrier-based techniques and space-vector techniques. Implementation in rapid prototyping system Simulink/spl reg/-dSPACE/spl reg/ is described, simulation and experimental results obtained in 4 kVA current source converter are given. This evaluation system shows the operation, characteristics and properties of each modulation.

95    Yongdong Li, Yue Gao, Xuan Hou, "A general SVM algorithm for multilevel converters considering zero-sequence component control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Space vector modulation (SVM) scheme plays a significant role in high-voltage high-power applications of multilevel converters for its good performance. This paper presents a novel general SVM algorithm for multilevel converters. It includes two parts: one is control of fundamental component of three-phase outputs corresponding to reference vector; the other one is control of zero-sequence component of converter for additional goals. The algorithm in which a special coordinate transformation is introduced can easily identify the three vertices of small triangle that reference vector falls into, as well as corresponding duration time. And different objectives of multilevel converters can be accomplished with appropriate selection of zero-sequence components in each sampling period. This algorithm can be easily implemented without calculation of trigonometric function, and is applicable to different topologies with any number of levels. Simulation and experimental results are given to verify advantages of the algorithm.

96    V.C. Valchev, D.M. Kovachev, A.P. Van den Bossche, "A practical approach to randomised pulse-width modulation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: When a switched-mode power device has to use a random pulse-width modulation (RPWM) but no digital signal processing is necessary it is possible to control the pulse turn-on position by instantly generated (pseudo) random sequence. With the help of simulation the impact of such sequences on the spectrum harmonics has been investigated and conclusions have been made. A program for automated hardware realization of such sequences has been suggested and used for the purpose of simulation. Generated descriptions are in electronic device interchange format (EDIF) and can be converted in circuits for use in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).

97    L.C. Gomes de Freitas, E.A.A. Coelho, E.F. Parreira, M.A.G. Oliveira, L.C. de Freitas, "Multipulse power rectifier without using multiphase transformers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper it is proposed a novel hybrid three-phase rectifier capable to achieve high input power factor (PF), and low total harmonic distortion in the input currents (THD/sub 1/). The proposed hybrid high power rectifier is composed by a standard three-phase 6-pulse diode rectifier (Graetz bridge) with a parallel connection of single-phase boost rectifiers in each three-phase rectifier leg. Such topology results in a structure capable of programming the input current waveform and providing conditions for obtaining high input power factor and low harmonic current distortion. In order to validate the proposed hybrid rectifier, this paper describes its principles of operation, with detailed experimental results and discussions on power rating of the required boost converters as related to the desired total harmonic current distortion. It is demonstrated that only a fraction of the output power is processed through the boost converters, making the proposed solution economically viable for very high power installations, with fast pay back of the investment. Moreover, retrofitting to existing installations is also feasible since the parallel path can be easily controlled by integration with the existing DC-link. A prototype rated at 6 kW has been implemented in laboratory and fully demonstrated its operation, performance and feasibility to high power applications.

98    Z. Cheng, B. Wu, "Dual 18-pulse rectifier for high-power multilevel inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new rectifier topology that uses 18-pulse transformers to achieve 36-pulse harmonic cancellation. The proposed rectifier can be used to reduce the input current harmonics for several multilevel inverters, such as 3-level neutral point clamped (NPC), 5-level cascaded H-bridge (CHB) and 5-level NPC/H-bridge inverters. It can also be used to neutralize harmonics between two 18-pulse drives. Compared to conventional multi-pulse topologies, it uses less secondary windings and simpler transformers to achieve better current THD. Fourier analysis shows that the topology is able to achieve 36-pulse harmonic cancellation. It also provides additional harmonic cancellation for the 5/sup th/ and 7/sup th/ harmonics for non-ideal transformers or between two drives. The simulated current waveforms, current spectra and DC bus voltages are given to confirm the theoretical analysis. Experiments are performed to verify the performance.

99    Uan-Zo-li, R.P. Burgos, H. Zhu, A. Roshan, F. Lacaux, F. Wang, D. Boroyevich, "Analysis of new 18-pulse direct symmetric autotransformer rectifiers with dual AC-voltage feeding capability," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Ever increasing power quality requirements have impelled the development and usage of new front end AC-to-DC converters. Multi-pulse direct symmetric autotransformer rectifiers (DSAR) have arisen as a most advantageous passive solution, featuring high reliability and simplicity of operation, minimum kVA ratings, solid multi-pulse operation insensitive to impedance path mismatch or voltage distortion, reduced common-mode voltage, and reduced size and weight-hence the interest for transport applications. This paper proposes three new DSAR topologies with the capability to operate from 0.5 pu and 1 pu voltage sources while generating 1 pu output DC voltage, thus significantly enhancing their operational flexibility. The paper presents a complete evaluation using simulated (Synopsys Saber) and experimental results in order to fully assess the thermo-electromagnetic capabilities of these new topologies, focusing on losses and efficiency, size and weight, and the overall power quality of these converters. Specifically, it analyzes efficiency, input current distortion, common-mode voltage and DC voltage ripple, all of this while operating from ideal and low power quality AC voltage networks rated at 0.5 pu and 1 pu. From these results specific design guidelines and criteria for selection are derived and presented.

100    Min Chen, Zhaoming Qian, Xiaoming Yuan, "Frequency-domain analyses of controlled rectifiers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper develops a systematic analytical method to calculate the harmonic component of controlled single and three phase rectifiers. These analyses are based on the frequency domain linearity, and are greatly simplified through superposition method. The commutation effect considering the AC source impedance of continuous three phase rectifiers can also be analyzed separately. Based on these analyses, simple expressions of the switching angle of discontinuous rectifier and the overlap period of continuous three-phase rectifiers are obtained. All the calculations are purely algebraic, with high accuracy. The simulation results validated the proposed method.

101    N. Keskar, G.A. Rincon-Mora, "A high bandwidth, bypass, transient-mode sigma-delta DC-DC switching boost regulator with wide LC compliance," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: DC-DC switching regulators are critical building blocks in electronic systems and integrating them on chip affords numerous savings in system size, cost, and design complexity. A key portion of these regulators is the frequency compensation circuit and, because of its dependence to the passive LC filter parameters in the power stage, it resists integration. This hindrance to system-on-chip (SoC) integration can be overcome by adopting a sliding-mode control scheme, which, in implementing a variation of a sigma-delta (/spl Sigma//spl Delta/) converter, gives stable operation for a wide range of LC filter values, without the need for a frequency compensation circuit. However, sliding-mode boost DC-DC converters designed to tolerate wide LC variations exhibit a slow transient response because the bandwidth of the feedback circuit is necessarily low, significantly lower than the main power path's bandwidth, which is a requirement for stability. This paper proposes a switching boost converter with a high bandwidth, bypass, /spl Sigma//spl Delta/ path that yields fast transient response (up to 50 % /spl Delta//spl Sigma/ reduction)-limited only by slew-rate conditions. The proposed converter achieves this fast response without a degradation in LC filter compliance, steady-state voltage ripple (/spl plusmn/ 0.2 %), or efficiency. In effect, the presented strategy decouples the conflicting design requirements of high relative stability and fast transient response without requiring compensation circuits and therefore offering integrated, user-friendly solutions.

102    H.P. Forghani-zadeh, G.A. Rincon-Mora, "A lossless, accurate, self-calibrating current-sensing technique for DC-DC converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High-performance, state-of-the-art applications demand smart power supplies to be adaptive, power efficient, and reliably accurate, which is why monitoring inductor current flow in a lossless fashion is not only desirable but also critical for protection and feedback control. Filter-based lossless current-sensing technique use a tuned filter across the inductor to estimate current flow, and its accuracy is dependent on the inductance and equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the device. Because of process-related tolerances, errors as high as /spl plusmn/28% are reported, even when the nominal inductor value is known, which is not the case for the IC designer, whose errors will then grossly exceed this value. A technique is proposed to boost the accuracy of these current-sensing filters by automatically adjusting their bandwidth and gain via phase and gain feedback control loops. The proposed scheme essentially measures the inductance and ESR values during startup and power-on reset events. Because the filter is automatically tuned to the inductor, the current during normal operation can be measured accurately by simply sensing the voltage across the inductor. A PCB prototype implementation of the proposed technique achieved overall DC and AC gain errors of 2.3% and 5% at full load, respectively, when lossless, state-of-the-art schemes achieve 20-40% error.

103    L. Guo, J.Y. Hung, R.M. Nelms, "Comparative evaluation of linear PID and fuzzy control for a boost converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Both linear PID controllers and fuzzy controllers are designed and implemented for a boost converter. Comparison between the two controllers is made in the aspect of design, implementation and experimental results. Design of fuzzy controllers is based on heuristic knowledge of the converter and tuned using trial and error, while the design of linear PID and PI controllers is based on the frequency response of the boost converter. Implementation of linear controllers is quite straightforward, while implementation of fuzzy controllers has its unique issues. A comparison of experimental results indicates that the performance of the fuzzy controller is superior to that of the linear PID and PI controllers. The fuzzy controller is able to achieve faster transient response, has more stable steady-state response, and is more robust under different operating points.

104    S. Saggini, W. Stefanutti, D. Trevisan, P. Mattavelli, G. Garcea, "Prediction of limit-cycles oscillations in digitally controlled DC-DC converters using statistical approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digitally controlled DC-DC converters are affected by quantization effects on A/D converters and digital pulse-width modulators (DPWMs) which may result in undesirable limit-cycle oscillations. Existing static and dynamic models predict the existence of only a small part of limit cycle oscillations, so that extensive time-domain simulations are usually needed in order to verify the presence of limit-cycle oscillations under different load and input voltage conditions. This paper proposes an alternative approach based on statistical models. Modelling the quantization error as a white noise, including the quantization effects on the controller and converter state variables, and evaluating the correlation between state variables, a statistical prediction of limit-cycle oscillations is obtained. By means of the proposed method, design criteria for the regulator parameters, in terms of achievable bandwidth, location of PID zeros and desired phase margin, can be derived. Simulation and experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed method.

105    Ju-Won Baek, Myung-Hyo Ryoo, Tae-Jin Kim, Dong-Wook Yoo, Jong-Soo Kim, "High boost converter using voltage multiplier," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the increasing demand for renewable energy, distributed power included in fuel cells have been studied and developed as a future energy source. For this system, a power conversion circuit is necessary to interface the generated power to the utility. In many cases, a high step-up DC/DC converter is needed to boost low input voltage to high voltage output. Conventional methods using cascade DC/DC converters cause extra complexity and higher cost. The conventional topologies to get high output voltage use flyback DC/DC converters. They have the leakage components that cause stress and loss of energy that results in low efficiency. This paper presents a high boost converter with a voltage multiplier and a coupled inductor. The secondary voltage of the coupled inductor is rectified using a voltage multiplier. High boost voltage is obtained with low duty cycle. Theoretical analysis and experimental results verify the proposed solutions using a 300 W prototype.

106    Y. Tsuruta, Y. Ito, A. Kawamura, "A new zero-voltage-zero-current-transition chopper SAZZ for a FCEV drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new snubber assisted zero voltage and zero current transition chopper (SAZZ) is proposed for the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) or the hybrid vehicle. The SAZZ topology provides a simple soft switching technique resulting in the compact and low-loss power converter for the FCEV. Furthermore, the SAZZ operates without voltage spike across the output diode during the reverse recovery. A SAZZ mini-model using IGBT was fabricated and evaluated by a fundamental operational test. The experimental results show the verification of the circuit geometry and the basic operation. In addition, the preliminary SAZZ configuration for the high frequency using the stray capacitance is investigated to minimize the current of the auxiliary resonant stage. Some experimental results are also presented.

107    D. Liu, H. Li, "A novel multiple-input ZVS bidirectional DC-DC converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A. novel multiple-input DC-DC converter is proposed in this paper. Compared to other multiple-input DC-DC converters, the new topology has achieved bidirectional power flow between individual inputs and output, soft switching implementation without additional devices, high efficiency, high reliability and simple control. The /spl Delta/ and Y type model of multi-winding transformer is developed to assist the circuit analysis. The operating principle, soft-switching conditions and steady state analysis are presented in this paper. Circuit simulation results are provided to verify the theoretical analysis.

108    H. Mao, O. Abdel-Rahman, I. Batarseh, "Active resonant tank to achieve zero-voltage-switching for non-isolated DC-DC converters with synchronous rectifiers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A concept of active resonant tank (ART) is proposed for high frequency non-isolated DC-DC converters to achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) of the main switch and eliminate reverse recovery and body diode conduction losses of the synchronous rectifier in order to improve conversion efficiency and reduce EMI noises. The concept is generalized for six basic non-isolated converters. A buck converter with the ART cell is analyzed in great detail, and a 100 W prototype is built to verify the concept. Experimental results agree with theoretical analysis and improvement in efficiency is achieved due to the reduced switching and reverse-recovery losses.

109    Xinke Wu, Junming Zhang, Xin Ye, Zhaoming Qian, "A family of non-isolated ZVS DC-DC converter based on a new active clamp cell," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new ZVS cell is proposed based on the active clamping technique. With a small clamping diode in the cell the voltage ringing caused by the auxiliary inductor is eliminated, and the circulating loss is minimized. A new ZVS boost converter is presented and analyzed in detail to demonstrate the operation principle of the new ZVS cell. Utilizing this cell a new family of ZVS DC-DC converter can be constructed based on typical non-isolated DC-DC converters. A 500 W/200 kHz ZVS boost prototype is made to verify the analysis.

110    C. Chakraborty, S. Dalapati, S. Bhattacharya, "Variable frequency variable duty cycle operation of the controlled capacitor charging (CCC) type inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The controlled capacitor charging (CCC) type inverter uses a simple L-C network, where the capacitor (C) that is connected across the load is charged through an inductor (L) connected in series with the load. The charging in such an inverter has to take place in a controlled manner to produce a desired sinusoidal waveform at the output. This paper presents a variable frequency variable duty cycle based charging technique to keep the output voltage within a hysteresis band, while achieving zero-current switching for every pulse at turn-on. The output voltage across the capacitor and the current through the inductor are fed back to the control circuit. An appropriate logic in the controller determines the width of each individual pulse, as well as the frequency of pulses. Extensive simulations in PSPICE have been carried out. A prototype inverter has been fabricated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation between the simulation and experimental results validated the proposed control technique.

111    J.-S. Lai, J. Zhang, "Efficiency design considerations for a wide-range operated high-power soft-switching inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Most soft-switching inverters have been designed to eliminate the switching loss, but the traditional techniques are only effective for certain operating points. This paper explores the negative current cycle effect on zero-voltage switching type inverters and then proposes a simple timing control technique for adaptivity of operating in a wide range of source voltage and load current conditions. A three-phase coupled-magnetic type 120-kW inverter has been designed and implemented for motor drive applications. The circuit operating principle is described in detail and then verified with computer simulation. Hardware experimental results indicate a superior efficiency performance profile under different voltages and load currents.

112    K. Yasui, I. Hirota, T. Iwai, H. Omori, N.A. Ahmed, T.A. Ahmed, H. Sugimura, "New boost-active clamp one-stage soft switching PWM high frequency inverter using trench-gate IGBTs," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel soft-switching PWM utility frequency AC to high frequency AC power conversion circuit incorporating boost-half-bridge inverter topology, which is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective consumer induction heating applications. The operating principle and the operation modes are described using the equivalent circuits with the operating voltage and current waveforms. The operating performances are illustrated and evaluated, including the power regulation and power conversion efficiency versus duty cycle characteristics based on the power dissipation as compared with those of the previously developed high-frequency inverter. The power converter practical effectiveness is substantially proved based on experimental results from practical design example.

113    R. Casanueva, F.J. Azcondo, C. Branas, S. Bracho, "Output current sensitivity analysis of the LC/sub p/C/sub s/ resonant inverter: current source design criteria," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The effects of the tolerance of circuit elements in the parallel-series (LC/sub p/C/sub s/) resonant inverter are studied in order to optimize the design parameters that ensure the circuit performance with no feedback and also good repeatability. The analysis shows that the capacitor ratio affects the sensitivity values. Results are confirmed with experimental results and a statistical study by the Monte Carlo method.

114    D.J. Tschirhart, P.K. Jain, "Maximizing resonant converter efficiency through optimal switch selection," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the value of completing loss analysis for semiconductor switches in order to maximize the efficiency of any converter topology. A novel constant frequency CLL load resonant converter topology is used as the basis for the presented study. However, the analysis can be extended to other resonant, soft-switched, or hard-switched converters. For the 25 W converter used to present the analysis, it is shown that completing such a study can improve converter efficiency by more than 5%. Comparison between analysis results and switches with the lowest figure of merit (FOM) reveals that analysis is the only way to guarantee the most efficient switches for a given application have been selected.

115    Hang Li-jun, Gu Yi-lei, Lu Zheng-yu, Qian Zhao-ming, Xu De-hong, "Magamp post regulation for LLC series resonant converter with multi-output," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Strategy of time-sharing is adopted in LLC resonant converter with multi-output for increasing the adaptability of the very topology to such application as multi-output with requirement of high regulating ratio, meanwhile strategy of magamp post regulation is applied by adding two saturable inductors in secondary output ends as well. Principle of influence generated by dead time of magamp involved in LLC resonant converter on regulating ratio, is analyzed in detail. That influence of problem of dead time existing in magamp in flyback converter is much worse than in LLC resonant converter is verified both by principle analysis and experimental result. An experimental prototype of 310 V input, 24 V/3 A and 12 V/2 A outputs, whose full load efficiency reaches 88.5%, is built to verify achievement of ZVS at full range and the wonderful cross regulating ratio.

116    K. Tewari, B. Chen, D. Li, A.Q. Huang, S. Bhattacharya, "Investigation of high temperature operation of the emitter turn-off thyristor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the emitter turn-off thyristor's (ETO's) high temperature operation from thermal stability point of view. The objective is to identify the electrical and thermal limitations to the high temperature application of the ETO. The loss characteristics of the ETO, including switching loss, conduction loss, and leakage loss are studied experimentally and analytically, at high junction temperature. A closed loop thermal system and stability criterion is developed and analyzed. At low junction temperature, the switching loss determines the thermal stability. At high junction temperature, the high leakage loss leads to thermal instability. From the developed thermal system, the maximum operating junction temperature for the ETO has been derived, under certain operating conditions. Steady state operating junction temperature of 160 Degrees Celsius is obtained for the ETO.

117    K. Xu, Y.F. Liu, P.C. Sen, "A new resonant gate drive circuit with centre-tapped transformer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new resonant gate drive circuit for a pair of low side switches with 50% duty cycle or less, which is suitable for variable frequency resonant converter, push-pull converter and so on. A centre-tapped transformer is utilized to boost switches' gate voltage twice high as Vcc voltage. Charging and discharging the gate input capacitance by a constant current source increases MOSFETs switching transition speed. The theoretical analysis and simulation waveforms are provided. A prototype board working at 1 MHz is built and experimental results are also given.

118    Yueqing Wang, Zhijie Zhu, Yuling Huang, Qingyou Zhang, Jianping Ying, "A unification MOSFET switching-off model," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper summarizes the personality and generality of common used topologies in power supply and puts forward novel switching-off model by analyzing and comparing the experiment waveforms with theoretical model. In the model, the effects of equivalent parallel capacitor of D-S and leakage inductance in the circuit serried with MOSFET drain are taken into account. The calculated results are compared with those of tested. The proposed switching model process and derived algorithm appears available for most of MOSFET.

119    W. Eberle, P.C. Sen, Y.-F. Liu, "A new resonant gate drive circuit with efficient energy recovery and low conduction loss," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new resonant gate drive circuit is proposed. The proposed circuit consists of four control switches and a small resonant inductance. The current through the resonant inductance is discontinuous in order to minimize circulating current conduction loss present in other methods. The proposed circuit also achieves quick turn-on and turn-off transition times to reduce switching loss and conduction loss in power MOSFETS. An analysis, design procedure and simulation results are presented for the proposed circuit.

120    Y. Gao, A.Q. Huang, "Improving RBSOA of 10 kV class bipolar devices," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Although some effort has been made to develop a 10 kV bipolar device, one of the main challenges to this development is the small RBSOA expected from a 10 kV class device. Based on the good understanding of what exactly determines the RBSOA of a large area bipolar device, in this paper, we stated that a better RBSOA device can be achieved by increase the sustain-mode dynamic avalanche capability of the device. In the punch through case when the device is in sustained mode, an analytical model is also developed based on the concept.

121    B. Chen, A.Q. Huang, S. Atcitty, A.-A. Edris, M. Ingram, "Emitter turn-off (ETO) thyristor: an emerging, lower cost power semiconductor switch with improved performance for converter-based transmission controllers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The emitter turn-off thyristor (ETO) is a new emerging high power semiconductor switch which combines the advantages of thyristor's high voltage/current capability and MOS easy gate control. Due to very high silicon utilization and use of conventional thyristor technology, it has much lower cost compared with other competing technologies. Furthermore, it has significantly improved performance in current conduction, turn-off speed, and snubberless turn-off current capability. Future ETO switches under development will also pack with additional features that no-competing technologies offer, including built-in voltage, current and temperature sensing capability, control-power self-generation capability and high-voltage current saturation capability. These capabilities make ETO a very promising power semiconductor device to reduce the cost of converter-based transmission controllers while improving the controller output power, dynamic performance, and operating reliability.

122    A.M. Abou-Alfotouh, A.V. Radun, "Comparison among SiC JFETs at 1 MHz hard-switched DC/DC converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap semiconductor material that offers performance improvements over Si for power semiconductors. This paper presents the characteristics of experimental SiC JFETs and Schottky diodes. Also, this paper presents a performance comparison among these SiC devices in a 1 MHz hard-switched DC/DC converter. Further, it will identify the limitations of present SiC JFETs.

123    Y. Gao, A.Q. Huang, A.K. Agarwal, S. Krishnaswami, "Characterization and modeling of 4H-SiC power BJTs," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: 4H-SiC power BJTs are investigated by experimental measurements and numerical simulations. A number of phenomena that are different from Si BJT are investigated including the Vce offset voltage and collector conductivity modulation. The current gain as a function of collector current density has also been studied. Simulation shows the emitter and base junction interface states plays a key role in limiting the current gain at high current densities.

124    R. Chibante, A. Araujo, A. Carvalho, "A FEM punch-through IGBT model using an efficient parameter extraction method," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A finite element physics-based punch-through IGBT model is presented. The model's core is based on solving the ambipolar diffusion equation (ADE) trough a variational formulation, resulting in a system of ODEs. The approach enables an easy implementation into a standard circuit simulator SPICE by means of an electrical analogy with the resulting system of ODEs, solved as a set of current controlled RC nets that describes charge carrier distribution in low-doped zone. The issue of parameter extraction for physics-based IGBT models is also addressed. An optimisation-based algorithm enabling an efficient parameter extraction method for IGBT model is discussed. Model is validated comparing experimental and simulated results.

125    H. Wu, R. Dougal, C. Jin, "Modeling power diode by combining the behavioral and the physical model," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an approach of implementing the dynamic multi-resolution power diode model in the virtual test bed (VTB), a platform for complex system simulation and prototyping. The new model is a combination of the behavioral model and the physical model. The behavioral model is based upon the widely used Shockley equation; its advantages are simplicity and fast simulation speed, however it is incapable of representing the forward and reverse recovery phenomena during the state switch, which is required in many applications. The physical model is based upon the lumped charge theory; it has higher fidelity than the behavioral model as well as the ability of representing the forward and reverse recovery. The physical model's drawback is its complex mathematical representation that also requires a sub-micro-second time step, which makes the simulation extremely slow. The combined model inherits the advantages of both models; the validation example shows the simulation speed can be doubled while the accuracy loss is less than three percent.

126    A.M. Lienhardt, G. Gateau, T.A. Meynard, "Stacked multicell converter (SMC): reconstruction of flying capacitor voltages," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present in this paper a new method for the observation of the flying capacitor voltages dedicated to stacked multicell converters (SMC). Unlike the imbricated-cell converter, the new SMC topology allows increasing the input voltage level while decreasing the energy stored in the converter. This consists of a hybrid association of commutation cells, which enables to share the voltage constraint on several switches. During normal operation, the flying capacitor voltages have to be kept constant by the control strategy. Due to high voltage/high power applications, it is difficult and expensive to measure the flying capacitor voltages. Therefore, a new method has been developed to estimate those voltages. After an introduction and a brief reminder on the SMC topology, we will present a new strategy to estimate the capacitor voltages based on the determination of an image of those ones regarding the control signals and the chopped voltage. The influence of the measurement noise on our new technique has also been studied carefully and appropriate strategies have been developed. The last part will be devoted to conclusions and perspectives.

127    C.R. Baier, M.A. Perez, J.R. Espinoza, J.R. Rodriguez, "Analysis of a multi-cell topology implemented with single-phase non-regenerative cells under an unbalanced AC mains," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The analysis of a multi-cell topology implemented with single-phase non-regenerative cells under an unbalanced AC mains is presented. The study shows that the topology naturally compensates the voltage unbalances; for instance, for a 100% voltage unbalance in the AC mains, just a 32% reaches the load. Additionally, in order to compensate the remaining unbalance at the load side, a feed-forward control technique is used. The strategy reduces near to zero the load fundamental voltage unbalance while the input current unbalance and distortion are improved as well. Simulated results confirm the theoretical considerations.

128    C. Silva, J. Rodriguez, P. Lezana, "Zero steady-state error input current controller for regenerative multilevel converters based on single-phase cells," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multicell converters are one of the alternative topologies for medium voltage industrial drives. For application requiring regenerative capability each power cell must be constructed with a three- or single-phase PWM rectifier as a front end. The choice of single-phase PWM rectifiers for the input of the cells results in a reduced number of power switches and a simpler input transformer than the three-phase equivalent. However, its control is not as straight forward. This paper proposes the use of higher order resonant controllers in the classical control structure of the single-phase PWM rectifier. This ensures a zero steady-state tracking error of the reference current at fundamental frequency. A detailed description of the design criteria for the position of the zeros and poles of the controller is given. Experimental results showing the good performance of the single-phase input cells and its proposed control are included.

129    S. Kouro, J. Rodriguez, J. Pontt, M. Angulo, "Multilevel inverter modulation method with DC-link disturbance compensation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel inverters have emerged as the state of the art power conversion systems for high power medium voltage applications. However, like most power converter families, these inverters are nonlinear systems with dead times, voltage drops across the power semiconductors, load and supply dependent DC-links, that all together can generate considerable low frequency voltage and current distortion affecting negatively the quality of important variables of the global process powered by the inverter. In high power applications this can be very critical due to the amount of energy involved in non desirable harmonics. This paper presents a solution to these problems by including the disturbances in the modulation strategy. Results are presented for a nine level cascaded asymmetric inverter, showing how the algorithm rejects DC-link voltage ripple and compensates voltage drops and dead times of the converter. The proposed method is also compared to multiple carrier phase disposition PWM to highlight the differences obtained when using the compensation.

130    W. Liu, R. Jayakar, W. Song, A.Q. Huang, "A modular digital controller architecture for multi-node high power converter applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Modular voltage source converter has drawn great interest in high power applications. To achieve higher system control reliability and multi-functionality, a modular digital controller architecture is proposed in this paper that will facilitate the concept of modular converter. It can be reconfigured to multiple-node high power converter applications. A hybrid multitap bus and inverse-star structure are adopted in the architecture. Detailed descriptions of the controller structure and function partitioning are described in the paper. Central and local control units are designed individually. A case study on a 13 level cascaded multilevel converter is investigated. Moreover, the data communication protocol and design considerations will be shown. In addition, the hardware circuits and experimental results are shown to verify the structure.

131    Bum-Seung Jin, Won-Kyo Lee, Tae-Jin Kim, Dae-Wook Kang, Dong-Seok Hyun, "A study on the multi-carrier PWM methods for voltage balancing of flying capacitor in the flying capacitor multi-level inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The voltage control of flying capacitor is very important for safe operation in flying capacitor multi-level inverter (FCMLI). The voltage unbalancing of flying capacitor causes serious problems in safety and reliability of system, and also limits FCMLI's applications. The voltage unbalancing is occurred due to the difference of each capacitors charging and discharging time applied to FCMLI. This paper investigates and analyzes multi-carrier PWM methods to solve capacitor voltage balancing problem. Among the various PWM methods for the FCMLI, the phase-shift PWM (PSPWM) method, the modified carrier-redistribution PWM (MCRPWM) method and the saw-tooth-rotation PWM (STRPWM) method are discussed and compared with respect to switching state, balancing voltage of capacitors and output waveform. Also, this paper considers the performance of PWM methods. These three PWM methods are analyzed in the flying capacitor three-level inverter. The results are shown through simulation and experiment. Finally, the harmonics about the output voltages of their methods are compared using the harmonic distortion factor (HDF).

132    I. Yamamoto, K. Matsui, S. Yamaguchi, M. Hasegawa, H. Mori, F. Ueda, "Capacitor voltage controls of novel five-level inverter having only double DC power supplies," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The five-level PWM inverter has many advantages such as ability to operate the AC motors or the power compensator with very large capacity in nearly sinusoidal current waveforms. For these reasons, these applications have just begun to study. However, this circuit must provide four DC power supplies for supplying the active power. In this paper, we propose a novel double power supply method, in which both power supplies are inter-connected by DC capacitors. The voltages of the inter-connected DC capacitor are controlled by a novel third order harmonic injection method, where the phase of modified third order harmonic signal having positive or negative polarity is controlled individually.

133    P. Lezana, J. Rodriguez, D. Rojas, J. Pontt, "Novel cell based on reduced single-phase active front end for multicell converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel converters are a very interesting alternative for medium and high power drives. One of the more flexible topologies of this type is the multicell converter. This paper presents a new regenerative cell suitable for cascaded multilevel inverters. The cell uses a reduced single-phase active rectifier at the input and an H-bridge inverter at the output side. The cell has a reduced switch count and presents a very good performance, controlling effectively the waveform of the input current and of the output voltage. The results presented in this paper confirm that this medium voltage inverter effectively eliminates low frequency input current harmonics at primary side of the transformer and operates without problem in regenerative mode.

134    S. Alepuz, J. Salaet, S. Busquets, J. Bordonau, "Load voltage and output current control of three-level voltage source inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A load voltage and output current control for the three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) VSI is presented in this work. In usual operation, the regulator controls the voltage applied to the load. If an overcurrent occurs, the regulator will switch to current mode controller and the current will be driven to an acceptable value. A multivariable model of the NPC-VSI is used for the regulator calculation. The controller used in this paper is based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and gain-scheduling control techniques. With this control approach, any state variable can be regulated, either in small and large-signal operation, including state variables related to DC-link voltages. Then, a switching strategy to control DC-link neutral point voltage is not required. The controller is designed to keep DC-link neutral point voltage balanced and to regulate the load voltage or the output current. Simulations and experimental results agree and confirm the validity of the proposed controller.

135    Tian Liu, Qiang Song, Wenhua Liu, Yuanhua Chen, Jianguo Li, "FPGA-based universal multilevel space vector modulator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new circuit design of multilevel space vector modulation (SVM) strategy. This strategy is based on the decomposition of the reference voltage, and it is utilized at any number of levels. The proposed algorithm has been realized using field programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. A FPGA XILINX XC2S100 was used for the implementation of the SVM IC. The designed SVM IC was incorporated with a digital signal processor (DSP) to provide a solution for a three-phase five-level inverter. Experimental results are provided to verify the implemented SVM control IC.

136    M.C. Cavalcanti, G.M.S. Azevedo, B.A. Amaral, F.A.S. Neves, "A photovoltaic generation system with unified power quality conditioner function," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a system that provides photovoltaic generation as well as the functions of a unified power quality conditioner. The system can be controlled for current harmonics and reactive power compensation simultaneously by using a converter operating as active shunt filter. Another converter is used as active series filter and it compensates voltage harmonics or voltage sags and swells. The proposed topology for photovoltaic energy conversion process has increased efficiency when compared to the conventional systems. Voltage vector oriented reference frame models are used to control the three-phase converters. Simulation results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed configuration. Experimental results corresponding to the operation of the series filter as voltage sag compensator are presented.

137    T. Ahmed, M. Nakaoka, T. Tanaka, K. Nishida, "Advanced active power filter for renewable energy applications of stand-alone induction generator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a hybrid excitation system, consisting of a capacitor bank with a small-scale active power filter (APF), to regulate the output voltage of the stand-alone induction generator (IG) by controlling its reactive current component and to filter the harmonic currents generated by a non-linear diode rectifier load. Moreover, a deadbeat current control structure for pulse-width modulation (PWM) APF connected to a stand-alone (IG) working with variable speed and different types of loads is proposed. Sensorless control of the IG, meaning vector control without voltage sensor and mechanical shaft sensor, is considered to regulate both the IG line-to-line voltage and the DC-bus voltage of the PWM APF. In the proposed system a new designed phase locked loop (PLL) circuit is used to determine the stator voltage vector position of the IG. A 2.2 kW laboratory prototype has been built to confirm the feasibility of the proposed method. The measurement results validate the proposed power generating system with the deadbeat current controller as a good application for the IG to reduce the required number of sensors.

138    S. Chakraborty, M.G. Simoes, "Fuzzy ARTMAP based forecast of renewable generation for a high frequency AC microgrid," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A single phase high frequency AC (HFAC) microgrid is a novel solution towards integration of renewable energy sources in a distributed generation system. Power flow and power quality issues in the HFAC microgrid are controlled by the active filtering solutions called universal active power line conditioner (UPLC) and unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) respectively. After power quality and power flow issues are resolved, a next important task is optimization of operating costs of the HFAC microgrid. Optimization greatly depends on the power generation and the power output from renewable sources strongly depends on the weather. Therefore, the forecast of power generation is required for implementing a distributed intelligent energy management system (DIEMS). A fuzzy ARTMAP neural network is used to predict hourly day-type outputs based on which generation can be forecasted. The results obtained shows the successful implementation of HFAC microgrid with adequate power flow and power quality control as well as the promising future scope of an intelligent energy management system with fuzzy ARTMAP based day-type forecasting.

139    P. Thounthong, S. Rael, B. Davat, "Control of fuel cell/supercapacitors hybrid power sources," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a control strategy for employing PEM fuel cell, known as slow dynamic device, as main power source and supercapacitors, known as high dynamic storage elements, as auxiliary power source for DC distributed system. The main point is to regulate the DC bus, and the important constraint is to avoid speedy operation of fuel cell current. Therefore, fuel cell is simply operating in almost steady state conditions in order to ensure a good synchronization between fuel (hydrogen and oxygen) flow and fuel cell current and to lessen mechanical stresses. The proposed control is based, first, on the regulation of the DC bus voltage through the control of the power delivered by the supercapacitors, and second, on the control of the supercapacitor voltage by the operating of the fuel cell. To validate control algorithms, hardware system is realized by analogical current loops and digital voltage loops (dSPACE). Experimental results, with a ZSW PEM 500 W, 12.5 V, 40 A fuel cell and a SAFT 292 F, 30 V, 400 A supercapacitor module for a 42 V DC distributed network, confirm system operations.

140    M. Zhao, Z. Chen, F. Blaabjorg, "Probabilistic capacity of a grid connected wind farm," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a method to find the maximum acceptable wind power injection regarding the thermal limits, steady state stability limits and voltage limits of the grid system. The probabilistic wind power is introduced based on the probability distribution of wind speed. Based on power transfer distribution factor (PTDF) and voltage sensitivities, a predictor-corrector method is suggested to calculate the acceptable active power injection. Then this method is combined with the probabilistic model of wind power to compute the allowable capacity of the wind farm. Finally, an example is illustrated to test this method. It is concluded that proposed method in this paper is a feasible, fast, and accurate approach to find the size of a wind farm.

141    H. Iwabuki, A. Iwata, "6 kV/ 60 A/2 MHz high voltage inverter for gas discharge laser without step-up transformer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A 6 kV, 60 A, 2 MHz AC power supply for driving high peak and short pulse CO/sub 2/ lasers with a silent discharge has been developed. The developed power supply has a full-bridge inverter that combines four switches that connect power MOSFET with 6 in series and 4 in parallel. The inverter directly switches the high voltage of 6 kV DC, and converts the voltage directly into 2 MHz AC. The developed power supply can output much higher electric power than a conventional one, because it doesn't have a step-up transformer with a large leakage inductance. A peak laser power of 20 kW, 7 times a conventional one, and a laser pulse width of 1 microsecond, 1/10 of a conventional one, was obtained by using this power supply for silent discharge excitation type CO/sub 2/ lasers.

142    C. Branas, F.J. Azcondo, R. Casanueva, S. Bracho, "Parallel connection of multiple resonant inverters to drive high-power high-intensity discharge lamps," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the analysis and design of a new configuration of a resonant inverter suitable for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp ballast applications. The proposed inverter results from the parallel connection of three class D LC/sub P/ resonant inverters, sharing the total load current. In this way, a reduction of the conduction losses is achieved. The regulation is implemented at constant frequency, modifying the phase displacement of the drive signals of one inverter section with respect to the others. High efficiency dimming operation at around 50% of full power is achieved canceling one of the non-controlled phases.

143    Guan-Chyun Hsieh, Jin-Fu Yan, "Group-asymmetrical PWM controller for dimmable fluorescent lamp ballast without striation and thermostat effect," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A signal process for eliminating striation and thermostat effect in a fluorescent lamp by group-asymmetrical pulse-width-modulation (GAPWM) control strategy is explored. The proposed GAPWM can make the odd harmonic energies of the lamp sharing on all the harmonics in low-level dimmer so as to eliminate striation and thermostat effect. Dimmer by signal process instead of hardware approach can make the control strategy easy to implement. A prototype of 80 W GAPWM fluorescent lamp ballast is examined for assessing the theoretical investigation and practicality. The GAPWM ballast can operate at ZVS and increase lighting efficiency up to 20% compared with the traditional one. Besides, it can make the fluorescent lamp without striation and thermostat effect during a wide dimming range from 100% to 1% of the full luminance.

144    T.B. Marchesan, D. Pappis, R.A. Pinto, R.E. Da Costa, A. Campos, R.N. do Prado, "Double-flyback half-bridge electronic ballast to supply HPS lamps," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a high power factor electronic ballast for high pressure sodium lamps (HPS). The ballast consists of a single switch double-flyback and a half-bridge inverter. The double-flyback is responsible for PFC and lamp current limiting. The inverter stage supplies the lamp in a low frequency square waveform, avoiding lamp re-ignition and acoustic resonance phenomenon occurrence. Ballast project and experimental results are presented in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed topology.

145    F.T. Wakabayashi, C.A. Canesin, F.D. Dantas, J.O.P. Pinto, "Prediction of voltage over electrodes' filaments of fluorescent lamps during dimming operation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an investigation concerning the use of fundamental approximation analysis and a new lamp model for the prediction of the voltage over electrodes' filaments during dimming operation. The lamp model employed in this paper is based on equivalent resistances, which represent the electrodes' filaments and the gas column of a F32T8 lamp. Experimental results are presented in this paper, indicating the validity of the proposed analysis and confirming its potential to serve as an effective tool for the design of dimming electronic ballasts.

146    J. Lam, P.K. Jain, "A novel valley fill high power factor electronic ballast with dimming feature and low crest factor. Part I. Design and performance," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel passive high power factor electronic ballast with dimming feature and low crest factor is presented in this paper. The proposed ballast circuit combines a valley fill circuit and a new frequency modulated current fed resonant inverter as a power circuit. It provides isolation to the driver circuit without the use of any isolation devices. The controller circuit uses a simple modified 555 timer to continuously regulate the lamp current by changing the switching frequency. As a result, a low crest factor is achieved at the output lamp current. All the characteristic equations and design figures are illustrated in this paper. Design guidelines for determining circuit parameters are also provided. MATLAB analysis and Powersim (PSIM) simulation results are presented to highlight the merits of the proposed circuit for a T8-32 W fluorescent lamp.

147    Rong Guo, Yongbing Yang, Zhaoming Qian, "Investigation on the start-up of low wattage metal halide lamp controlled by low-frequency square-wave ballast," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Using conventional three-stage low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast, low-wattage MH lamps may have trouble in starting-up instantly and smoothly. This paper investigates the special starting-up characteristics of low-wattage MH lamps and presents some novel control strategy according to the lamps' special characteristics. A prototype of 70 W electronic ballast with the new control circuit designs was constructed and experimental results verified the novel control strategy can greatly increase the probability for lamps to successfully start up instantly and smoothly.

148    J. Lam, P.K. Jain, "A novel valley fill high power factor electronic ballast with dimming feature and low crest factor. Part II. controller circuit design," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel variable frequency controller is proposed for a passive high power factor electronic ballast with dimming capability and low crest factor. The ballast circuit is the combination of a valley fill circuit and a new frequency modulated current fed resonant inverter. The advantage of using a current fed resonant inverter in the proposed power circuit is that it provides isolation to the driver circuit without the use of any isolation devices. The proposed controller circuit uses a simple modified 555 timer to continuously regulate the lamp current by changing the switching frequency. As a result, a low crest factor in the lamp current is achieved with a high input power factor. A detailed description of the controller circuit is given in this paper. Feedback loop analysis is also provided to study the stability issues of the proposed ballast circuit. Powersim (PSIM) simulation results are presented to highlight the merits of the proposed circuit for a T8-32 W fluorescent lamp.

149    Wang Wei, Liu Guihua, Xu Dianguo, "Electronic ballast for high pressure sodium lamp based on charge pump power factor correction technique," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the application of continuous input current charge pump power factor correction (CIC-CPPFC) techniques in electronic ballast. Comparing with traditional two-stage electronic ballast, it has fewer components and lower cost. The laboratory prototype of CIC-CPPFC electronic ballast for 50 W HPS lamp is designed and tested in this paper. Experiment results verify that the single-stage electronic ballast can not only ignite HPS lamp with variable frequency, it can also hold constant power when the input voltage varies in a wide range. It has various malfunctions protection function including open circuit, short circuit, or hot lamps. During the starting-up period, the protection circuit will block the half-bridge inverter for a long period if the lamp in hot state. After the protection time, the lamp isn't in hot state, and it will be turned on again. In this paper, more than 0.99 power factor and less than 11% THD can be achieved.

150    A.S. dos Santos, M. Toss, F.S.D. Reis, R. Tonkoski, "The influence of programmed start ballast in T5 fluorescent lamp lifetime," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper it is analyzed the influence of programmed start ballast in T5 fluorescent lamp lifetime. Different rapid cycle test are discussed, including the manufactures ones, to verify the behavior T5 fluorescent lamp lifetime under different starting methods. Alternative electronic ballast with programmed rapid-start is proposed for a 28 W/T5 fluorescent lamp using voltage-preheating. The results showed that is possible to increase the T5 fluorescent lamp lifetime using the programmed start ballasts.

151    V.C. Valchev, A.P. Van den Bossche, D.M. Van de Sype, "Ferrite losses of cores with square wave voltage and DC bias," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Ferrite material properties may vary depending on the grade and manufacturer. Moreover, there are differences between batches and also the production process may change in time. The same material grade may have improved or reduced performance depending on the year of production. In loss critical applications it is good to be able to test the losses on real cores. The usual voltage waveforms in power applications are closer to square wave than to sine wave. The DC bias can have a significant influence on the ferrite losses, so it is good to check this sensitivity. Losses were measured at frequencies of 20 kHz, 100 kHz and 500 kHz on 3F3 material.

152    Hao Ma, Linguo Wang, "Fault diagnosis and failure prediction of aluminum electrolytic capacitors in power electronic converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper gives the equivalent circuit model of aluminum electrolytic capacitor, and analyzes the main degradation mechanism, based on which the life model and degradation parameter of aluminum electrolytic capacitor is discussed in detail. To realize online fault diagnosis of aluminum electrolytic capacitor in power electronic converters, a parameter identification method to identify the equivalent series resistance (ESR) based on the circuit model is presented, and the trend of ESR with time is also deduced to realize failure prediction.

153    A.M. Imam, T.G. Habetler, R.G. Harley, D.M. Divan, "LMS based condition monitoring of electrolytic capacitor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electrolytic capacitors are very important element of any static converters. It is responsible for frequent breakdowns of many static converters and drive systems. To set a predictive maintenance, adaptive filter modeling based method is presented. Signature of changes in capacitance and ESR will reflect in capacitor ripple voltage because of aging; and these changes are monitored using this adaptive filter modeling to predict the future status of the capacitor using only the input current of the system.

154    P. Tenca, T.A. Lipo, "A decentralized protection scheme for converters utilizing a DC-link inductor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a fully passive protection scheme for DC link inductors whose geometry is characterized by a substantial distance between the rectifier and inverter stations. Inductors of this type can be found intrinsically in very long high-power cables-as in HVDC transmission for example-as well as in DC-links for high-power current source inverters. In such applications the inductor must be duly protected against overvoltages as well as against overcurrents potentially occurring as consequence of an open-circuit or a short-circuit fault respectively. The distance between the inductor terminals prevents the use of well-known localized protections like, for example, simple freewheeling diodes. A key role in the protection scheme proposed by the authors is played by the largely available transient suppressor diodes (often commercially identified as "Tranzorbs") and the solution is kept very simple and reliable by employing only rugged diodes and thyristors. The protection relies only on the energy stored in the inductor without the need of any external supervision circuit or any information exchange between the distant inductor terminals. Experimental results are presented and a generalization of the scheme to a broader application is also introduced.

155    A.P. Van den Bossche, D.M. Van de Sype, V. Valchev, "Flow calorimeter for equipment test," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The efficiency of power supplies and power electronic converters is increasing. The loss measurement is often the difference between much lager numbers. The output frequency can be high or the output may require a high number of wires, which make the power measurement difficult. The presented flow calorimeter is intended for equipment test but it is also suited for passive component test in the range of 4-80 W losses. A compact design is obtained having an inner room (in mm) of 220/spl times/260/spl times/180 high and outer dimensions of 280/spl times/320/spl times/290 high. It is simple in realization and transportable.

156    Byung-Moon Han, Seung-Taek Baek, Jong-Sun Ko, "New configuration of 36-pulse voltage source converter for STATCOM application," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new configuration of 36-pulse voltage source converter for STATCOM application, composed of two 6-pulse bridges and a pulse-interleaving auxiliary circuit. The converter topology was devised to increase the number of pulses of the output voltage without increasing the number of 6-pulse bridges and coupling transformers. The operational feasibility of proposed system was verified by computer simulations with PSCAD/EMTDC software and experimental works with 2 kVA hardware prototype. The proposed converter can be widely used for the power quality compensator and the distributed power generation, such as solar and fuel cell power system.

157    J. Rey, J. Doval-Gandoy, F. Sanchez, C.M. Penalver, O. Lopez, A. Nogueiras, "Converting a VSC modulation strategy for controlling a CSC used in FACTS," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of a DSP with peripherals, such as PWM modules, in the control of voltage source converters (VSC) is widely used in our days in FACTS. These peripherals allow some concurrent operation, the control and modulation algorithms can be executed at the same time, they have internal hardware which can be dedicated to producing the most common technique of space vector modulation (SVM) for VSC. Anyway, these simultaneous tasks cannot be executed when a current source converter (CSC) is controlled because the modulation algorithm cannot be implemented in the DSP peripherals. The algorithm must be executed in a sequential mode and most computation resources of the DSP must be devoted to generating the modulation algorithm. As a result, the bandwidth is reduced due to the increasing in the sampling time. This paper presents a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based algorithm for adapting any VSC modulation strategy to control a CSC. Many engineers know the VSC and its modulation strategies, but they do not know so deeply the strategies for controlling the CSC. The main advantage of this proposal is that the wealth of knowledge and experience associated with series VAR compensators based on VSC can be immediately applied to a series VAR compensator based on CSC without requiring further analysis. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed structure.

158    Pengcheng Zhu, Liming Liu, Xiaoyuan Liu, Yong Kang, Jian Chen, "Performance of a decoupling control scheme for a unified power flow controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A pair of back-to-back power electronic inverters can control the real and reactive power flow in a transmission line. This configuration is called a unified power flow controller (UPFC). This paper presents a control strategy based on d-q axis theory for the operation of a UPFC. A new decoupling control strategy for the series converter and coordination control for the shunt converter is tested with a laboratory prototype UPFC. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

159    C. Han, Z. Yang, A.Q. Huang, M. Ingram, "Modelling and control of a cascade-multilevel converter-based STATCOM for electric arc furnace flicker mitigation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As an industrial customer of the utility, electrical arc furnace (EAF) is the major flicker source that degrades the grid power quality. As a possible solution, STATCOMs with high bandwidth can be used. In this paper, the normalized model of a CMC-based STATCOM and an EAF model are introduced, and then a DQ-model based control strategy is proposed for flicker mitigation. Case studies are conducted for STATCOM applying to a 40 MVA EAF arc furnace. Simulation results verify the controllers' stability and performance. A transient network analyzer (TNA) is developed to experimentally test the developed controller.

160    Hao Ma, Yunping Lang, "An improved digital control algorithm for power factor preregulators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposed an improved digital control algorithm of power factor preregulators (PFP) to reduce the CPU time requirement. One main problem to implement digital control for PFP is the limited switching frequency due to limited DSP speed. The new digital PFP control method avoids the complex calculations for the duty cycles needed in the conventional methods. Based on the improved algorithm, most calculations can be accomplished in the main routine cycle. So in the switching cycle, it only needs to sample the input current and calculate the duty cycle by the differential equations of boost topology. The effectiveness of the approach is assessed by experimental tests.

161    K. Matsui, I. Yamamoto, H. Kojima, M. Hasegawa, S. Yamaguchi, H. Mori, F. Ueda, "PFC scheme and its various characteristics using cycle-control without high frequency switching," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Capacitor input-type rectifier circuits are generally employed in small-capacity rectifier circuits, such as those used for consumer electronics and appliances. Consequently, the various harmonics that are generated in the power system become a serious problem. Various studies of these issues have been reported. However, most of those methods employ switching devices, such as FETs and the like. The absence of switching devices makes systems more tolerant to over-load, and brings other benefits in terms of low EMI noise. We propose a power factor correction scheme using cycle-control for commercial frequencies without the need for high frequency switching devices. It is very easy to reduce the harmonics in this circuit. The results are confirmed by simulated and experimental implementations.

162    D. Kubrich, M. Schmid, T. Durbaum, "A fast calculation tool for the design of PFC converters-method and application," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to dimension a power-factor correction circuit (PFC) and select suited components it is necessary to know the corresponding current waveforms as well as their rms and average values. As a consequence this paper shows a method to simulate and calculate these currents both in every switching cycle and over a mains half cycle. The predominant advantages of the presented method are firstly the short calculation time and secondly its stability (avoidance of unrealistic results-e.g. oscillations). The method is demonstrated in case of a boost-converter as power-factor corrector.

163    K. Meghriche, O. Mansouri, A. Cherifi, "On the use of pre-calculated switching angles to design a new single-phase static PFC inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new method for static power factor correction (SPFC) is presented in this paper. To perform the PFC operation, a static system is used to compensate four-quadrant reactive power using only small capacitance values. SPFC is also able to deal with different load characteristics that can be inductive and/or capacitive. The proposed method combines a passive filter and an inverter with pre-calculated PWM switching angles. The obtained system produces low harmonic distortion thus providing reliable and long lasting system components. Simulation results shows that the system is able to provide variable positive and negative true and reactive power while keeping the passive system components values constant.

164    Zhichang Yuan, Qiang Song, Wenhua Liu, Yuanhua Chen, Leitan Teng, "Development of a scaled STATCOM prototype based on 21-level cascade H-bridge inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is intended to present a laboratory scaled STATCOM prototype using 21-level cascade H-bridge inverter, which is developed to verify the control schemes that will be adopted in a /spl plusmn/50 MVar STATCOM project. A novel multi-pulse optimal PWM technique for STATCOM based on cascade H-bridge inverters is proposed. The harmonics are suppressed using optimization techniques. Furthermore the fundamental output voltages of all the inverter cells are controlled to be equal to make them equally share the exchanged power with power system, which is to maintain the DC voltages as balance as possible. Combined with the switching-pattern swapping technique, the DC voltages can be fairly balanced. The redundant operation is achieved through storing switching angles for various cases of N. A nonlinear control scheme based on the theory of exact linearization via feedback is proposed to improve the dynamic performance of the STATCOM. The validity of the proposed method is verified using the experimental results of the laboratory scaled prototype.

165    J. Turunen, M. Salo, H. Tuusa, "The influence of the DC-link voltage control on the current harmonic filtering of the series hybrid active power filters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Non-linear loads, such as diode and thyristor converters, saturated transformers and arc furnaces are typical sources of harmonic currents. Current harmonics have direct and indirect harmful effects on the components connected to the same power supply with harmonic source and on the surrounding device via electric and magnetic fields. Therefore current harmonics must be filtered. The harmonic currents can be filtered using either parallel-connected passive or active power filter or series hybrid active power filter (SHAPF). The filtering performance of active and hybrid filters is strongly affected by the DC-link voltage of the converter included in these filters. In this paper, this influence of the DC-link voltage control on the harmonic compensation result of two SHAPFs is investigated. Research is verified by experimental tests with SHAPF prototypes.

166    J. Tlusty, V. Valouch, P. Santarius, M. Kuzela, "Control strategies of active power filters for harmonic voltage mitigation in multibus industrial power systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The bus voltage and branch current detection control strategies of the active power filters used in industrial multibus power systems for harmonic voltage mitigation are analyzed and compared. The multiple harmonic optimization problem for attaining minimum harmonic voltage distortion at selected busbars of the power system is formulated in such a way that its solution yields optimum controller gains for both the methods.

167    C.G.C. Branco, C.M.T. Cruz, R.P. Torrico-Bascope, F.L.M. Antunes, "A non-isolated UPS topology with 110 V/220 V input output voltage," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A circuit configuration of a single phase non-isolated on-line uninterruptible power supply (UPS) with 110 V/220 V input output voltage rating is proposed, allowing the bypass operation even if the input voltage is different of the output voltage. The converter consists of an AC-DC/DC-DC three level boost converter combined with a double half bridge inverter. In this type of configuration, size, cost and efficiency are improved due to reduced number of switches and batteries, as well as no low frequency isolation transformer is required to realize bypass operation because of the common neutral connection. Both stages of the proposed circuit operate in high frequency, using a passive non-dissipative snubber circuit in the boost converter and IGBTs switches in the double half bridge inverter, with low conduction losses, low tail current and low switching losses. A simple and well-known control strategy is used and explained. Principle of operation and experimental results for a 2.6 kVA prototype are presented to demonstrate UPS performance.

168    R.P. Torrico-Bascope, D.S. Oliveira, C.G.C. Branco, F.L.M. Antunes, "A PFC pre-regulator with 110 V/220 V input voltage and high frequency isolation for UPS applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work deals with the development of a PFC pre-regulator circuit with possibility of 110 V/220 V AC main input voltages, while maintaining the same efficiency for a wide load range. Other relevant features of this circuit topology are high frequency transformer isolation, soft commutation of the controlled switches, simple control strategy that can be implemented with well-known integrated circuits and the use of few batteries in series due to step-up stage. This circuit is recommended for on-line UPS applications and it is convenient for the development in rack-type structures due to small size and reduced weight. Qualitative analysis and experimental results obtained from 1.6 kW prototype are presented.

169    J.G. Tracy, H.-E. Pfitzer, "Achieving high efficiency in a double conversion transformerless UPS," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the design of a transformerless UPS that uses two high frequency PWM power converters in series without sacrificing efficiency compared to their transformed forerunners. It has long been accepted, however, that a high frequency PWM converter will have higher losses than a diode rectifier or SCR phase control rectifier and that the loss in efficiency is simply one way to bare the cost for the increased performance. The advantages of using a high frequency PWM converter for the AC-to-DC stage are generally well known: improved input power factor; improved input current THD; and improved performance on a generator. This paper presents, as a case study, how one UPS design addressed the efficiency issue and controlled the losses to produce a product with efficiency equal to or better than the SCR forerunner.

170    D. Paraiso, E. Ngandui, M. de Montigny, P. Sicard, "Characterization of neutral and line current harmonics in three-phase computer power systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, analysis of the phase and neutral current harmonics in a three-phase computer power system are carried out under distorted and/or unbalanced supply voltage conditions. Furthermore, the impact of background voltage harmonics on the resultant harmonic currents produced by a large concentration of personal computers is investigated. Results obtained from the proposed approach are compared to simulation results obtained using the PSPICE software package.

171    J. Mazumdar, R. Harley, F. Lambert, G.K. Venayagamoorthy, "A novel method for predicting harmonic current injection from non-linear loads using neural networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Generation of harmonics and the existence of waveform pollution in power system networks is one of the major problems facing the utilities. This paper proposes a neural network solution methodology for the problem of measuring the actual amount of harmonic current injected into a power network by a nonlinear load. The determination of harmonic currents is complicated by the fact that the supply voltage waveform is distorted by other loads and is rarely a pure sinusoid. A recurrent neural network trained with the backpropagation through time (BPTT) training algorithm is used to find a way of distinguishing between the load harmonics and supply harmonics, without disconnecting the load from the network. The biggest advantage of this method is that only waveforms of voltages and currents have to be measured. This method is applicable for both single and three phase loads. This technology could be fabricated into a commercial instrument that could be installed in substations of large customer loads, or used as a hand-held clip on instrument.

172    L. Mandache, K. Al-Haddad, "Ideal lowpass filter technique to enhance harmonic spectrum estimation for power electronics circuits," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new and accurate method of harmonic analysis that permits to obtain high precision spectrum over wide range of bandwidth in order to mitigate power quality as well as EMI related problems. The proposed method is based on the estimation of intermediate points between the initial samples given by the available data acquisition system; therefore, the Fourier coefficients are estimated more precisely using the fast Fourier transform. As interpolation technique we chose digital to analog conversion with ideal lowpass filter for the reconstruction of the analog signal. The proposed method is tested on experimental signals and validated by adding known harmonic components to the measured signal. The obtained results are compared to traditional FFT as well as spline interpolation, and linear interpolation techniques. The performance of the proposed method and its superiority over the known techniques is discussed and the possible sources of errors are identified.

173    U.K. Madawala, D. Thrimawithana, N. Kularathna, "An ICPT-supercapacitor technology for contactless power transfer with surge suppression," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A technique that combines inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) and supercapacitor (SC) technologies to transfer power with dynamic isolation with in built protection for both common and differential modes transients, is described. The technique uses the ICPT technology to transfer power with no physical contacts and three or more banks of SCs to provide dynamic isolation with surge protection. To achieve dynamic isolation with surge protection, two different systems are investigated by computer simulation and the results are discussed. A prototype version of one such system is built and the experimental results obtained using a surge simulator are presented to show the validity of the proposed concept and its suitability for UPSs and emergency power supplies.

174    Tran-Quang Vinh, Tae-Won Chun, Jung-Ryol Ahn, Hong-Hee Lee, "Algorithms for controlling both the DC boost and AC output voltage of the Z-source inverter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper aims to achieve the good performances of both the DC boost control and AC output voltage control of the Z-source inverter. The algorithm to control linearly the capacitor voltage is suggested in order to improve the transient response for DC boost control of the Z-source inverter. The peak AC output voltage is used to control exactly the AC output voltage to its desired level. The proposed algorithms are verified with simulation and experiment with 32-bit DSP.

175    M.L.-B. Braiek, F. Fnaiech, K. Al-Haddad, "Adaptive controller based on a feedback linearization technique applied to a three-phase shunt active power filter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we present an adaptive controller for the shunt three phase active power filter, to guarantee a sinusoidal balanced current in the source side, a low harmonic distortion. To accomplish this objective, the shunt active filter is forced to inject the appropriate current to the line. The control technique consists of applying an adaptive non linear control to the exact non linear control to the active filter. By applying a non-linear feedback-linearization technique to the non linear model results in a linear model. Afterwards a model reference adaptive control scheme is proposed for the feedback-linearized system. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, some simulation results employing Simulink/power system block set of Matlab are demonstrated.

176    M. Winkelnkemper, S. Bernet, "Impact of control model deviations on the DC link capacitor minimization in AC-DC-AC converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the investigations on the minimization of the DC link capacitance in AC-DC-AC converters for induction motor (IM) drives. The major focus is the impact of the linearized model deviations from the real system on the minimization of the DC link capacitor. Different input-output power control schemes were applied to the AC-DC-AC converter. The impact of estimation errors, parameter mismatches and distorted grid voltages on the DC link voltage and the system stability were investigated. Simulation results are verified by experimental results obtained from a 15 kVA induction motor drive with a DC link capacitance of only 80 /spl mu/F.

177    M. Malinowski, M.P. Kazmierkowski, W. Szczygiel, S. Bernet, "Simple sensorless active damping solution for three-phase PWM rectifier with LCL filter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Three-phase PWM (active) rectifiers are connected to the line power through inductance or LCL filter. LCL filter is more effective (better attenuates switching harmonics), however such solution causes stability problems. In order to assure stable operation either a damping resistor or active damping algorithm has to be used. However, extra resistor causes additional losses and active damping algorithm usually needs extra sensors. Therefore, this paper shows simulation and experimental results of a simple AC voltage sensorless active damping solution suitable for industrial application.

178    Z.M. Ye, P.K. Jain, P.C. Sen, "A new control scheme for circulating current minimization in high frequency AC power distribution architecture with multiple inverter modules operated in parallel," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 8 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The control issue of multiple inverter module operation (MIMO) is investigated for high frequency AC power distribution architecture, where multiple high frequency resonant inverters are connected in parallel to the high frequency, high voltage low current (HVLC) AC bus, to feed a number of point-of-use-power-supplies. The circulating current in MIMO is analyzed first. A novel control scheme is proposed based on the active and reactive current decomposition concept. In the proposed control, there are two loops, the current sharing control loop and voltage feedback control loop. For the current sharing loop, active current and reactive current are controlled separately. It is shown that the minimization of circulating current can be achieved if both the active currents and reactive currents are evenly distributed among activated inverter modules. This method is superior to the scalar control where only magnitudes of the currents are controlled. Performance is verified for both steady state and transient conditions.

179    D.O. Abdeslam, D. Flieller, P. Wira, J. Merckle, "Adaline neural networks for online extracting the direct, inverse and homopolar voltage components from a composite voltage," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work describes an improved Adaline neural networks method for online extracting the direct, inverse and homopolar voltage components from a composite voltage. A new voltage decomposition is thus proposed and developed. These skills are transferred to four Adalines by fixing their inputs. Adaline neural networks are used with a LMS learning process to compute the weights biases and thus to find out the amplitude and the phase of the direct, inverse and homopolar voltages of the electrical network. The learning allows an online adaptation to the changing parameters of the electrical network, e.g., nonlinear and time-varying loads. Compliant reference signals, i.e., sinusoidal and equilibrated voltages, are obtained from the proposed neural method, enhancing the harmonics compensations performance. A comparison with a conventional PLL is also addressed. Simulations and experiments are reported.

180    A.G. Perry, G. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, P.C. Sen, "A new analysis and design method for fuzzy logic controllers used in power converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel design procedure of fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for DC-to-DC converters that integrates linear control techniques with fuzzy logic. The design procedure allows the small signal model of power converters and linear control design techniques to be used in the initial stages of FLC design. This simplifies the small signal design and the stability assessment of the FLC. By exploiting the fuzzy logic structure of the controller, heuristic knowledge is incorporated into the design, resulting in a non-linear controller with improved large signal performance over linear PI controllers.

181    Hao Ma, Tao Zhang, "Sliding mode control for AC signal power amplifier," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the detailed analysis and design for DC-AC buck inverter with sliding mode control is presented. As the new inverter is composed of two independent current bi-directional buck converters, the sliding mode controller is analyzed by an equivalent circuit. The design of the sliding surface coefficient is analyzed according to its relationship with the dynamic response of the system, the existence of sliding motion and the inductor current during starting-state. The stability of sliding mode controlled buck inverter is researched on system parameters and the frequency of output signal. Furthermore, the switching frequency is calculated for the practical system. Finally the experimental results are presented to support the analysis and to prove that the sliding mode control strategy can achieves a stable, robust, and good dynamic goal. The new inverter can be used in signal amplifier and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), etc.

182    Da Zhang, H. Li, S.Y. Foo, "A simplified FPGA implementation of neural network algorithms integrated with stochastic theory for power electronics applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recently, artificial neural networks (ANNs) have found many promising applications in power electronics. However, the hardware implementation of ANN requires too many resources due to its parallel structure. The unavailability of real-time ANN hardware at an attractive price limits its applications. This paper proposes a simplified ANN hardware architecture using FPGA for the power electronic applications, and applies the proposed structure to a neural network based wind speed sensorless control system for wind turbine driven generators. This approach provides the solution for the low cost FPGA ANN chip. In order to reduce the scale of the digital circuits to implement ANN, stochastic principles are introduced to employ the simplified feed-forward neural network. By using this method which the real numbers are performed using random streams of bits instead of binary number, the normal digital approaches of arithmetic operations such as multiplication are replaced by stochastic arithmetic which could save digital resource significantly. In this paper, VHDL based FPGA techniques are also applied to analyze the performance of the proposed structure.

183    H. Zhu, R.P. Burgos, F. Lacaux, A. Uan-Zo-li, D.K. Lindner, F. Wang, D. Boroyevich, "Average modeling of three-phase and nine-phase diode rectifiers with improved AC current and DC voltage dynamics," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new average modeling approach for three-phase and nine-phase diode rectifiers with improved AC and DC dynamics. The key assumption taken in this paper is to model the DC load current using its first-order Taylor series expansion throughout the entire averaging timespan, i.e., commutation and conduction periods. The resultant average models present an excellent steady-state and transient behavior, matching their respective detailed switching models with less than 1 % measured error. Moreover, the analytic nature of these models makes them suitable for simulation and stability studies of variable frequency power systems. The paper presents an in-depth description of the modeling approach, together with a thorough static and transient validation of the proposed models. The model is validated through comparison of average model in MATLAB, switching model in Saber and the experimental results.

184    B. Yin, R. Oruganti, S.K. Panda, A.K.S. Bhat, "Experimental verification of a dual single-input single-output model of a three-phase boost-type PWM rectifier," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a simple dual SISO (single-input-single-output) model for a three-phase boost-type PWM rectifier under balanced line voltage conditions. In the proposed model, the q-axis model is a first order linear system determining the power factor regulation, whereas the d-axis model, which is shown to be similar to a traditional DC-DC boost converter, is a second-order non-linear system determining the power delivery. It is much easier to analyze and control a complex three-phase PWM rectifier using the proposed model. In addition, the complex non-minimum phase feature inherent in a AC-to-DC rectifier becomes a simple right half plane (RHP) zero appearing in the small-signal control-to-output transfer function of the proposed d-axis model. The knowledge of RHP zero's location is vital to the successful design of a stable controller for the rectifier, as the presence of the RHP zero imposes a strict limit on the achievable closed loop performance. The validity of the proposed model is verified through experimental Bode plot results obtained using a hardware prototype.

185    Myunghyo Ryu, Honnyong Cha, Yonghwan Park, Juwon Back, "Analysis of the contactless power transfer system using modelling and analysis of the contactless transformer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the electrical characteristics of the contactless transformer is presented using conventional coupled inductor theory. Compared with the conventional transformer, a contactless transformer has large airgap, long primary wire and multi-secondary wire. So contactless transformer has large leakage inductance, small magnetizing inductance and poor coupling coefficient. Therefore, large magnetizing current flows through entire primary system due to small magnetizing inductance and the overall system efficiency will be low. In high power applications, contactless transformer is so bulky and heavy that it should be split by some light and small transformers. So contactless transformer needs several small transformer modules which are connected series or parallel to transfer the primary power to the secondary one. This paper shows analysis and measurement results of the each contactless transformer module and comparison results between series-connection and parallel-connection of the contactless transformer. The results are verified on the simulation based on the theoretical analysis and the 30 kW experimental prototype.

186    Ma Huasheng, Zhang Bo, Zheng Jianchao, Liu Xuechao, "Dynamic characteristics analysis and instantaneous value control design for buck-type power electronic transformer (PET)," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Detail dynamic characteristics analysis of buck-type PET under general load condition was accomplished and the study showed that: under general inductive load condition, the open-loop system is marginally stable and serious output voltage oscillation can be provoked by any random disturbance upon input voltage, control signal or output current. Therefore, in order to ensure the out power quality, we must find out a suitable close-loop regulator. In this paper, we employed the classical PID control algorithm to instantaneously control output voltage following the pre-setting signal. The close-loop system was stable and had good dynamic response characteristic. In addition, during one switching period, the line-frequency input/output voltage and output impedance were treated as constants, and a parameter-/spl gamma/, which is related to load feature, was introduced to simplify the modeling and analyzing process, it is a valid method for small-signal modeling and system dynamic analysis of the PET.

187    Lei Hu, Mingyao Ma, Alian Chen, Xiangning He, Hao Ma, "Reconfiguration of carrier-based modulation strategy for fault tolerant multilevel inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on the fault-tolerance of the multilevel inverters with the redundant switching states. The failure situations of the multilevel inverters are classified into two kinds of them according to relationship between the output voltage level and the switching states. When some of the power devices fail, the gate signals are reconfigured according to the failure types. The method is discussed for phase disposition PWM strategy (PDPWM) and phase shifted PWM strategy (PSPWM) in the paper and it can be extended for other carrier-based PWM strategies easily. The normal line-to-line voltage will be achieved with the proposed method when device failure occurs. At the same time, the circuit structures are the same as the generally used ones and the voltage stress of the devices does not increase. The simulation and experimental results are included in the paper to verify the proposed method.

188    J. Pou, P. Rodriguez, V. Sala, J. Zaragoza, R. Burgos, D. Boroyevich, "Fast-processing modulation strategy for the neutral-point-clamped converter with total elimination of the low-frequency voltage oscillations in the neutral point," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel modulation strategy for the neutral-point-clamped converter. This strategy overcomes one of the main problems of this converter, which is the low-frequency voltage oscillation that appears in the neutral point under some operating conditions. The proposed modulation strategy can completely remove this oscillation for all the operating points and for any kind of loads, even unbalanced and nonlinear loads. The algorithm is based on a carrier-based PWM. Nevertheless, it can generate the maximum output voltage amplitudes attainable under linear modulation, such as space-vector modulation. Furthermore, this technique can be implemented with a very simple algorithm, and hence can be processed very quickly. A control loop for balancing the voltages on the DC-link capacitors is also proposed. This balancing strategy is designed so that it does not increase the switching frequencies of the devices when it is applied to the converter. The proposed modulation technique is verified by simulation and experiment.

189    M. Hamouda, F. Fnaiech, K. Al-Haddad, "Space vector modulation scheme for dual-bridge matrix converters using safe-commutation strategy," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The proposed space-vector modulation scheme for dual-bridge matrix converters uses the principle of the indirect modulation strategy to calculate the duty cycles of the active vectors. On the other hand, zero-vectors duration and distribution within a switching cycle are elaborated such that the line side switches commutate at zero-current leading to safe commutation of the converter. The switching frequency (f/sub s/) can be expressed in terms of the line frequency (f/sub l/) as: f/sub s/= 6*N/sub s/*f/sub l/. For integer values of N/sub s/, synchronization in time between the starting of each switching period and the position of the input current reference in the complex plane is performed. Compared to a previous modulation scheme, this strategy leads to reducing the harmonic distortion factor of the input current in particular case when N/sub s/ is odd. The effectiveness of the considered modulation scheme is emphasized using Matlab and Simulink software.

190    R. Baghernejad, A. Bakhshai, D. Yazdani, "A real-time neuro-computing three-dimensional space vector algorithm for three-phase four-leg converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Four-leg voltage source converters have successfully been used to ify the zero-sequence current generated by unbalanced or nonlinear loads. This paper introduces an on-line, simple, intelligent, and computationally efficient neuro-computing classification algorithm for the implementation of three-dimensional space vector modulation (SVM) on four-leg voltage-source inverters. The proposed technique uses the concepts of counter propagation neural networks (CPN) for prism identification, and employs a nonlinear classifier network for tetrahedron identification. Nonlinear function approximations and bulky look up tables are successfully avoided, and exact positioning of the switching instants is obtained. Analytical analysis and simulations on a four-leg voltage-source converter validate the proposed scheme.

191    Rui Wu, Donghua Chen, Shaojun Xie, "A three-dimensional space vector modulation algorithm in a-b-c coordinate implemented by a FPGA," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces the principle of the SVM in a-b-c coordinates in detail. The traditional SVM require a bit of digital logic and computational power to determining the duty ratio of each switch. However, the algorithm for three-phase four-leg inverter in abc coordinates avoids the /spl alpha//spl beta//spl gamma/ transformation, which can make the selection of the switching vectors and calculation of the duty cycle much easier, and reduce the complexity of the modulation obviously. The implementation on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) of the SVM algorithm is also studied. The inverter implemented on FPGA has a fast response and high performances because FPGA can execute several processes synchronously in stead of executing instructions step by step. Simulation and experiment results convince the validity of the novel SVM algorithm and the feasibility to implementation on a FPGA based on the algorithm.

192    V. Oleschuk, F. Blaabjerg, Z. Chen, A.M. Stankovic, "Synchronized PWM scheme for dual inverter-fed drives with zero common-mode voltages," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Novel method of direct synchronized pulsewidth modulation is applied for control of a dual inverter-fed open-end winding induction motor drive with zero common-mode voltages. New strategy and algorithms of synchronized PWM provide symmetry of the phase voltage of the system during the whole control range including the zone of overmodulation. Spectra of the phase voltage do not contain even harmonics and sub-harmonics (combined harmonics), which is especially important for the drive systems with increased power rating. Simulations gave the behaviour of dual inverter-fed system with the proposed synchronized PWM scheme.

193    S.A. Saleh, M.A. Rahman, "Discrete time-based model of the sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel mathematical model for the sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM) technique. The proposed mathematical model is based on the sampling theory and discrete-time signal processing tools. In this model, the carrier signal is represented as a non-uniform sampling function, while the switching actions are viewed as an interpolating process. The proposed mathematical model is used to simulate a single phase SPWM voltage source inverter. The simulation results are compared to the conventional SPWM model for the same inverter. The match between the results of the proposed and conventional SPWM models validates the accuracy of the new mathematical model.

194    Jyh-Wei Chen, "Design of random pulse-width modulated inverter with lower-order harmonic elimination," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A random pulse-width modulated inverter based on programmed PWM with lower-order harmonics elimination is presented in this paper. In motor drive applications, the high switching frequencies often results in acoustic noises, which make operator feel uncomfortable. The programmed PWM are used to solve nonlinear equation eliminating harmonics with initial value obtained by equal area PWM to obtain the switching angle. More than 50 sets of switching patterns are solved by the proposed method to randomly sample at every period to generate PWM waveform. Random probability function is used to obtain the harmonic spectrum distribution by random sampling method to determine the output voltage waveforms. The harmonic spectrum is spread out to normalize the side-band harmonics and lower-order harmonics are eliminated significantly as well so that the EMI problems can be alleviated efficiently. In practical circuit implementation, the random selection of the solved PWM switching patterns results in different switching pattern and harmonic spectra at every period so that the concentrated sideband harmonic energy can be spread out.

195    Wenjie Guo, Fei Lin, Trillion Zheng, "Nonlinear PI control for three-phase PWM AC-DC converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a nonlinear PI control strategy for three-phase PWM AC-DC voltage source converter. The nonlinear controller, consisting of the special nonlinear function of the error and the traditional PI regulator, improves the DC voltage response as well as the robustness against the load uncertainty. In addition, the sinusoidal AC current and unity power factor is achieved. This controller is also easy to be realized. The simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the validity of the proposed control algorithm.

196    A. Sandali, A. Cheriti, P. Sicard, H.B. Ali, "PDM control applied to an AC/AC converter with three-phase diode rectifier," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A control strategy based on pulse density modulation (PDM) is established for an AC/AC converter, consisting of a three-phase diode rectifier without smoothing filter and a series resonant inverter, to control the load power and optimize the power factor of the current drawn from the AC-supply. Two control laws are elaborated. The first considers the optimization of the power-factor but requires very heavy calculations. The second optimizes the displacement factor but requires less calculations.

197    H.Y. Kanaan, K. Al-Haddad, "A comparative analysis of nonlinear current control schemes applied to a SEPIC power factor corrector," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a comparative analysis of two nonlinear control schemes proposed for a single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) power factor corrector (PFC) is presented. The SEPIC converter, compared to conventional buck or boost ones, allows a low current ripple at the input for a relatively low level of the DC-bus voltage. Consequently, the high frequency filter needed at the AC-side of a buck converter is avoided, and the high voltage stresses applied on the switches are significantly reduced with respect to the boost converter. The converter is integrated at the DC-end of a single-phase diode bridge. In order to ensure a unity power factor at the AC-source side and a regulated voltage at the DC-load side, a multiple-loops feedback control scheme has to be developed. Two control strategies are considered in this paper. The first one uses a robust hysteresis current controller, whereas the other method is based on the application of the input/output feedback linearization technique on a state-space averaged model of the converter. In order to verify and compare the performance of both control schemes, numerical simulations are carried out on a switching-functions-based model of the converter, which is implemented using Matlab/Simulink. The proposed model of the converter is valid in the continuous current mode (CCM) and the discontinuous current mode (DCM). The control systems are tested under both rated and disturbed operating conditions. The systems performance is evaluated in terms of source current total harmonic distortion (THD), input power factor, DC voltage regulation and robustness toward a load disturbance.

198    J.T. Bialasiewicz, D. Gonzalez, J. Balcells, J. Gago, "Wavelet analysis of the effectiveness of conducted EMI reduction in power converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It has been demonstrated that modulating the switching frequency of a power converter is a worthy way to reduce EMI due to switching process. Since modulations following periodic patterns are time dependent processes, wavelets are well suited to analyze the performance of such techniques. Wavelet analysis shows the frequency content of the switching waveform as a function of time that cannot be seen using conventional Fourier analysis. In this paper, wavelets are used to compare three periodic modulation patterns by means of figures of merit derived from time-dependent energy density distribution in frequency, represented by the scalogram. Similar indexes of merit, involving coscalograms, are proposed to be used in the future work.

199    Yi-Hsin Leu, Tsou-Min Chen, Chern-Lin Chen, "Analysis and design of the two-transformer asymmetrical half-bridge converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two-transformer asymmetrical half-bridge converter allows duty cycle larger than 50% and hence has the merits of lower output rectifier stress and wider input voltage range. In this paper, detailed circuit operations of the converter are analyzed. A practical design procedure is then developed. Zero voltage switching (ZVS) conditions of power switches are quantitatively investigated. Experimental results obtained from a 24 V/10 A prototype operating at 200 kHz are presented.

200    N. Ginot, J.-C. Le Claire, L. Loron, "Active loads for hardware in the loop emulation of electro-technical bodies," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The electronic and electro-technical bodies of electric vehicles become more complex. Then, the cost of the test and the qualify process increase. Indeed, the full test of a vehicle grid requires cabling all the parts in the laboratory. Thus, it is useful to emulate the batteries, the alternators, the various electric motors used in vehicles. This can be done by using active loads. Thanks to these power systems it is possible to simplifying the test of batteries because there is no chemical element or electric motor. The Electronavale Technologie society, which is a partnership of the IREENA laboratory, has developed power benches for the emulation of the batteries and the electrical machines. Two kinds of power benches are built and involved high dynamic current or voltage regulators. Each of the benches is connected to a bay of constraint in order to make the power flow go in the right way. The bay of constraint feeds or dissipates the energy. Each active load setup is made by an inside DSPACE's computer which executes a software coming from a supervisor computer. This one sends the instruction to the different bodies involved in the plant. In the following, a general overview of the active loads is done. A short presentation of the pulse width technique is done too. Then, the active loads are presented in details and the experimental results are given.

201    H. Mao, L. Yao, J. Liu, I. Batarseh, "Comparison study of inductors current sharing in non-isolated and isolated DC-DC converters with interleaved structures," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Current sharing is an important issue in both isolated and non-isolated DC-DC converters. In the paper, average current sharing is modelled and analyzed for both interleaved multi-phase buck converters and isolated DC-DC converters with current doubler rectifiers. Important design rules and guidelines are provided based on the modelling and analyses. A passive current sharing method is presented to achieve balanced current sharing between two inductors in a current doubler rectifier. Experimental results are presented to verify the modelling of the proposed topology.

202    A.J.N. Borges, L.C.G. de Freitas, J.B.V. Junior, E.A.A. Coelho, V.J. Faria, L.C. de Freitas, "A single switch double forward converter without commutation losses," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces a new forward converter topology that uses the full hysterisis cycle with two symmetric forward converters coupled in a single magnetic core. It also presents lossless commutation when turning on and off managed by an LC circuit and auxiliary switches. As a result, high frequency switching can be achieved not increasing the switching losses.

203    Qingshui Li, X. Wang, I. Batarseh, "Large signal compensation network design for VRM transient response improvement," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Most of the compensation network designs in power supplies are based on the small signal model methods, which can not apply to the transient periods because it goes into the saturation region. The large signal response is determined by error amplifier dv/dt and main converter di/dt, a trade off between the stability and transient response. This paper presents one new control circuit to improve large signal transient response. Finally, experimental prototype was carried out in VRM with current injection converter to verify the theoretical analysis.

204    Tiecheng Sun, Xueguang Zhang, Pinghua Tang, Lin Mei, "A novel ZVZCS full-bridge PWM DC-DC converter with active voltage clamp and energy recovery circuit," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An improved zero voltage and zero current switching (ZVZCS) full-bridge (FB) PWM DC-DC converter is proposed. The new converter overcomes drawbacks such as voltage ringing and voltage overshoot in conventional ZVZCS converter. An auxiliary circuit consists of auxiliary switcher, clamping capacitor, diode rectifier and energy recovery transformer. The auxiliary circuit alleviates the voltage ringing and voltage overshoot in secondary side of transformer and recovers the energy absorbed by clamping capacitor to the power supply in primary side. Because the auxiliary circuit is shunt to main circuit, the energy loss is very small so high efficiency of the converter is achieved. Synchronizing rectifier is used in secondary side of transformer so this converter is very attractive to low voltage, high current application. The operation, analysis, and design consideration are illustrated and verified on a 1 kW 100 kHz IGBT based experimental circuit.

205    Chu-Yi Chiang, Chern-Lin Chen, "Integrated circuit approach for soft switching in boundary-mode buck converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An integrated circuit approach is presented for ensuring soft switching operations in boundary-mode buck converters. This technique, accomplished by integrated circuitry, can automatically track the soft switching point without taking energy storage components into account. This control concept may be applied to boost and buck-boost converters as well. Circuit design and simulation results for an example circuit with V/sub IN/ 5 V and V/sub OUT/ 1.2 V are shown.

206    Huafeng Xiao, Donghua Chen, Shaojun Xie, "A ZVS bi-directional DC-DC converter for high-low voltage conversion," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A ZVS bi-directional DC-DC converter for high-low voltage conversion is analyzed in this paper. A novel control scheme adopting one port voltage regulated and another port current regulated is proposed to realize the energy conversion in bi-directional freely. A start-up circuit is presented for eliminating the surge current in boost mode. The operation characteristics and parameter design are analyzed in detail. A prototype rated 100 W 10 V/100 V bi-directional DC-DC converter adopting the proposed circuit and control scheme is tested.

207    T. Etoh, T. Ahmed, E. Hiraki, K. Morimoto, Khairy Fathy, N.A. Ahmed, Hyun Woo Lee, Mutsuo Nakaoka, "32 V-300 A/60 kHz edge resonant soft-switching PWM DC/DC converter with DC rail series switch-parallel capacitor snubber assisted by high-frequency transformer parasitic components," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The conduction losses of the active switches can be lowered, which are connected to the primary side of extremely step-down high frequency transformer because of low voltage large current rectifier configuration. This paper presents two new circuit topologies of DC busline side active edge resonant snubber assisted soft-switching PWM full-bridge DC-DC converter acceptable for either utility AC 200 V-rms or AC 400 V-rms input voltage source. One topology of proposed DC-DC converters is composed of a typical voltage source-fed full-bridge high frequency PWM inverter using DC busline side series power semiconductor switching devices with the aid of a parallel capacitive lossless snubber. All the active power switches in the full-bridge arms and DC busline can achieve ZCS turn-on and ZVS turn-off commutations and the total turn-off switching power losses of all active switches can be reduced for high-frequency switching action. It is proved that the more the switching frequency of full-bridge soft switching inverter increases, the more soft-switching PWM DC-DC converter with a high frequency transformer link has remarkable advantages for its efficiency and power density as compared with the conventional hard-switching PWM inverter type DC-DC converter. In this paper, another modified version topology of utility AC 200 V-rms grid-connected soft switching DC-DC converter mentioned above is also implemented and evaluated, which is more suitable for utility 400 V-rms grid power source. The effectiveness of these new DC-DC converters topologies is proved for low voltage and large current high efficiency DC-DC power supplies as TIG are welding machine from a practical point of view.

208    M.S. Agamy, P.K. Jain, "A single stage three level resonant PFC AC/DC converter using combined phase-shift and frequency control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new single stage three level resonant power factor correction AC/DC converter suitable for high power applications (in the order of kilowatts) with a universal input voltage range (90-265 Vrms). The proposed topology integrates a boost input current shaper with a half-bridge three-level LCC resonant DC/DC converter. The converter operation is controlled by means of a combination of phase-shift and frequency control. The phase-shift between the switch gate pulses is used to regulate the DC-bus voltage to a specified level for all loading conditions, whereas, frequency control is used to tightly regulate the output voltage. An auxiliary circuit is used in order to balance the voltage across the two DC-bus capacitors. The input inductor operates in discontinuous conduction mode. The effectiveness of the proposed converter is verified for a 2.3 kW, 500 kHz converter with an input voltage range of (90-265 Vrms) and a DC output voltage of 48 V.

209    D.J. Tschirhart, P.K. Jain, "A novel asymmetrical-pulse-width-modulated CLL resonant converter with improved efficiency," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel circuit configuration is presented as an attractive option for point-of-use power supplies (PUPS) used in telecom applications. A CLL resonant tank is used to guarantee zero voltage switching (ZVS) for the entire working range. The proposed circuit arrangement offers an extended input voltage range of 35 V-75 V; while significantly reducing the associated conduction loss to improve the overall efficiency. Proper resonant tank design will ensure efficient operation over the entire working range by maintaining zero voltage switching for all line and load conditions, as well as minimizing conduction loss by decreasing circulating current commensurate with load. The design steps for a 25 W, 48 V/2.5 V converter are given in a detailed analysis. SIMetrix simulation results are presented to validate the proof-of-concept design and to highlight the merits of the proposed topology.

210    M.S. Agamy, P.K. Jain, "A new zero voltage switching single stage power factor corrected three level resonant AC/DC converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new single stage power factor correction (SSPFC) AC/DC converter based on a three level LCC resonant converter topology. The proposed circuit integrates the operation of the boost power factor pre-regulator and the three level resonant DC/DC converter. The proposed control technique for this circuit is based on two control loops: the output voltage is regulated by controlling the switching frequency of the resonant converter, whereas, the DC bus voltage is regulated by means of duty cycle control of the boost part of the converter. This provides a regulated output voltage and a nearly constant DC bus voltage regardless of the loading condition; this in turn allows using smaller switches and consequently having a lower on resistance helping to reduce conduction losses. Zero voltage switching (ZVS) is also achieved for a wide range of loading and input voltage by having a lagging resonant current in addition to the flowing of the boost inductor current through the body diodes of the upper pair of switches in the free wheeling mode. The effectiveness of this method is verified on a 2.3 kW, 48 V converter, input voltage (90-265 Vrms). The converter has a resonant frequency of 770 kHz, and is operated above resonant frequency.

211    Yilei Gu, Lijun Hang, Zhengyu Lu, Zhaoming Qian, Dehong Xu, "Voltage doubler application in isolated resonant converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two basic conditions of voltage-doubler adopted in isolated DC/DC converter are analyzed. According to the basic conditions, that voltage-doubler can be both adopted in LC series resonant converter and LLC multi-resonant converter. Operation characteristic of voltage-doubler adopted in isolated DC/DC converter is described in detail based on the analysis of voltage-doubler rectifying LLC multi-resonant converter. Advantages of voltage-doubler rectifying LLC multi-resonant converter are described in detail as follows, structure of transformer, in which one winding is involved on its secondary side, is simple, voltage stress of output capacitor is half of output and extra voltage balancing circuit is excluded. Two rectifier diodes are included on output end, voltage and current stress of diodes respectively equal output voltage and current. Therefore, the topology is a preferable candidate for such application as low-medium power level DC/DC converter with high output voltage. In addition, principle of automatic voltage balancing for output capacitor is presented, moreover design of key parameter is specified as well. Presented characteristics of the very topology are verified by a prototype, whose output is 500 V and efficiency of full load reaches 92.3%.

212    Z.M. Ye, P.K. Jain, P.C. Sen, "Analysis and design of full bridge resonant inverter for high frequency AC distributed power system application," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 8 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates series-parallel resonant inverter for high frequency AC power distribution architectures for future computer and telecom applications. Resonant inverter differs from resonant converter in that the output side of the inverter is subject to linear load directly, while in the converter, a rectifier is followed by a filter with much lower resonant frequency compared to the operation frequency. The resonant inverter in AC DPS is complicated by the factors that the load impedance is unknown and the input line voltage varies for a wide range. Soft-switching design of the resonant inverter is challenging because it is mandatory to take into consideration of load of different power factors as well as the wide input range. Analysis and design curves for the inverter with a general load model are developed and analyzed for non-resistive load conditions. Experimental verifications on one prototype inverter of 1 MHz, output power 150 W at 28 V RMS are presented.

213    Hong-Hee Lee, S.A. Kharitonov, N.I. Borodin, D.V. Korobkov, G.S. Zinoviev, "Results of development and research of the charge device for emergency automatics of power complexes," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Results of development and research of the charge device with microprocessor control for an operative feed of circuits of DC power complexes are described. The device is executed with an opportunity of modules parallel inclusion of different power. High accuracy of output energy parameters stabilization is achieved: voltage 0,33 % at a level of pulsations no more than 0,24 % in voltage stabilization mode; current 1,67 % at pulsations level no more than 1,66 % in current stabilization mode that guarantees the increased service life of the battery. Devices efficiency 0.9 with power 24 kW.

214    P.S. Flannery, G. Venkataramanan, "A new polyphase matrix converter topology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 8 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new topology for bidirectional sinusoidal AC-AC power conversion is proposed in this paper. The power converter topology is derived from conventional three phase-three phase matrix converters. The approach uses polyphase balanced three phase AC voltage stiff sources interfaced to three phase current stiff loads using a switching matrix. Availability of isolated balanced three phase AC sources allows the use of reduced number of switches with two quadrant switches, thereby allowing a simple realization of the converter. A set of phase shifting transformers is used to generate polyphase voltages sets to drive the converter. An analysis of the semiconductor and transformer VA rating is presented. A switch modulation technique is developed using vector representation of the converter input-output properties. Experimental results from a laboratory prototype converter are presented to verify the operation of the converter.

215    Hong-Hee Lee, H.M. Nguyen, Eui-Heon Jung, "A study on reduction of common-mode voltage in matrix converter with unity input power factor and sinusoidal input/output waveforms," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a modified space-vector pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy which can restrict the common-mode voltage for three-phase to three-phase matrix converter and still keep sinusoidal input and output waveforms and unity power factor at the input side. The proposed control method has been developed based on contributing the appropriate space vectors instead of using zero space vectors. The advantages of this proposed method is to reduce the peak value of common-mode voltage to 42% beside the lower high harmonic components as compared to the conventional SVM method. Hence, the new table is also presented with the new space vector rearrangement. Furthermore, the voltage transfer ratio is unaffected by the proposed method. A simulation of the overall system has been carried out to validate the advantages of the proposed method.

216    F. Yue, P.W. Wheeler, J.C. Clare, "Cancellation of 3rd common-mode voltage generated by matrix converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Matrix converters which remove the reactive energy storage component, have many merits over conventional converters. Unlike traditional converters, such as 3-level inverters, which can produce sinusoidal output without low common-mode harmonics, matrix converters generate third common-mode harmonics. In this paper, an approach to cancel the third common-mode voltage is proposed. The self charging technique is applied and a fast start-up scheme is described. A resonant controller is introduced as a feed back controller. Two modulation methods are implemented and feed forward control is applied to accelerate system response. The proposed techniques are validated by simulation.

217    N.A. Ahmed, M. Miyatake, T. Ahmed, Hyun Woo Lee, "Time sharing sinewave modulated single-phase inverter using bypass diode assisted sinewave absolute value tracking boost chopper with non electrolytic capacitor DC link," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is aimed at presenting a novel system topology and control scheme of a selective dual mode pulse modulated high efficiency single-phase sinewave power conversion circuit for new energy generation and storage applications. This power conversion system is composed of a time-sharing operated sinewave absolute modulation boost chopper with a bypass diode in the first power conditioning and processing stage and time-sharing sinewave partially pulse modulated full-bridge inverter in the second stage. The proposed power conditioner is operated by selective timesharing dual mode pulse pattern signal processing control scheme without electrolytic capacitor DC link. The unique operating principle of the two-power conditioning and processing stages with sectional time-sharing dual mode partial sinewave modulation scheme is described and discussed with a design example. In addition, the paper proposes also a sinewave tracking voltage controlled soft switching PWM boost chopper with a bypass diode loop, which includes a passive auxiliary edge-resonant snubber. The new conceptual operating principle and the control implementation of this novel power conditioner are presented and evaluated through experimental and simulation results.

218    J. Marshall, M. Kazerani, "Design of an efficient fuel cell vehicle drivetrain, featuring a novel boost converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Most automobile manufacturers have invested in the development of fuel cell vehicles. The motivation behind this has been the escalating concerns about energy security, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and adverse environmental effects of operating internal combustion engine vehicles. The cost of fuel cell vehicles has to be dramatically reduced and many technical problems in hydrogen storage, fuel cell reliability, and power management have to be solved before fuel cell vehicles can be commercially available. In this paper, a design process for developing a highly efficient power management system for a cell-powered small SUV is documented. An analytic approach is used to select the optimal energy storage system for a fuel cell SUV. Also, a novel high-efficiency DC/DC converter for the fuel cell vehicle is introduced. Simulation and experimental results are presented to prove the concept.

219    Liang Zhao, Bo Zhang, Huasheng Ma, Xuechao Liu, "Research and experiment of Sheppard-Taylor topology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we try to use Sheppard-Taylor (S-T) topology to realize one high efficiency and high power factor AC/DC converter with the output of low voltage and high current. The problems between synchronous rectifier (SR) and power factor correction (PFC) are discussed in detail. The experiment model and circuit parameters are reliable and derived by particular calculations. The simulation shows the designed circuit is feasible and correct. One prototype is accomplished, which the rated input is 110 V AC source and the rated output is 1.5 V/30 A DC load.

220    Byung Duk Min, Jong Hyun Kim, Evgeny Pavlov, Dong Wook You, Myung Hyo Ryu, Geun Hie Rim, "A compact pulse generator using diode opening switch for engine gas treatment application," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 3 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a compact pulse generator is proposed for NO/sub x/ removal system using a corona discharge effect from the exhaust gas of engine cars. A compact pulser based on diodes for opening switches and inductive energy storage has been developed. The pulser consists of a pulse compression circuit including a primary low-voltage stored capacitor, a semiconductor closing switch (a thyristor) as its initial switch, a saturable pulse transformer, and secondary high-voltage circuit including a capacitor, opening diodes, and a resistive load. The experiment results of a proposed pulser with resistance of 200 /spl Omega/ are following: the voltage amplitude is about 21 kV, the rise time (between 0.1/spl sim/0.9 of amplitude) is about 21 ns, the pulse width in full width at half maximum (FWHM) is about 42 ns.

221    Jong-Hyun Kim, Myung-Hyo Ryu, Byung-Duk Min, S.V. Shenderey, Jong-Soo Kim, Geun-Hie Rim, "High voltage pulse power supply using Marx generator & solid-state switches," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High voltage pulse power supply using Marx generator and solid-state switches is proposed in this study. The Marx generator is composed of 12 stages and each stage is made of IGBT stack, two diode stacks, and capacitor. To charge the capacitors of each stage in parallel, inductive charging method is used and this method results in high efficiency and high repetition rates. It can generate the pulse voltage with the following parameters: voltage: up to 120 kV, rising time: sub /spl mu/S, pulse width: up to 10 /spl mu/S, pulse repetition rate: 1000 pps. The proposed pulsed power generator uses IGBT stack with a simple driver and has modular design. So this system structure gives compactness and easiness to implement total system. Some experimental results are included to verify the system performances in this paper.

222    J.B. Wang, C.Y. Chuang, "A multiphase battery charger with pulse charging scheme," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a multiphase battery charger to improve the current utilization of the power supply unit (PSU) and the over voltage problem during negative discharging period is presented. According to output voltage specification of the PSU, maximum output power limitation, duty ratio and current ripples of the output inductor, the desired output voltage and maximum amplitude of the pulse charging current command can be determined for a small capacity sealed lead acid battery. The design procedures of the multiphase battery charger are detailed in this paper. Finally, three 7AH lead acid batteries were used to demonstrate the proposed multiphase pulse charging scheme. From simulation and experimental results show the over voltage problem of the PSU during negative discharging period that can be improved significantly.

223    J.I. Leon, L.G. Franquelo, R.C. Portillo, M.M. Prats, "DC-link capacitors voltage balancing in multilevel four-leg diode-clamped converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel four-leg four-wire converters are creating increasing interest nowadays in applications as active filters. They present several advantages compared to the three-leg converter topologies. Recently the control complexity has been reduced thanks to the use of new and powerful microprocessor systems, hence the balance of the DC-link voltage is the major drawback of this kind of topologies. In this paper, the first control strategy to carry out the balance of the DC-link voltage in the multilevel four-leg four-wire diode-clamped converter is presented. This strategy uses the known technique based on choosing the most suitable redundant vector in the space vector modulation algorithm in order to reduce the unbalance. It is important to notice that the proposed method is independent of the load and independent of the number of levels of the converter. Some simulation results show the obtained balance using the proposed technique.

224    A.S. Lock, T.N. Zuniga, R.M. Martinez, "Digital control of a three phase 4 wire inverter for UPS applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a digital control for the inverter stage of uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) for nonlinear and unbalanced load in order to obtain dynamic response. It has been developed a space vector pulse wide modulation (SVPWM) for a three phase 4 wire inverter for current control. Moreover, a multiloop structure digital control was using to implementation, based on dead beat control algorithm. Finally, the control system on the dq0 frame decouples the dq0 components. Simulation results for various operation conditions are presented to verify the validity of the control method.

225    T.M. de Morais, C.A. Canesin, F.T. Wakabayashi, "A new three-phase transformer modeling for three-phase harmonic analysis in distribution systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents a new three-phase transformer modeling suitable for simulations in Pspice environment, which until now represents the electrical characteristics of a real transformer. It is proposed the model comparison to a three-phase transformer modeling present in EMTP-ATP program, which includes the electrical and magnetic characteristics. In addition, a set including non-linear loads and a real three-phase transformer was prepared in order to compare and validate the results of this new proposed model. The three-phase Pspice transformer modeling, different from the conventional one using inductance coupling, is remarkable for its simplicity and ease in simulation process, since it uses available voltage and current sources present in Pspice program, enabling simulations of three-phase network system including the most common configuration, three wires in the primary side and four wires in the secondary side (three-phases and neutral). Finally, the proposed modeling becomes a powerful tool for three-phase network simulations due to its simplicity and accuracy, able to simulate and analyze harmonic flow in three-phase systems under balanced and unbalanced conditions.

226    Su-Jin Jang, Chang-Youl Choi, Chang-Hwan Bae, Sang-Hoon Song, Chung-Yuen Won, "Study of regeneration power control inverter for DC traction with active power filter ability," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a regeneration inverter system, which can regenerate the excessive power from the DC bus line to the AC source for traction systems. The proposed regeneration inverter system for DC traction can reduce harmonics which is a characteristic of the AC current source. The regeneration inverter operates in two modes. First, in the regeneration inverter mode, it can recycle regeneration energy generated by decelerating traction. Second, in active power filter mode, it can compensate for harmonic distortion caused by the rectifier substations. In the paper, a regeneration inverter was used a PWM DC/AC converter algorithm and an active power filter used p-q theory. The parameters of simulation were composed of a prototype model [3.7 kW], Simulation results show that two algorithms can be used in real model [100 kW]. Finally, it is shown that the inverter can successfully operate in regeneration mode.

227    Jyh-Wei Chen, Tsorng-Juu Liang, Ssu-Hao Wang, "A novel design and implementation of programmed PWM to eliminate harmonics," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel design and implementation of programmed PWM inverters to eliminate selected harmonics are presented in this paper. Switching patterns without low-order harmonics can be obtained by numerical techniques. Equal-area switching angles as initial values in numerical computation can guarantee the convergence of solving nonlinear equations. A well-designed circuit to generate switching patterns for programmed PWM inverters without microprocessor is very suitable for low-cost and high-performance inverter application. The experimental results are presented to demonstrate that the selected low-order harmonics are eliminated and the proposed PWM inverter can be overmodulated.

228    Li Jingang, Zhong Yanru, Zhang Yang, "Study on static electricity induction load-matched of voltage-source converter for induction heating," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Over-compensated and less-compensated three-order resonant circuits which are used in static electricity induction load-matched of voltage-source induction heating converter are analyzed. The ways of design and calculation are given. According to the configuration and respond of circuits, the switches states of inverters are studied. By means of analyzing the switch-loss, the conclusion is provided that, for high frequency voltage-source inverter, over-compensated circuit is better than less-compensated. The simulated and experimental result shows that the conclusion is correct. The guiding designing ways of over-compensated circuit, being used as voltage-source induction heating supply load-matched, are provided.

229    Liu Xue Chao, Zhang Bo, Zhao Liang, Hu Jin, "A new voltage regulator module with integrating coupled magnetic," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multiphase interleaving synchronous buck converter is widely adopted for voltage regulator module (VRM), which requires strictly steady and dynamic performances to power microprocessor. In this paper, a new non-isolated multiphase VRM with integrating coupled magnetic is introduced to improve steady and dynamic performances. Firstly, a integrating coupled magnetic is modelled by gyrator-capacitor approach. Then all these magnetic components can be coupled into one single ferrite core shape to reduce the magnetic size. By proper designing the air gap and coupling coefficient of integrating coupled-inductor, this new technique can greatly improve the performances of VRM with faster transient response and lower output ripple current. The Matlab simulation and 1.5 V/40 A prototype experimental results of two-phase VRM show that integrating coupled inductor can improve steady and dynamic performances.

230    Zhang Yong-gao, Kang Yong, Liu Xiao-yuan, Liu Li-ming, Zhu Peng-cheng, "A novel double loop control design and analysis of STATCOM," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based on voltage source converter is one of the most used FACTS device. The primary purpose of a STATCOM is to support busbar voltage and maintain the stability of the DC-link capacitor voltage. In this paper, the operating principle and model of STATCOM are introduced, and a novel double loop control strategy of current feed-forward plus double PI loop for adjusting transmission line real power is proposed. Busbar voltage outer loop control system adopts voltage droop control which consists of PI regulation and scaling factors of droop characteristic. A current feed-forward control is introduced into double loop de-coupled control system of DC capacitor voltage regulation. Designing process of control system is discussed briefly in this paper. The simulation results for a case study indicate that DC capacitor voltage and busbar voltage can be controlled efficiently, attest that control scheme and controller design are viable and effective. It is also proved by the experimental results on a 15-kVA laboratory-scale equipment.

231    Liming Liu, Pengcheng Zhu, Yong Kang, Jian Chen, "Design and dynamic performance analysis of a unified power flow controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the theory, the modeling technique, control scheme of unified power flow controller. Based on park transformation, it designs a decoupled control scheme of UPFC in d and q-axis which eliminates the dynamic interaction between active and reactive power flow through the line. The control system consists of outer power loop, middle voltage loop and inner current loop. The response of the inner current loop is much faster than response of the outer voltage loop, which ensures that input current follows input voltage and improves dynamic performance of UPFC. As a step closer to practical application of UPFC, the paper analyzes individually the functions of STATCOM and SSSC. Experimental results verify the viability and effectiveness of applying the proposed control scheme in UPFC.

232    W. Liu, A.Q. Huang, "A novel high current solid state power controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Solid state power controller (SSPC) is used in power distribution system to replace traditional electromechanical circuit breaker. It distributes and protect power to different loads. With SSPC, the system is more reliable with improved fault handling capability. SSPC will provide instantaneous faults and current squared time protection (I/sup 2/t). Currently low current rating SSPCs are available on the market. In this paper a high current 270 V/50 A SSPC is developed. The design challenges include new device technology for high current rating, current sensing scheme for high current, I/sup 2/t control implementation and temperature compensation. Simulations and experimental results are shown to verify the design.

233    F.D. Dantas, C.A. Canesin, "An AC voltage regulator with high-power-factor, and control using a FPGA device," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the analysis, design, simulation, and experimental results for a high frequency high power-factor (PF) AC (alternate current) voltage regulator, using a sepic converter as power stage. The control technique employed to impose a sinusoidal input current waveform, with low total harmonic distortion (THD), is the sinusoidal variable hysteresis control. The control technique was implemented in a FPGA (field programmable gate array) device, using a hardware description language (VHDL). Through the use of the proposed control technique, the AC voltage regulator performs active power-factor correction, and low THD in the input current, for linear and non-linear loads, satisfying the requirements of the IEC61000-3-2 standards. Experimental results from an example prototype, designed for 300 W of nominal output power, 50 kHz (switching frequency), and 127 Vrms of nominal input and output voltages, are presented in order to validate the proposed AC regulator.

234    Z. Chen, Y. Hu, "Control of power electronic converters for distributed generation units," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The traditional power systems are changing globally, a large number of dispersed generation (DG) units are being integrated into power systems at distribution level. Power electronic, the technology of efficiently processing electric power, plays an essential part in the integration of the dispersed generation units for good efficiency and high performance of the power systems. This paper describes the frequency and voltage control of the power systems with the power electronic interfaced generation units. A control scheme is proposed. Simulation study has been performed and the results show the good performance of the control scheme.

235    S. Rahmani, K. Al-Haddad, H.Y. Kanaan, "Observer based reference current generation for a three-phase shunt active power filter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new observer-based method, which generates the current reference for a three-phase shunt active power filter (SAPF), is presented. This technique is useful for active power filters and capable to eliminate harmonics and compensate reactive power simultaneously. First, the fundamental active current to identify is modeled in the form of a generating process. The other harmonic components appearing in the load current, as well as the basic noises inherent with the signal measurements, are all considered as noises for the observer. The goal of the extraction consists in filtering the noise in order to recover the active fundamental current. The filtering is carried out using an observer on the generating model. The dynamics of the extraction will depend on the speed of convergence of the observer. Simulation results are presented, showing that the method is feasible and the results are acceptable.

236    C. Han, Z. Yang, B. Chen, W. Song, A.Q. Huang, A.-A. Edris, M. Ingram, S. Atcitty, "System integration and demonstration of a 4.5 MVA STATCOM based on emitter turn-off (ETO) thyristor and cascade multilevel converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), providing quick and robust voltage support, is an "enabling infrastructure technology" for power engineering today. The emitter turn-off (ETO) thyristor, as an emerging kilohertz power semiconductor device, provides significant advantages over other competing power switch technologies and will result in a fast response STATCOM system with reduced overall cost per kVA. Meanwhile, the cascade-multilevel converter (CMC) is the most feasible topology for STATCOM because of its compact structure, fast response, clean power quality, easy modularity and scalability. Combining advanced switch technology, modular converter technology and control technology, a 4.5 MVA STATCOM system is developed. This paper discusses system integration of the STATCOM with emphasis on power stage design and verification, digital controller design and verification. Finally, the grid tie system demonstration of STATCOM is presented.

237    X. Wang, X.Z. Gao, S.J. Ovaska, "A hybrid optimization algorithm in power filter design," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Clonal selection algorithm (CSA) is one of the most widely employed immune-based approaches for handling optimization tasks. Characterized with the similartaxis and dissimilation properties, Mind evolutionary computation (MEC) is a new evolutionary computation method. In this paper, we propose a hybrid optimization algorithm based on the principles of the CSA and MEC to search for the optimal parameters (values of inductor and capacitor) of a passive filter in the diode full-bridge rectifier. Simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm can acquire the optimal LC parameters within the given criteria for power filter design.

238    Zhiwen Ma, Trillion Zheng, Fei lin, Xiaojie You, "A new sliding-mode current controller for field oriented controlled induction motor drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Accurate and fast current control is essential in high performance field oriented controlled induction motor drives. In this paper, a new sliding-mode current controller is presented for induction motor drives. This scheme uses two sliding-mode controllers to regulate the d-axis and q-axis stator currents respectively, and adopts space vector modulation (SVM) technique as the voltage modulation strategy. This new current controller exhibits several advantages such as fast dynamic response, perfect decoupling and robustness to parameter variations. Simulation results are provided to verify the performance of the proposed current control scheme.

239    Lee-Hun Kim, Jun-Ho Kim, Nyon-Kun Hahm, Chung-Yuen Won, Young-Real Kim, "A novel PWM switching technique for conducted EMI reduction in field-oriented control of an induction motor drive system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The importance of the EMI noise problems has been considered many times over the past years in inverter fed motor control system. With the advent of fast power devices, the high dv/dt of switching device produce EMI problems and leakage current. This paper describes the application of newly developed conducted EMI reduction technique of SVPWM in induction motor drives. The newly developed common mode voltage reduction SVPWM technique doesn't use any zero-voltage vector states for inverter control, hence it can restrict the common mode voltage better than conventional PWM technique. The proposed technique is verified through simulation and experimental results. And by applying vector control system, the proposed technique have superior ability of reducing EMI and equal control performance comparing conventional space-vector PWM technique.

240    C. Ortega, A. Arias, X. del Toro, E. Aldabas, J. Balcells, "Novel direct torque control for induction motors using short voltage vectors of matrix converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the use of short voltage vectors of matrix converters to reduce the electromagnetic torque ripple which appears when direct torque control technique is used in induction motors. Direct torque control for induction motors using matrix converters is reviewed and it is pointed out the problem of the electromagnetic torque ripple which is one of the most important drawbacks of the direct torque control. The standard look up table for direct torque control, when using matrix converters, is improved in order to include the uncommonly used short voltage vectors. This novel direct torque control approach can differentiate between small and large torque errors and consequently the electromagnetic torque ripple is reduced. Finally, some results, which prove the improvement of the novel direct torque control when using small matrix converter voltage vectors, are shown.

241    R. Kianinezhad, B. Nahid, F. Betin, G.-A. Capolino, "Multi-vector SVM: a new approach to space vector modulation control for six-phase induction machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new space vector modulation (SVM) technique for six-phase induction machines (SPIM) is presented. The machine has two three phase stator windings spatially shifted by 60 electrical degrees and connected to a single neutral. The neutral point may be connected to the source or not. It is shown that existing SVM techniques fail to reduce significantly harmonic currents for these machines. The proposed multi-vector SVM is more efficient in reducing harmonic currents, while and comparing to some traditional techniques, it is simpler and does not need high computation time. The simulation results illustrate the validity and efficiency of this method.

242    Kai Sun, Lipei Huang, Daning Zhou, "A nonlinear robust controller for matrix converter fed induction motor drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Matrix converter (MC) fed induction motor drive has more attractive advantages than conventional pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter drives for the absence of large DC-link capacitors, higher input power factor and energy regeneration capability. However, due to the direct conversion characteristic of matrix converter, the drive performance of induction motor is easy to be influenced by input voltage disturbances of the MC. A nonlinear robust auto disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is applied to the MC fed induction motor drive system, taking the place of proportional-integral (PI) regulator. In the drive system, the effects of external disturbance and model uncertainty are estimated and compensated by ADRC. Using this controller, the anti-disturbance capability of the drive system under abnormal input voltage conditions can be enhanced. In addition, the dynamic drive performances of induction motor are also improved, such as fast responses of speed change and load torque change. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the drive system, and simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

243    Q. Gao, G. Asher, M. Summer, "Sensorless position and speed control of induction motors using high frequency injection and without off-line pre-commissioning," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper addresses the sensorless speed and position control of induction motors using high frequency injection at zero and low frequencies. A novel algorithm is presented which allows the rejection of saturation and nonlinear inverter effects without the need for an off-line pre-commissioning process. The method is based on a set of synchronous filters to identify the disturbance waveforms, and a memory algorithm, which refines the quality of the disturbance waveforms as the motors operational history is increased. The algorithm is entirely sensorless. Experimental results show sensorless low frequency operation with and without the memory algorithm.

244    G. Dong, O. Ojo, "Induction motor speed estimation using full-order flux observers ensuring system stability," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A transparent full-order flux observer design methodology and a model reference adaptive mechanism to estimate the rotor speed of an induction motor are set forth which also ensures system stability in all operability regions. The observer gains are chosen using the Butterworth polynomial and the controller gains of the reference model adaptive speed controller are selected using the concept of the D-decomposition. The overall transfer function between the reference rotor and actual speeds is used to finally determine the controller parameters of the speed loop to enhance the system overall stability in the motoring, regenerative and braking modes of drive operations. The proposed controller and estimator design schemes are validated by computer simulation results for operations in the motoring and regenerating modes.

245    M. Ortega, J. Restrepo, J. Viola, M.I. Gimenez, V. Guzman, "Direct torque control of induction motors using fuzzy logic with current limitation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents a DTC system controlled by a fuzzy logic system that also limits the stator current. The simulation and experimental results are presented for two different stator current limitation strategies. The proposed control scheme uses the fuzzy logic controller to modulate the voltage vector phase applied to the induction motor. This scheme keeps the control voltage vector magnitude almost constant, allowing variations only to limit the stator current. The proposed scheme performance was analyzed using simulation programs written in the C computer language, and the simulated predictions were validated with experimental measurements obtained using a 1 1/2 HP motor driven by a rectifier-inverter system called plataforma, developed by the SIEP Group at Simon Bolivar University.

246    H.T. Camara, H.A. Grundling, "A MRLS with RMRAC applied to encoderless speed control without time rotor dependence," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a robust model reference adaptive controller (RMRAC) for a speed sensorless induction motor drive. A modified recursive least squares (MRLS) is proposed to avoid the use of mechanical sensors. The MRLS is obtained by applying of a sigma-modification in recursive least square (RLS), obtained from a linear model insensible to rotor resistance variations. The obtained controller is used to assure performance in a wide speed range, including low and zero speed conditions. Moreover, a direct estimation of the rotor flux estimation is used, so that the proposed scheme can be applied without shaft encoder and independent of the rotor resistance. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

247    R. Leidhold, P. Mutschler, "Speed sensorless control of a long-stator linear synchronous-motor arranged by multiple sections," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Linear permanent magnet (PM) motors have become a viable alternative for material handling and processing systems in the industry, mainly because of its higher dynamic response, robustness and accuracy. For long stators, the position sensor, which extents along the carriageway, becomes a costly part of the system. In addition, for long carriageways, the stator is divided in several sections increasing sensing complexity. Therefore, sensorless methods are of higher concern than in rotative motors. In this paper, a speed sensorless control of a long-stator linear synchronous motor arranged by multiple sections is presented. This method uses an EMF observer for each active section (i.e. where the mover is and the subsequent). Then, based on the addition of the observed EMF a single speed and position observer is implemented for the mover. Finally, using an experimental setup, validation results are attained and presented.

248    B.A. Welchko, "A double-ended inverter system for the combined propulsion and energy management functions in hybrid vehicles with energy storage," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a double-ended inverter for hybrid vehicles with energy storage. The double-ended inverter consists of two electrically isolated three-phase inverters connected to each end of an open end-winding AC motor. By controlling the individual inverter voltages, it is shown to be possible to simultaneously control both the motor output power and energy flow between the two inverters. A unity power factor control method, voltage quadrature control method, and optimum inverter utilization control method are proposed as methods to achieve the combined motor control and energy management functions of the hybrid system. The proposed double-ended inverter system is free of the DC-DC converter and associated magnetic components found in traditional hybrid vehicle systems with energy storage. The complete modeling and operation of the proposed system is developed and simulation results are presented verifying the proposed control methods.

249    A. Bertacchini, P. Pavan, L. Tamagnini, L. Fergnani, "Control of brushless motor with hybrid redundancy for force feedback in steer-by-wire applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we propose a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach to implement a preliminary architecture for force-feedback control in steer-by-wire (SBW) applications. A brushless motor is used as force feedback actuator. The determination of the position of the rotor plays a key role in the control algorithm. To obtain a reliable rotor position a hybrid redundancy has been implemented. The position signals of the encoder integrated on the motor are computed in three different ways: using a 8-bit microcontroller, a 16-bit microcontroller, and, last, using a FPGA. A virtual hardware platform operates as voter. The position estimated by the voter is used by the 16-bit platform to generate the PWM signals needed to control the motor. The voter executes a simple self diagnostic process, too and in case of failure in more than one module performs a reconfigurations of the system and the position estimated by a fourth back-up module is used by the 16-bit microcontroller to implement the motor control algorithm. In particular, the results of hardware-in-the-loop experiments show as using a redundant architecture like the one proposed in this paper, it is possible to control the motor in order to recreate on a steering wheel (directly connected to the motor) a drive feeling like the one produced by a traditional steering system also in case of failure in one, or more than one module, of the system.

250    Tae-Sung Kim, Ji-Su Ryu, Dong-Seok Hyun, "Sensorless drive of brushless DC motors using an unknown input observer-IECON'05," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel motor control method is proposed to improve the performance of sensorless drive of BLDC motors. In the terminal voltage sensing method, which is a great portion of sensorless control, a precise rotor position cannot be obtained when excessive input is applied to the drive during synchronous operation mode. Especially in the transient state, the response characteristic decreases. To cope with this problem, the unknown input (back-EMF) is modelled as the additional state of system in this paper. Taking into account the disturbance adopted by the back-EMF, the observer can be obtained by an equation of the augmented system. An algorithm to detect the back-EMF of a BLDC motor using the state observer is constructed. As a result, a novel sensorless drive of BLDC motors that can strictly estimate rotor position and speed is proposed.

251    M. Pacas, R. Morales, "A predictive torque control for the synchronous reluctance machine taking into account the magnetic cross saturation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A predictive torque and flux control algorithm for the synchronous reluctance machine is presented in this paper. The algorithm realizes a voltage space phasor pre-selection, followed by the computation of the switching instants for the optimum switching space phasors, with the advantages of inherently constant switching frequency and time equidistant implementation on a DSP based system. The criteria how to choose the appropriate voltage space phasor depend on the state of the machine and the deviations of torque and flux at the end of the cycle. In order to obtain an appropriate model of the machine, it has been developed on a d-q frame of coordinates attached to the rotor and takes into account the magnetic saturation in both d-q axes and the cross saturation between both axes. Therefore, the torque dynamic is improved and its ripple is reduced. Simulated and experimental results using a DSP and a commercially available machine show the validity of the proposed control scheme.

252    A.M. Staley, R. Krishnan, "Single controllable switch power converter for SRM drive systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A low cost single controllable switch, single power diode power converter for switched reluctance drive systems is demonstrated in this paper. The introduction of this converter is yet another step in the switched reluctance machine's movement towards full implementation in the high volume, low precision commercial applications market. With the lowest number of power devices and thus using the least possible PCB real estate, a full four-quadrant single-phase SRM drive with reliable starting can be realized using this converter topology.

253    H.S. Lim, D.G. Roberson, N.S. Lobo, R. Krishnan, "Novel flux linkage control of switched reluctance motor drives using observer and neural network-based correction methods," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: From the perspective of control of switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives, current control is typically used as an inner loop control method. In this paper, observer and artificial neural network (ANN)-based novel flux linkage control of SRM drives is presented and examined as an alternate approach to current control. The main advantage of flux linkage control is computational simplicity due to the insensitivity of controller gains to machine operation conditions, while current control depends on controller gains which are very sensitive to self-inductance of SRMs. Flux linkage control needs a reliable flux linkage estimator for desirable control of SRMs. Integration method to estimate flux linkage from measured phase voltages, currents and resistances is commonly used, but it is sensitive to measurement error and white noise. Another way to measure the flux linkage is to use a look-up table which is very sensitive to input currents because it is current- and position-based data. In this paper, a simple observer-based voltage and ANN-based current correction method is proposed to overcome the measurement error. Furthermore, ANNs with two layers and five neurons are applied to produce an acceptable flux linkage estimate at each corrected current and measured position, instead of a look-up table. Finally, simulation results are presented to validate its performance.

254    S. Khorbotly, A. Khalil, J. Carletta, I. Husain, "A wavelet based de-noising approach for real-time signal processing in switched reluctance motor drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work develops an application-aware approach to signal de-noising. The approach considers the way in which a signal from a sensor or receiver is processed and used in deciding how best to de-noise the signal. The benefits of the system-wide approach are illustrated through an application that processes raw indirect position feedback signals in a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The results show that the application-aware de-noising scheme results in more noise reduction than can be obtained using a more conventional approach. The approach delivered a clean and useful estimated rotor position for the SRM that improved its output performance.

255    S. Rajagopalan, J.M. Aller, J.A. Restrepo, T.G. Habetler, R.G. Harley, "A novel analytic wavelet ridge detector for dynamic eccentricity detection in BLDC motors under dynamic operating conditions," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new method using the analytic wavelet transform of the stator current signal is proposed for detecting dynamic eccentricity in brushless direct current (BLDC) motors operating under rapidly varying speed conditions. As wavelets are inherently suited for non-stationary signal analysis, this method does not require the use of any windows nor is it dependent on any assumption of local stationarity. The time-frequency resolution obtained is therefore better than other existing techniques such as the short time Fourier transform (STFT). Experimental results are provided to show that the proposed method works over a wide speed range of motor operation and provides an effective and robust way of detecting rotor faults such as dynamic eccentricity in BLDC motors.

256    S. Villwock, M. Pacas, T. Eutebach, "Application of the Welch-method for the automatic parameter identification of electrical drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the measurement of the frequency response of the mechanical part of a drive for the parameter identification of the plant. The system is stimulated by pseudo random binary signals. The measurement of the frequency response is part of a system identification procedure being carried out during an automatic commissioning of the drive. For the calculation of the frequency response of the mechanics the Welch-method is applied for spectral analysis. The Welch-method is known from the fields of communications engineering and measurement engineering. The present paper addresses the application of this powerful method for the identification of electrical drives. Investigations have pointed out that the pure utilization of conventional identification strategies does not yield satisfying results. Experimental results point out clearly the efficiency and flexibility of the proposed method. The paper contains many practical aspects and realization details that are important for the implementation on industrial systems. Commercial software tools cannot be utilized for the realization of identification strategies on the embedded control hardware of drives.

257    S. Khomfoi, L.M. Tolbert, "Fault diagnosis system for a multilevel inverter using a neural network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a fault diagnosis system in a multilevel-inverter using a neural network is developed. It is difficult to diagnose a multilevel-inverter drive (MLID) system using a mathematical model because MLID systems consist of many switching devices and their system complexity has a nonlinear factor. Therefore, a neural network classification is applied to the fault diagnosis of a MLID system. Five multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks are used to identify the type and location of occurring faults. The neural network design process is clearly described. The classification performance of the proposed network between normal and abnormal condition is about 90 %, and the classification performance among fault features is about 85 %. Thus, by utilizing the proposed neural network fault diagnosis system, a better understanding about fault behaviors, diagnostics, and detections of a multilevel inverter drive system can be accomplished. The results of this analysis are identified in percentage tabular form of faults and switch locations.

258    A. Bellini, G. Franceschini, C. Tassoni, A. Toscani, "Assessment of induction machines rotor fault severity by different approaches," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The spectral components at frequencies (1/spl plusmn/2s)f of stator current are commonly used to assess induction machines rotor conditions in the motor current signature analysis (MCSA) diagnostic procedure. The sum of the amplitudes of these two components can be used as a reliable diagnostic index. A further step is the quantification of the fault severity, i.e. the definition of an asymmetry factor, able to link the diagnostic index to the number of contiguous broken bars. The quantification of the fault severity is a key item, that is not yet fully established. Several machine models were used to this aim: dynamic deep models for faulty cage machines, like mesh rotor models; d-q or symmetrical instantaneous components models. The latter is preferred as it requires a lower number of parameters. Moreover if system constraints don't allow speed ripple as a consequence of the torque unbalance due to rotor asymmetry, only the component at frequency (1--2s)f appears and steady-state forward-backward models can be used in order to compute this component. In this case analytical relationships can be developed under suitable assumptions. A simple asymmetry factor may be the definition of an equivalent additional resistance /spl Delta/R/sub r/ linked to the number of contiguous broken bars. In this paper some proposals reported in the literature about the quantization of /spl Delta/R/sub r/ or about the diagnostic index are reviewed and compared with reference to the case of one broken bar. Experiments prove the effectiveness of the authors' proposal.

259    O. Wallmark, L. Harnefors, O. Carlson, "Control algorithms for a fault-tolerant PMSM drive," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes control algorithms for a fault-tolerant permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive. In order to improve the reliability of the drive, an algorithm for achieving sensorless control that operates properly also in fault mode is proposed. Furthermore, it is shown how a closed-loop field-weakening controller needs to be modified in order to operate properly in fault mode. The application in mind is electric vehicle propulsion and the algorithms presented are verified with experimental results using an in-wheel PMSM. With the proposed modifications, the reliability of the drive can be increased.

260    A. Piippo, M. Hinkkanen, J. Luomi, "Analysis of an adaptive observer for sensorless control of PMSM drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper deals with a speed and position estimation method for the sensorless control of permanent magnet synchronous motors. The method is based on a speed-adaptive flux observer augmented with a high-frequency signal injection method at low speeds. The dynamics of the adaptive observer are analyzed by linearizing both the motor model and the observer, and the observer gain is selected to give improved damping and noise suppression. The experimental results are in agreement with the results of the analysis.

261    K. Jezernik, E. Urlep, A. Polic, "Speed sensorless variable structure torque control of PMSM," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the torque and speed sensorless PMSM control is presented. The main idea consists in utilizing the best qualities of the both nonlinear structures of the motor observer and the current controller. Motor observer is based on torque error between modelled and measured quantities. In addition, the rotor flux observer is using combination of the feedforward and feedback terms in order to enhance the sensitivity of the observer. Torque and flux control as well as the rotor flux observer are based on the sliding mode theory, which results in high degree of robustness towards parameters variation and the external disturbances. Proposed control scheme is implemented on DSP system extended with FPGA where event-driven current controlled modulator is realized. DSP serves for time discrete speed control and observer, while time critical current control is implemented on FPGA. Results demonstrate high efficiency of the proposed estimation and control method.

262    Y. Zhang, L.-S. Shieh, C. Akujuobi, X. Gu, "Observer-based load disturbance compensation for motor drive with DSP implementation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a methodology to make the load torque disturbance compensation based on the normal state observer. First, a state feedback controller is designed to achieve a satisfied speed command tracking performance. Then a multi-purpose state observer is constructed to observe the motor states (current and speed), as well as to provide the disturbance compensation. Since the variable of load torque is beyond the motor system state space model, some observation error will be inevitably existed in the observed states. Based on the demonstrated mathematics derivation, the state observation error feedback can be isolated from the exact state feedback. Such a state observation error feedback actually constructs some kind of feedforward compensation for the load disturbance. If the observer gain is picked up appropriately, then the effect of the load torque variation can be considerably compensated, such that the system performance deviation will be greatly attenuated. Both MATLAB/Simulink simulation and dSPACE DSP-based implementation have confirmed its effectiveness in the permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system.

263    M. Hasegawa, H. Hatta, K. Matsui, "Adaptive flux observer on stator frame and its design based on /spl gamma/-positive real problem for sensorless IPMSM drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper shows a new expression of IPMSMs, which can be regarded as a linear system, and proposes a novel design of the adaptive flux observer based on a linear model of IPMSMs on stator frame. According to this linear model, IPMSMs can be regarded a SPMSMs theoretically, yielding possibility to apply some techniques related to the adaptive flux observer of SPMSM for IPMSM drives without any approximation. This paper also proposes a design of the adaptive flux observer based on /spl gamma/-positive real problem for IPMSM sensorless drives, which results in robust position estimation and speed adaptation. Finally, feasibility of the proposed method are shown by some simulation results.

264    M. Hinkkanen, J. Luomi, "Induction motor drives equipped with diode rectifier and small DC-link capacitance," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drives that are fed by a frequency converter equipped with a diode front-end rectifier. A small DC-link capacitance is used, which makes it possible to replace the electrolytic capacitors with film capacitors. The natural frequency of the DC link is chosen considerably higher than six times the mains frequency but lower than the switching frequency. A recently proposed sensorless controller can be exploited; only minor modifications for small capacitances are needed. Simulation and experimental results of a 2.2-kW drive equipped with a capacitance of only 24 /spl mu/F demonstrate operation in a wide speed range.

265    Arbind Kumar, B.G. Fernandes, K. Chatterjee, "Direct torque control of open-end winding induction motor drive using the concept of imaginary switching times for marine propulsion systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a control strategy for marine propulsion systems using the open-end winding configuration of induction motor. It uses the concept of imaginary switching times for space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) with direct torque control (DTC). The imaginary switching times greatly simplifies the algorithm. This method also eliminates the procedure for identifying the region for space voltage vector. Also, it does not require the sectors and angle identification of the voltage vector. Two independent two-level inverters feed power from both the ends of the three-phase stator windings. This applies a 3-level line voltage waveform to the machine. This reduces the torque ripple with improvement in current spectrum. In order to restrict the zero sequence currents, two isolated DC sources are considered. Simulation studies have been carried out for the proposed scheme. Experimental results have been presented to validate the viability of the scheme.

266    C. Conilh, M. Pietrzak-David, "A low cost AC speed drive for low voltage high current induction machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this article, the authors present an AC speed drive carrying out a low voltage and high current induction machine (IM). The electric traction application is for an industrial vehicle. This embedded autonomous system has to be very compact and low cost product, needing simple maintenance. It has to guarantee the operation security and the best dynamic and static performances. In this study, the authors chose the direct field oriented control (DFOC) to assure the required performances constraint, i.e. the constant torque operation for the lower rotation speed and the power constant operation for the over rotation speed conditions. This low cost electric propulsion system imposes the reduction of the sensor number to be used. So, the flux sensor necessary to the DFOC strategy, will be replaced by a full order rotor flux deterministic observer and the DC-link current measurement allows to eliminate the Hall effect AC current sensors. In this way, the stator currents are indirectly estimated. The authors validate control strategy, proposed for this embedded system, using the quasi-experimental method. They verify different steady and transient state operations, according to the required vehicle trajectory, by the precise Saber simulation software.

267    A. Jornet, J. Cusido, A.G. Espinosa, J.A. Ortega, L. Romeral, "Double frequency test for detecting faults in induction machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Double frequency tests are used for evaluating stator windings analyzing the temperature. Likewise, signal injection on induction machines is a well-known technique on sensorless motor control fields to find out the rotor's position. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is the most widely used method for identifying faults in induction motors. MCSA focuses its efforts on the spectral analysis of stator current. Motor faults such as broken rotor bars, bearing damage and eccentricity of the rotor axis can be detected. However, the method presents some problems at low speed and low torque, mainly due to the proximity between the frequencies to be detected and the small amplitude of the resulting harmonics respectively. In both cases, the problem of frequency accuracy is very tricky since the sideband harmonic is close to the fundamental harmonic. This paper proposes injecting an additional voltage into the machine under test at a frequency different from the fundamental one, and then studying the resulting harmonics around the new frequencies appearing due to the composition between injected and main frequencies.

268    D. Iannuzzi, L. Piegari, R. Rizzo, "A filtering technique to solve flicker problems due to use of induction machines in wind power generation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Squirrel cage induction machines represent a common solution widely adopted in wind generation. In fact, the induction machine is simple, reliable, cheap and requires very little maintenance. The employment of induction machines in wind power generation system needs, however, particular care and braininess. It is well known, in fact, that generator operating conditions can imply saturation of magnetic circuits of the machine. The saturation phenomenon has to be taken into account when the capacitance necessary for the power factor correction is chosen. Moreover, wind energy conversion system can produce torque fluctuations at the generator shaft. These fluctuations represent a serious limitation for weak networks in which flicker effect can emerge. In the paper a full modelling of the induction machine used in wind energy systems and of the flicker phenomenon is done. Moreover, the problem of connection of the induction generator to a weak network is analysed. In particular, guidelines to design an electrical filter suitable to avoid flicker effect are given.

269    H. Rasmussen, P. Vadstrup, "A novel back EMF observer for sensorless control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a position sensing method for IPM motors based on an observer referring to the estimated frame of reference, eliminating problems with position dependent inductances. Convergence of the estimation error to zero is proofed, under the assumption that the mechanical time constant is much larger than the electrical one. The observer can be used right from startup to rated speed, so bump from a startup strategy is avoided. In order to verify the observer experiments have been performed.

270    Ji-Liang Shi, Tian-Hua Liu, Yung-Chi Chang, "Optimal controller design of a sensorless PMSM control system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes an optimal controller design for a sensorless position control system of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor. First, a novel rotor position estimation technique is proposed. This estimation technique only relates to the slopes of the stator currents, and does not relate to the parameters or operating conditions of the motor. Next, a velocity estimator is proposed to obtain the velocity of the motor. The proposed position and velocity estimators work well in transient, steady state, and standstill conditions. To improve the performance of the position control system, an optimal controller is proposed. By using this controller, a fast transient response, good load disturbance rejection capability, and satisfactory tracking ability can be achieved. A digital signal processor, TMS-320-LF-2407 is used to execute the rotor position/velocity estimation, the current-loop control, the velocity-loop control, and the optimal position-loop control. As a result, a fully digital position control system is achieved.

271    S. Jiang, J. Liang, Y. Liu, K. Yamazaki, M. Fujishima, "Modeling and cosimulation of FPGA-based SVPWM control for PMSM," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the modeling and cosimulation method of a FPGA based permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) control system; the current control loop of PMSM control system is space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM); a new FPGA based top-down design method is proposed. According to the design method, the function model is built in Matlab environment, and the behavioral model (VHDL model) is programmed in the synthesis software platform. In order to realize the hardware/software codesign, the cosimulation between function model and VHDL model is implemented by integrating two models into one cosimulation model. By the cosimulation, the hardware timing and the function simulation can be tested and verified at the same time. In this paper, the case study shows that the design efficiency can be improved greatly by using this cosimulation method.

272    Ying-Shieh Kung, Chia-Sheng Chen, Kiing-Ing Wong, Ming-Hung Tsai, "Development of a FPGA-based control IC for PMSM drive with adaptive fuzzy control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new generation of field programmable gate array (FPGA) technologies enables to integrate an embedded processor IP (intellectual property) and an application IP into a SoPC (system-on-a-programmable-chip) environment. The development of high performance speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drive based on this SoPC environment is presented in this paper. Firstly, the mathematic model of PMSM is defined and the vector control used in the current loop of the PMSM drive is explained. Then, an adaptive fuzzy controller is constructed by using the fuzzy basis function and parameter adjustable mechanism, which is used to cope with the dynamic uncertainty and external load effect in the PMSM drive. After that, a FPGA-based control IC is designed to realize the controllers. The FPGA-based control IC has two IPs, an Nios embedded processor IP and an application IP. The Nios processor is used to perform the function of an adaptive fuzzy control in speed loop of PMSM drive. The application IP is used to perform the current vector control of the PMSM drive, which includes SVPWM generation, coordinate transformation, PI controller and the pulse detection of the quadrature encoder. The former is implemented by using software due to the complicated control algorithm and low sampling frequency control (speed control: less than 1 kHz). The latter is implemented by hardware due to the need of high sampling frequency control (current loop: 16 kHz, PWM circuit: 4/spl sim/8 MHz) but simple computation. At last, an experimental system has been set up and some experimental results have been demonstrated.

273    Tian-Hua Liu, Ming-Tsan Lin, You-Cheng Yang, "Nonlinear position controller design for SynRM drive systems with reduced switching frequency," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel PWM switching method and control algorithm for synchronous reluctance drive systems. In this paper, first, in different switching modes, the current slope of the stator current can be systematically derived. The current slope is related to the DC-bus voltage, operating conditions, and parameters of the motor. Then, by computing the derivation of the current slope command and the real current slope, an optimum switching state can be determined and used to trigger the inverter. After that, the nonlinear controller for a position control system is proposed. By using the proposed method, the synchronous reluctance drive system performs very well. It has smaller current harmonics, lower switching frequency, and less switching loss when compared to the hysteretic current control. In addition, a fast transient response, good load disturbance rejection ability, and good tracking performance of position control can be achieved. No extra hardware is required. Several experimental results validate the theoretical analysis.

274    H. Le-Huy, P. Brunelle, "A versatile nonlinear switched reluctance motor model in Simulink using realistic and analytical magnetization characteristics," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design and implementation of a versatile nonlinear model of switched reluctance motors for use in Simulink environment (SimPowerSystems). The nonlinear model is based on the motor magnetization curves which can be provided as experimental data or calculated using finite-element method or calculated from normally available parameters. An application example using the developed SRM block is presented to validate the model and to illustrate its use.

275    T. Sano, E. Nakayama, K. Sawa, "A study on the electric and magnetic circuit of single phase line start permanent magnet motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recently, as the request of improvement on efficiency for the household appliances increases, a single-phase line-start permanent-magnet synchronous motor (LSPM) attracts attention. LSPM has the capacitor connected in series with the auxiliary winding and the main winding is connected in parallel with them. For this reason, the elliptic rotating magnetic field is generated by converting single-phase into quasi-two-phase. Because of the negative-sequence component in a capacitor motor, secondary current flows also in steady state. So its numerical analysis is difficult in comparison with three-phase motors. Though analytical methods of starting and synchronous characteristics have been established, the effect of considering squirrel cage into analysis has yet to be discussed. In this paper, phaser diagrams that disregard and consider the squirrel cage are presented, and the effect of rotor cage on analytical results is discussed.

276    T.M. Wolbank, J.L. Machl, "Influence of inverter-nonlinearity and measurement setup on zero speed sensorless control of AC machines based on voltage pulse injection," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the influence of the non-ideal behavior of power electronics, sensors, and signal processing on speed sensorless control is addressed and investigated. The speed sensorless control signals are obtained from the transient current response resulting from an excitation of the machine with voltage pulses. The investigations are focused on sensorless control of induction machines, however the results are applicable also for other types of AC machines. Reference to the inverter the influence of interlock dead-time as well as the voltage drop of the power electronics is assessed. Simulation results are given to support the separation of the different effects. Additionally measurement results are presented to show the influence on the resulting control signals. Different ways to consider and compensate the different deteriorating effects with respect to sensorless control are discussed and compared.

277    L. Parsa, "On advantages of multi-phase machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a literature survey on the work accomplished in the area of multi-phase, split phase and dual stator machines will be presented. Although, reducing torque pulsation caused the early interest in dual stator, split phase and multiphase machines, there are other important features that this kind of machines present to the drive designer. Additional degrees of freedom in multi-phase machines are employed to improve the overall performance of the system. They can be used to improve the reliability of a multiphase system, to enhance the torque production capability of the machine by injecting harmonics of current or to control multi-motors from a single inverter. Also, the presence of more space voltage vectors, allows better adjustment of torque and flux in a direct torque controlled system.

278    J. Xu, E. Grant, A.I. Kingon, J.M. Wilson, P.D. Franzon, "Drive circuit for a mode conversion rotary ultrasonic motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A mode conversion rotary ultrasonic motor (USM) has potential applications in miniature robotics. However, its electrical drive circuit presents some unique challenges, particularly in producing a high frequency (/spl sim/40 kHz), high voltage (/spl sim/200 V peak-to-peak) signal into a low impedance (/spl sim/100 /spl Omega/) capacitive motor, while achieving high efficiency. This paper describes the design of such a drive circuit, intended for use with a 12 V battery. The drive circuit consists of a switch-mode power converter driving the USM via a step-up planar transformer. Compensation and resonant elements are added to improve the power efficiency. While the peak efficiency of this circuit is 45%, in practice the equivalent impedance of the USM changes with mechanical load and temperature, resulting in an average efficiency of 16%. The admittance vs. frequency characteristic and the equivalent electrical model for a USM prototype are also presented in this paper. The circuit simulations and loaded testing of a full-bridge DC-AC resonant converter with DC-offset module were performed. A load-adapted frequency tracking method has also been proposed to improve the efficiency and stability of the drive circuit.

279    A. Khaligh, N. Nagel, A. Emadi, "A detailed modular approach for induction machines considering iron loss," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In modeling of induction machines, usually iron loss is not considered. Neglecting the effect of iron loss results in performance deterioration, especially in torque regulation in field oriented control. In this paper, a new comprehensive state space model of induction machines considering iron loss is presented in detail. In this modular approach all machine parameters are accessible for control and verification purposes. After implementing the model, indirect field oriented control employing conventional model and a model considering iron loss are implemented and the resultant torque and speed of the machine simulation are presented.

280    H. Douglas, P. Pillay, "Sizing ultracapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An efficient energy storage medium is essential in all hybrid electric vehicles. The advances in double layer electrolytic capacitor technology have opened new areas to complement batteries as a storage medium. In this paper we will review some of the present applications of ultracapacitors as well as to provide guidelines for sizing ultracapacitors for minimal mass in hybrid electric vehicles. Equations for both constant current as well as constant power discharge are discussed. An iterative method for determining the minimum number of ultracapacitor cells is introduced. The effects of ultracapacitor sizing on the rating of interface power electronics are examined.

281    Weizi Wang, Zhigan Wu, Wanbing Jin, Jianping Ying, "Starting methods for hall-less single phase BLDC motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is mainly about the starting methods for single phase brushless DC motor (BLDCM) under Hall-less driving. Because the rotor initial position is unknown when without Hall sensor, it is difficult for the controller to control the motor to rotate in the predefined direction in start-up. Here, the paper develops two different starting methods to realize right start-up under Hall-less driving. In one of the methods, by pulling the rotor to a known position with a special current pulse, the controller can control the direction easily. While in the other method, the controller can make the rotor rotate in the predefined direction just by applying a current pulse to the winding. Both of the methods are simple and feasible.

282    Wang Yi, Zhao Kaiqi, "Field-oriented vector control of induction motor for electric vehicles," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Parametric variation of induction motor for electric vehicles will result in fluctuation of motor current and torque. A new field-oriented vector control method applying slip-frequency control is proposed, which employs the three-phase induction motor model including differential operation. Theoretical derivation and experimental results are given in this paper. Applying this method can eliminate motor speed oscillation generated by severe parametric variation, and make motor run reliably in the field weakening range. The control scheme is completely adapted to meet the requirements of a high power and high-speed electric vehicle. The proposed method has been verified experimentally and proved to have good performance.

283    Chao-hui Zhao, Hai-hong Qin, Yang-guang Yan, "The research of auxiliary poles of IPM synchronous machine using FEM analysis," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine, which enjoys advantages such as high efficiency and torque, is widely used not only in home application like air conditioners but also in electric vehicles. Its leakage flux is bigger than surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), in order to reduce leakage flux and improve air gap flux density, we may add auxiliary poles in rotor structure. This paper adopts the vector magnetism potential to calculate machines field, then, discusses the influence of auxiliary poles in different positions on air gap flux density when pole pairs are different, point out placement position of auxiliary poles and optimizes thickness of rare earth magnet in that position. At same time, the paper analyzes the influence of the thickness of auxiliary poles on the air gap flux density as pole pairs vary, and obtained: 1) The reasonable introduction of the auxiliary poles can reduce the leakage flux of the main poles and increase its air gap flux density in IPM machine; 2) As to main poles, the auxiliary poles may be placed in three different positions, among which positions in Models (b) and (c) are relatively reasonable, the amount of the permanent magnet material is moderate and the contribution to the air gap flux is greater; 3) The rare earth magnet thickness of the auxiliary poles has a relatively reasonable value, which is relative to the pole pairs of the machine.

284    Chao-hui Zhao, Yongtian Wang, Xiaoli Meng, "The analysis of air gap flux and optimization of rare earth magnet thickness of IPM synchronous machine," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The magnetic field of the interior permanent magnet (IPM) comes from permanent magnet (PM), and there exists a reasonable value for the dosage of PM material when the machine's performance is constant. This paper presents the restriction condition of the rare earth magnet thickness in IPM synchronous machine; under the air gap length be constant, we analyzes the relation between the rare earth magnet thickness and air gap flux density, and the per pole flux respectively; at the same time in order to keep leakage flux constant, under the air gap length variety, we discusses the relation between air gap length and the non-magnetic bush thickness, and the rare earth magnet thickness respectively, then point out contributions of the rare earth magnet thickness to air gap flux.

285    Meng Zhang, Yongdong Li, Tiefu Zhao, Zhichao Liu, Lipei Huang, "A speed fluctuation reduction method for sensorless PMSM-compressor system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a speed fluctuation reducing method for sensorless PMSM-compressor system in air-conditioners. The rotor speed and position are estimated based on model reference adaptive system (MRAS) method. A combined control method for the q-axis reference current is proposed to resolve the dilemma of conventional PI tuning problems in vector control system and reduce the speed fluctuation. Simulation and experimental results show the good performance of the proposed method.

286    Jianbo Sun, Qionghua Zhan, Liming Liu, "Modelling and control of bearingless switched reluctance motor based on artificial neural network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Bearingless switched reluctance motors have combined advantages of switched reluctance motors (SRM) and magnetic bearings. An accurate model of radial force and torque is the basis of precise and fast rotor position control in bearingless SRM. This paper presents a new non-linear modeling method of bearingless SRM using finite element method (FEM) and artificial neural network (ANN). The new method is superior to the previous ones because of its consideration of the non-linearity of magnetic field in bearingless SRM. Furthermore, a novel instantaneous radial force control scheme direct radial force control (DRFC), is proposed in this paper. The new model and DRFC are proved to be more effective than the original control scheme by the simulation results.

287    G.G. Yen, W.F. Leong, "Fault classification on vibration data with wavelet based feature selection scheme," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fault classification based upon vibration data is an essential building block of a sophisticated conditional based monitoring (CBM) system. Multiple sensor channels are called for to assure the redundancy and to achieve the desired reliability and accuracy. The shortcoming of using multiple sensor input channels is the need to deal with high dimensional features set, a computational expensive task in classification. It is vital to reduce the feature dimension via an effective feature extraction and feature selection scheme. A simple wavelet based feature selection scheme is proposed. This scheme overcomes the disadvantages faced by existing feature selection methods, by producing a general feature set, reducing the dimensionality of features and requiring no prior information of the problem domain. The proposed feature selection scheme is based on the strategy of "divide and conquer" that significantly reduce the computation time without compromising the classification performance. The simulation results show the proposed feature selection scheme provides at least 65% reduction of the total number of features without compromising the classification performance.

288    Chao-hui Zhao, Hai-hong Qin, Yang-guang Yan, "FEM analysis the relation between pole pairs and air gap flux density, air gap flux respectively in IPM synchronous machine," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The increase of pole numbers of the interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machine can boost its air gap flux density, raise its efficiency and torque, and reduce its volume and weight. With the help of geometry module, this paper analyzes the relation between "flux concentration function" and the pole pair numbers of IPM synchronous machine, discusses connections between pole numbers and air gap flux density, per pole flux, non-load electric potential, flux density of rotor lead magnet material, flux density of stator tooth, flux density of stator yoke, and power which permanent magnet of unit volume produce respectively. Finally, authors point out: (1) when the saturation of lead magnet material was considered, the air gap flux density and the sums of the per pole flux will produce a the maximum with the increase of pole pairs, that is, IPM machine has a suitable pole pairs; (2) IPM machine bears "flux concentration function", when its pole pairs is more than or equal to 3, B/sub /spl delta///B/sub M/>1 or 4, B/sub /spl delta///B/sub r/>1; (3) the pole pairs of the IPM machine, which be from 3 to 6, is suitable. (4) the inner flux density of permanent magnet and power produced by the permanent magnet of unit volume will drop with the increase of pole pairs of the IPM machine.

289    Zhang Liwei, Wen Xuhui, Liu Jun, "A novel fundamental voltage amplitude linear output control strategy of SVPWM inverter in the overmodulation region," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Generally, the overmodulation techniques for space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) inverters need store lots of date in the controller beforehand, which makes a huge memory while the control resolution is not perfect. Based on amplitude control of the reference voltage vector and the vertex voltage vectors, this paper presents a novel digital over-modulation control strategy for SVPWM inverters, which can manage the transition from the linear control range to six-step operation smoothly. With avoiding the necessity of the stored data implementation, this strategy is simple and very suitable for practical digital implementation. The mathematic analyses show that the output fundamental voltage amplitude is linear proportional to the modulation index. In addition, this paper analyses the harmonic components, and the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage is compared with that of other strategy too. Both math analyses and experimental results, obtained by DSP board, verify that this strategy is very useful for the induction motor with the linear fundamental voltage output gain, low THD and simple application.

290    Xi Xiao, Yongdong Li, Meng Zhang, Min Li, "A novel control strategy for brushless DC motor drive with low torque ripples," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The traditional control methods of brushless DC motors lead to great commutation torque ripples. In order to improve the torque performance, this paper proposes a control strategy based on brushless DC motors' torque equation. In this strategy, the phase currents should be well controlled during commutation process to reduce the derivative of scalar product of three-phase currents and electromotive forces, i.e., the ripples of electro-magnetic torque. Two kinds of voltage control methods for reducing torque ripples are presented, which are the method of constant current in no-commutation phase and minimum torque ripples method. The simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new control strategies.

291    Zhang Botao, Wang Dong, Ma Weiming, Xiao Fei, Hu An, "The excitation control of a 12/3 phase dual stator-winding induction generator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel stand-alone dual stator-winding induction generator (DWIG) on the basis of the new idea of electric power integration. The 2000 kW/6521 RPM generator and its controller are to be designed. The experimental 1:100 experimental prototype generator and its controller were designed in 2003 and many experiments were done also. This generator has two sets of stator-windings. One, referred to as the 12-phase power winding, is connected with four 3-phase full bridge rectifiers to this 12-phase winding to supply a high-quality DC power. The other is a 3-phase winding. A typical two-level PWM voltage source inverter is connected to this winding and the PWM inverter generates reactive current to the generator. It is equivalent to a static VAR generator (SVG), and it is called a static excitation regular (SER). The excitation control theme is discussed in detail, and it is combined with the fixed capacitors and a SER. The fixed capacitors are wye-connection to the power winding. When no load or small load, the capacitors can supply some excitation current and the generator could supply DC power. The control object of the SER is to maintain the DC output of the power winding constant. The paper presents a control methodology based on 3-phase stator voltage-oriented (SVO) to regulate the DC voltage. Theoretical deductions are presented in order to validate the proposed control algorithm. Experimental and simulation results are also proposed and the output DC voltage could maintain constant in spite of the variation of the prime mover speed and the load. These results show that the system is a high-quality DC power source with a fast response. So the excitation control theme combined with the fixed capacitors and a SER are valid and efficient.

292    M. Ghanes, A. Glumineau, L. Loron, "New benchmark for sensorless induction motor drives and validation of a nonlinear controller using a speed observer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper first proposes a new benchmark for sensorless induction motor controllers validation under three operating conditions: (1) low speed with nominal load; (2) high speed with nominal load; (3) case where the motor state is unobservable (at low frequencies). The second part of the paper presents a sensorless field oriented control with sliding mode using an interconnected high gain observer which has been tested and validated on the reference trajectories of this benchmark.

293    R. Gunawan, F. Yusivar, "Reducing estimation error due to digitizing problem in a speed sensorless control of induction motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a strategy for reducing the estimation error due to the digitizing problem in a speed sensorless induction motor control using the speed adaptive observer. An estimated current error compensation is introduced into the rotor magnetizing current's and synchronous speed's calculations in the flux model. A modification of the full-order observer is made in order to affect the compensation strategy into the observer. This modified observer uses the rotor flux calculated by the flux model instead of estimating the flux by itself. The proposed strategy can reduce effectively the estimation error. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

294    A.W. Leedy, W.C. Dillard, R.M. Nelms, "Harmonic analysis of a two-level sinusoidal PWM inverter using the method of pulse pairs," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method used to determine the harmonic components of the output of a two-level sinusoidal PWM inverter is presented. The method calculates the Fourier coefficients of corresponding positive and negative pulse pairs of the output PWM waveform and adds them together using the principle of superposition to calculate the Fourier coefficients of the entire PWM output signal. This method allows direct calculation of harmonic magnitudes and angles without having to use numerical techniques, look-up tables, or Bessel functions. The method presented is a general method that can easily be extended to other types of multilevel inverters and PWM schemes such as space vector modulation. The method has also been tested and proven to be valid in the overmodulation region.

295    L.Q. Zhou, J.H. Zhu, C.L. Gu, "A direct torque control scheme of ALA synchronous reluctance machine and its DSP-based implementation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recently much more attention has been paid to the axially laminated anisotropic (ALA) synchronous reluctance machine (SRM), for its high power factor, great power density and high efficiency, and so on. However, to increase the saliency ratio, the starting cages on the rotor are omitted so that the motor could not start up directly. In the inverter-driven applications, the synchronism between the rotor and the flux could be maintained by making use of the position/speed sensor. But the utilization of sensor will increase the cost and degrade the reliability, or not be applicable in some applications. In this paper, the sensorless direct torque control (DTC) scheme will be applied to ALA-SRM for good robustness and least parameter requirement excluding the stator resistance. It avoids the manipulation of complicated control scheme due to the saturation of parameters, especially the direct axis inductance L/sub d/. The improvements of the integral of stator flux and the hysteresis control of flux magnitude are stated in detail. To validate the theoretical analysis, the whole system was simulated with Matlab and an experimental investigation on a DSP (TMS320LF2407A) controlled 2.2 kW ALA-SRM was implemented. The results verified that the DSP-based control of ALA-SRM is a competitive candidate.

296    Lv Guangqiang, Wang Qi, Ji Yanchao, "A novel induction motor soft starter with torque pulsations elimination capability," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The novel soft starter based on self-commutated device is studied in this paper. The principle of the soft starter is described and its mathematical model is given. The relation between torque pulsation and the switching point in the first cycle of the voltage applied to the stator is analyzed by simulation. The control strategy for eliminating torque pulsation is presented. Using this control strategy, the torque pulsation can be diminished and even eliminated by choosing the optimal switching point of the applied voltage. The experimental results prove that this method of controlling torque pulsation is practicable for the novel soft starter.

297    Xianzhong Dai, Guohai Liu, Hao Zhang, Xinghua Zhang, "Neural network inverse control of variable frequency speed-regulating system in V/F mode," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An induction motor driven by a normal and low-cost inverter running in V/F mode, named as a variable frequency speed-regulating system in V/F, is widely used, but its control performance is not good enough to meet the needs of speed-regulation. So it is useful to improve its control performance without changing the original structure of variable frequency speed-regulating system (VFSRS). Considering the induction motor and the inverter as a whole controlled object, a mathematic model of such variable frequency speed-regulating system in V/F and its inverse model, with or without compensation, are given in this paper. Constructing a neural network inverse and combining it with the variable frequency speed-regulating system in V/F, a pseudo-linear system is completed. Then a linear close-loop adjuster is designed to obtain a better speed-regulating performance. Results of experiments demonstrate that speed-regulating performances can be greatly improved using this simple method.

298    Tai-Sik Hwang, Jul-Ki Seok, Dong-Hun Kim, "High performance control of /spl pi//4-multiple-pitched linear hybrid stepping motor with ripple force compensator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A linear hybrid stepping motors (LHSMs) have been widely used owing to its simple structure and ripple-free holding force at aligned position. Despite its attractive features, the LHSM delivers the significant thrust vibrations during position-to-position movement, that are the dominant cause of the positioning error, mechanical stress, and acoustic noise. In order to overcome this defect, we propose an active control scheme to damp the vibration for /spl pi//4-multiple-pitched LHSM by the feed-forward compensation signal. Utilizing a reluctance network and FEM analysis that incorporate the factors of non-uniform air gap, manufacturing tolerance, and nonlinear material properties, the LHSM with force ripple components is modeled as a nonlinear position-dependent function. The damping force signal is estimated from the Jacobian linearization observer and the positioning accuracy is significantly improved through a closed-loop control scheme for restraining the thrust ripple.

299    B. Enayati, B. Mirzaeian, S.M. Saghaiannejad, M. Moallem, "Coefficient determination of adaptive feedback linearization method, using multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm for position control of switched reluctance motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new method for coefficient determination of feedback linearization control method for position control of switched reluctance motors. Feed back linearization method is unstable against uncertainties of rotor inertia and stator resistance, this disadvantage makes us to design a method that is robust against those mentioned uncertainties, in this paper by adding a torque term to the motor dynamical equation, we have made the controlling method, robust against uncertainties of rotor inertia and stator resistance. The main problem in adaptive feed back linearization method is determination of its feed back coefficients, multi-objective optimization based on genetic algorithm is proposed as an stochastic method to determine the coefficients. The major gain of our proposed method compared to those reported so far, is that, it needs less time to converge and also less speed rise time. Because of the significance of determining the coefficients precisely, the proposed method can be used in these applications, the simulation results have been compared with trial and error method and show the benefits of the proposed method.

300    Tae-Hyung Kim, Hyung-Woo Lee, Mehrdad Ehsani, "State of the art and future trends in position sensorless brushless DC motor/generator drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 8 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recent advances in the development of fast digital signal processors (DSPs) have paved the way for sensorless drive techniques of AC motors. The sophisticated sensorless algorithms in DSPs substitute for the mechanical position sensors and other hardware. This paper covers an entire range of topics related to the position sensorless control of brushless DC (BLDC) motor and generator drives including their fundamentals, limitations, present advances, and future trends. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the various sensorless control methods and to promote creative thinking based on existing sensorless drive methods. Conventional techniques are reviewed and recent developments in this area are introduced with their inherent advantages and drawbacks. Anticipated research efforts and trends are also be discussed.

301    V. Cecconi, A. Matranga, A. Ragusa, "New circuital models of grounding systems and PDS for EMI analysis during a lightning strike," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper circuital models of a power drive system (PDS) and of grounding systems are proposed in order to analyse electromagnetic interferences (EMI) induced in a PDS when a lightning current flows in the grounding system. The models have been developed adopting the network approach with lumped parameters and have been implemented using the software Matlab. A high frequency (HE) model suitable to simulate the impulse response of a PDS is described and a generalized method in order to calculate the lumped parameters values of grounding system models is presented. The new method takes into account the burial depth of electrodes as regards their length. The validation results of this new method are presented. It has been made comparing simulation results with the ones obtained with the more rigorous models developed by Yaqing Liu et al. and by Grcev respectively, the transmission line method (TLM) and electromagnetic field method. The grounding systems developed circuital models are simpler than those realized with the TLM and the electromagnetic field methods, they require a shorter computational time and a minor cost because an on sale software for network simulation can be used. These characteristics permit to combine the grounding system model with the PDS HF circuital model, obtaining an only model that permits to analyse EMI generated in every section of the drive during a lightning strike giving only the waveform of the lightning current in time domain, as input of the model.

302    Weizi Wang, Zhigan Wu, Wanbing Jin, Jianping Ying, "Sensorless control technology for single phase BLDCM based on the winding time-sharing method," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper mainly develops a low-cost high-performance sensorless control method for single phase brushless DC motor (BLDCM). It is based on the winding time-sharing principle. During most of time in one control cycle, winding is used as a driving component with load current to drive motor rotating. During the rest of the time, it is used as a sensing component to detect the back EMF (BEMF), which is essential for the motor commutation. The paper also studies how to realize phase commutation advance when motor is running in high speed under this sensorless control.

303    Long Wu, Bin Lu, Xianghui Huang, T.G. Habetler, R.G. Harley, "Improved online condition monitoring using static eccentricity-induced negative sequence current information in induction machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The detection of air-gap eccentricity-related motor faults is a very important function in online condition monitoring of induction machines. Low frequency and high frequency characteristic side-band harmonics are usually monitored in the stator current spectrum to detect the existence of air-gap eccentricities. However, in these techniques, only a single phase stator current spectrum is analyzed even though all three phase supply currents are usually available in the motor control center. In this paper, for the first time, the negative sequence components in supply currents due to the presence of a static eccentricity are proposed as a fault indicator. This paper also proposes a new technique to separate the negative sequence components from their positive sequence counterparts using qd-axis current spectra in a newly selected rotating reference frame. Analysis shows that in this way the oscillating load torque effect can be completely eliminated from the eccentricity effect. Based on an elementary, 2-pole, 3-phase induction motor model with sinusoidal winding distributions, all motor inductances are analytically derived and analyzed. Simulation and experimental results validate the existence of negative sequence fundamental component in supply currents resulting from a static air-gap eccentricity. The variation of magnitudes and phase angles associated with these negative sequence components are also investigated. By monitoring the magnitude of negative sequence components, one could determine the degree of static eccentricity in the presence of a mixed eccentricity. Therefore, the capability and reliability of online condition monitoring of induction machines are improved.

304    Fei Lin, Zhiwen Ma, Guangyan Hu, Trillion Zheng, Wenchao Song, "High performance induction motor speed control based on extended state observer with stator fluxes model," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new approach for induction motor speed and flux tracking control is proposed in this paper. The unknown load torque is observed using the extended state observer (ESO), a kind of observer with non-smooth nonlinear feedback. The speed controller is designed compensating the load disturbance by the ESO. The torque and flux controller, which are utilized to achieve torque and flux tracking objective and hold the decoupling characteristic, are designed by direct feedback linearization method. All the work is based upon the fifth-order motor model using stator fluxes as state variables, with an improved stator flux observer. Simulation results illustrate the essential features of the presented method.

305    R.T. Naayagi, V. Kamaraj, "Shape optimization of switched reluctance machine for aerospace applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the shape optimization of switched reluctance machine (SRM) using genetic algorithm (GA). To achieve the required performance within a specified space envelope, the physical dimensions of the switched reluctance machine like stator pole arc, rotor pole arc, rotor diameter and stack length were optimized using GA. The proposed strategy improves the power density by 13.97% using GA. The maximum torque throughput is enhanced by 12.1%. The proposed design, in comparison with the standard design, highlights improvement in performance with considerable reduction in size. This method maximizes flux linkage and torque per unit rotor volume of the SRM. In this paper, the design specifications are suited for 25 hp, 24/18 pole, 4 phase SRM. The simulation results obtained from the given specifications, demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy.

306    Tong Liu, Huahua Chen, "Detection of stator turn fault in induction motors using the extension of multiple reference frames theory," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyses some methods that are used to detect the stator turn fault in induction motors, and points out that the negative sequence impedance is the recommended indicator of the stator turn fault detection when the inherent asymmetry of the motor, unbalance of the supply and variety of the load are taken into account. Furthermore, a novel approach to obtain the negative sequence impedance based on the extension of multiple reference frames theory (MRFT) is proposed. Since the supply fundamental frequency is not a constant and hard to be measured accurately, the conventional synchronous reference frame transform is not quite strict. To extend the synchronous reference frame transform matrix, this method uses the fundamental positive sequence components of three-phases voltage signals and their Hilbert transform to replace its elements. Negative sequence current can be acquired exactly through the new transform, and then the negative sequence impedance is also obtained precisely. The advantage of this method is avoiding the dependence of the supply frequency and making the detection more reliable. Experimental results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this method.

307    C.I. Pitic, G.-D. Andreescu, F. Blaabjerg, I. Boldea, "IPMSM motion-sensorless direct torque and flux control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a rather comprehensive implementation of a wide speed motion-sensorless control of IPMSM drives via direct torque and flux control (DTFC) with space vector modulation (SVM). Signal injection with only one D-module vector filter and phase-locked loop (PLL) observer is used at low speeds to estimate the rotor position and speed, to be used in the stator flux observer and, respectively, as speed feedback. A combined voltage-current model flux observer suits the whole speed range, while the current model fades away as speed increases. PWM and inverter nonlinearities compensation provides for a smooth current waveform even at 1 rpm. The paper demonstrates through ample experiments a 1750 rpm/1 rpm speed range full-loaded with sensorless DTFC-SVM.

308    R. Kennel, E. El-kholy, S. Mahmoud, A. El-refaei, F. Elkady, "A simple high performance current control scheme for induction motor drives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, analysis and implementation of two schemes for current control based on space vector modulation are proposed. A novel current control for vector control of induction motor is presented. In which, the set of space voltage vectors are determined according to the stator current error in stator reference frame. An off line switching table based on software implemented comparator for minimizing this error has been implemented. Hence, optimal voltage vectors can be obtained from the inverter by using switching table based on angular coordinate. On the other hand, a modified predictive current controller based space vector modulation is proposed. In this technique, the space voltage vectors which are required to minimize the motor current error are calculated using a discrete motor model every sampling time. The proposed approach incorporates a modified conventional predictive current control with a new approach for reducing current ripples and decreasing the switching frequency. Simulation and experimental set-up results show the advantages and good performance of the two new modulation methods.

309    H. Tanaka, M. Minami, Y. Mae, "Evaluation of obstacle avoidance ability for redundant mobile manipulators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we presents a criteria of obstacle avoidance of mobile manipulator, which is composed of redundant manipulator and mobile robot. Concerning configuration control study of redundant manipulators, avoidance manipulability ellipsoid and avoidance manipulability shape index have been suggested so far as an index to symbolize avoidance ability of manipulator's shape when the hand is tracking to a desired trajectory. While following the proposed criteria of obstacle avoidance ability, in this paper the concept is extended for mobile manipulator in order to discuss the avoidance ability of intermediate links for mobile operations. First, the avoidance manipulability ellipsoid and the avoidance manipulability shape index of a mobile manipulator are formulated to check their abilities. Then, the avoidance manipulability shape index is evaluated by the simulation.

310    Cheol-Taek Kim, Ju-Jang Lee, "Mobile robot navigation using multi-resolution electrostatic potential field," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a multi-resolution electrostatic potential field (MREPF) based solution to the mobile robot path planning and collision avoidance problem in 2D dynamic environment. The MREPF is an efficient method in calculation time and updating field map. The large scale resolution map is added to EPF and this resolution map interacts with the small scale resolution map to find an optimal solution in real time. This approach can be interpreted with Atlantis model. The simulation studies show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

311    Y. Yazaki, T. Ikeda, M. Minami, Y. Mae, "Guidance control of mobile robot preventing slipping of carrying objects," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Force and torque induced by traveling motion of a mobile robot effect dynamically to the objects being carried on it. If the induced force and torque should be bigger than the static friction force and torque exerting between the carrying objects and the mobile robot, the carrying objects start to slip on it. Since this slipping motion causes increasing the acceleration of the mobile robot, then the slipping of one object leads a dangerous collapse of all carrying objects. Furthermore it interferes with accurate traveling motions. From these influence again safe transportation without fixations of the objects to the mobile robot to save time and to increase production efficiency in factories, this paper purposes a controller to guide the mobile robot along a given course as fast as possible with acceleration restriction not to slip the carrying objects during traveling.

312    M. Seder, K. Macek, I. Petrovic, "An integrated approach to real-time mobile robot control in partially known indoor environments," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we present a motion control method for mobile robots in partially known indoor environments based on integration of focussed D* search algorithm and dynamic window local obstacle avoidance algorithm. While focussed D* generates global path, dynamic window local obstacle avoider generates the admissible robot trajectories that ensure safe robot motion. A simple and efficient procedure to the selection of appropriate motion commands based upon alignment of acquired trajectories and global geometric path is proposed. The initial a priori knowledge is used about the environment in the form of the occupancy grid map that is incrementally updated in runtime. The algorithms are verified both by simulation and experiments with a Pioneer 2DX mobile robot equipped with laser range finder.

313    B.K. Quek, J. Ibanez-Guzman, K.W. Lim, "Feature-based perception for autonomous unmanned navigation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a fuzzy-based approach to robot perception based on feature maps generated using a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) stereovision system, intended for the guidance of autonomous vehicles in urban and outdoor environments. Feature maps integrate colour with geometrical information onto an occupancy grid, for representing useful features extracted from the perceived environment. These include obstacles, traversable regions, and objects-of-interest detected from disparity images. A likelihood measure of the presence of obstacles within the perceived environment is introduced by comparing the displacement of each grid cell relative to a dynamically-estimated virtual ground plane. With a priori knowledge of the colour compositions of traversable (and non-traversable) regions, a fuzzy colour segmentation algorithm is used to extract such regions, thereby enhancing the autonomous vehicle's knowledge of the environment. This method is used for computing the degree of safety in traversing through the local environment. The advantages of this approach in computational speed, ease of implementation and obstacle detection robustness based on multiple features are supported by promising experimental results obtained on both live and recorded images.

314    O. Ayhan, K. Erbatur, "Biped walking robot hybrid control with gravity compensation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Past three decades witnessed a growing interest in biped walking robots because of their advantageous use in the human environment. However, their control is challenging because of their many DOFs and nonlinearities in their dynamics. Various trajectory generation and walking control approaches ranging from open loop walking to systems with many sensors and feedback loops have been reported in the literature. The tuning of the parameters of reference gait is a common complication encountered. Another important problem of the walking control is the ground force interaction of the swinging leg at landing. This paper uses position references for the upper body. Optimization techniques are employed to obtain suitable leg joint torques for the supporting leg to track body reference trajectories. Locomotion is achieved by a swinging leg control scheme which is independent of the body reference position tracking. This method is based partly on gravity compensation and virtual potential fields applied to the swinging leg, and partly relies on position control. Soft landing of the leg can easily be handled with this scheme. 3D dynamics and ground interaction simulation techniques are employed for a 12-DOF biped robot to test the proposed method. The simulations indicate the applicability of the method in real implementations.

315    G. Hwang, N. Ando, P. Szemes, H. Hashimoto, "Feedback strategy for human-robot shared controlled single-master multi-slave tele-micromanipulation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel force feedback strategy for single-master multi-slave tele-micromanipulation system which was developed in our laboratory. This work is motivated by the high necessity of proper force feedback strategy to provide better operability to the human operator which results in the improvement of overall task performance. As the test bed, we've developed a novel single-master (PHANToM haptic device) multi-slave (6 D.O.F parallel manipulator) tele-micromanipulation system which enables human operators to perform micro tasks, such as microassembly or manufacturing with lower stress. We have focused on improving the human's operability and overall dexterity of our previous tele-micromanipulation system "Haptic Loupe". In this paper, the position/force virtual mapping method to overcome the master/slave asymmetry is implemented to realize the human-robot shared control framework on internal force while grasping task. In this shared control framework, the generated reference trajectories of both manipulators by the virtual mapping method are shared with the cooperative impedance control of parallel mechanism multi-slave to regulate the internal force while grasping an object. Lastly, several pick-and-place experimental results show a dramatic improvement of internal force regulation capability and an operability by the proposed feedback strategy based on the shared control framework in single-master multi-slave tele-micromanipulation system.

316    N. Motoi, M. Ikebe, K. Ohnishi, "Real-time gait planning for pushing motion of humanoid robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes real-time gait planning for pushing motion of a humanoid robot. We propose ZMP modification and cycle time modification. ZMP modification is the value which compensates the influence of virtual force to ZMP. Cycle time modification is that the period in double support phase is modified to avoid a robot tipping over. These modifications are calculated from information of reaction force on arms. In these methods, a robot walks while pushing an unknown object. Even if parameters of a object and friction coefficient on the floor vary, the robot keeps on walking while pushing. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by a simulation and an experiment.

317    T. Suzuki, T. Tsuji, K. Ohnishi, "Trajectory planning of biped robot for running motion," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In recent years, studies of biped locomotion have been developed rapidly. Biped robots are able to walk smoothly. In addition, there came some robots which were able to run. Walking and running will be basic performances of biped robots in future. In this paper, we propose a new trajectory planning method, applicable to plan both walking and running motions. The two kinds of motions are treated as a unified trajectory. The trajectory consists of two phases; sinusoidal trajectory and parabolic trajectory. With this method, we plan walking and running motions for a biped robot in a unified manner, and switch between walking state and running state by parameter modification. We simulated and experimented with the proposed trajectory planning method.

318    Y. Sato, E. Ohashi, K. Ohnishi, "Impact force reduction for hopping robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In controlling a hopping robot, reducing reaction force from the ground is important. We propose a method for a hopping robot to reduce impact force at the instant of touchdown. Our method is based on the idea of the soft-landing trajectory and optimal approach velocity. By applying our method to a robot system, a robot can suppress the impact force at the instant of touchdown and press the ground with constant force continuously. Furthermore, selection ratios of position and force are introduced to achieve a smooth transition from force control to position control during the landing phase. It is important for a hopping robot to achieve a desired position when the position of the COG (center of gravity) is the lowest; because the robot have to prepare for a next hop. With this method, the impact force at touchdown is suppressed and the robot can track the desired trajectory. The method is applied to a robot which is constrained to move only vertical direction. Validity of our method is confirmed by numerical simulations.

319    R.C. Luo, T.Y. Lin, T.Y. Hsu, P.K. Wang, "Multisensor controlled obstacle avoidance and navigation of intelligent security robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the real world, development of robotics has replaced our manpower gradually, and assisted human to perform rather difficult tasks. One of the most important factors for the ISR (Intelligent Security Robot) to reach the goal safely is how to avoid the unknown obstacles in the unknown environment. The unknown obstacles include static and dynamic obstacles which are detected by ultrasonic sensors and IR sensors respectively. If we use only one of the two kinds of sensors to detect obstacles, it is not useful for ISR to complete tasks in the real world, because the surrounding environment in the real world is dynamic, unknown and time-varying. Therefore, we use sixteen pieces of ultrasonic sensors and eight IR sensors to detect obstacle, and measure distance from the center of ISR to obstacles. Hence, the multisensor integration technique is applied in the robotics. This technique acquires sensory information to construct environment information. On the other hand, shapes and areas of obstacles will both change the data that IR sensor and Ultrasonic sensor registered. As a result, they will change the decision that ISR made during the process of obstacle avoidance. So the time ISR spent and the length of path will have some differences when ISR navigate to the given position from the start position. The system has been successfully demonstrated experimentally.

320    W. Li, N. Hata, Y. Hori, "Prevention of overturn of power assisted wheelchair using novel stability condition," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Last 10 years we have been experiencing a constant evolution in the field of power assisted wheelchairs, which allows more flexibility of use for disabled people. However, motor output is quite big, and without proper control, power assisted wheelchair are much easier to fall backward than traditional ones. Therefore, in this work, to prevent the overturn, three kinds of stability conditions, including the novel one based on Lagrange equation have been proposed. They are compared by using experimental data and the best one is adopted. Its validity, as well as practicality, is authenticated by experiments on both horizontal plane and slope.

321    A. Al Mamun, Z. Zhen, P. Vadakkepat, T.H. Lee, "Tracking control of the gyrobot-a gyroscopically stabilized single-wheeled robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The gyrobot is a gyroscopically stabilized, single-wheeled robot. A fast spinning flywheel mounted inside the frame provides lateral stability of the wheel-shaped robot. Steering of the robot is effectuated by tilting the flywheel with the help of a tilt motor, and forward/backward motion is implemented by another motor mounted on the heavy platform. This structure of robot shows excellent dynamic stability and is, therefore, suitable for navigation in unknown, rough terrain. From this point of view, the gyrobot has definite advantage over other types of wheeled robots. Moreover, the electronic components are placed inside the sealed shell of the wheel giving it an advantage in operations where navigation in wet surfaces is required, for example inspection of sewerage lines or chemical spills. In this paper, we report the design and fabrication of the gyrobot and present the results of path following navigating algorithm designed for this robot. A linear feedback controller is adopted at this stage to control the tilt and forward/backward motion of the robot.

322    S. Oh, Y. Hori, "Lateral disturbance rejection and one hand propulsion control of a power assisting wheelchair," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Many controls of a power assisting wheelchair have been proposed for the forward direction. But, there are not so many researches on the lateral control designs. This paper copes with two problems that can easily happen in wheelchair driving: keeping the wheelchair straight despite disturbances in the lateral direction and driving with only one hand. Lateral disturbance rejection control design should be different from the forward disturbance attenuation control. Our control design takes this point into account, so it can offer excellent lateral support. This lateral control is also related with one hand propulsion of the wheelchair. Changing the extent of controls can achieve the one hand propulsion. That extent will be decided based on the user's intention, and that intention can be estimated using a phase plane. These control designs are experimented.

323    T. Koizumi, N. Tsujiuchi, D. Uemori, "Development of a wearable power-assisted orthosis for nursing care," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As Japan's population ages rapidly, it is expected that the number of people who require nursing care will increase steadily. This will lead to a much greater physical burden being imposed on carers. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop of a wearable power-assisted orthosis for nursing care that reduces the physical burden on carers. The system is worn on the carer's sword arm and supports sward arm's motor ability by using an actuator. The actuator is a DC geared motor weighing 2.0 kg with a maximum output of 33.4 Nm. To control the orthosis, the system employs electromyogram (EMG) signals associated with the motion of the shoulder joint and the elbow joint angle signal to give a hands-free control system that can automatically control the DC geared motor. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the power-assisted orthosis's ability for holding support, reducing the physical burden by about 50 %.

324    Yang Jung Hua, Yang Kuang Shing, "Adaptive coupling control for overhead crane systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Due to the requirements of high positioning accuracy, small swing angle, short transportation time, and high safety, both motion and stabilization control for an overhead crane system becomes an interesting issue in the field of control technology development. In this paper, a nonlinear control scheme which incorporates both the cart motion dynamics and sway angle dynamics is devised to ensure the overall closed-loop system stability. To cope with parametric uncertainty, an adaptive version has also been presented for the nonlinear controller. In the developed control laws, the position error will be driven to zero while the sway angle is also rapidly damped to achieve minimal swing of the pendulum. Besides, stability proof of the overall system is also given.

325    I.E. Moghaddam, M. Bahrami, "A numerical algorithm for solving displacement kinematics of parallel manipulators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a numerical algorithm to solve the inverse and forward displacement problems with preferred and practical configurations. The proposed algorithm is adaptable for different accuracies and is defined by the geometrical characteristics of the manipulator. To verify the capabilities of the algorithm, it is used to solve the inverse and forward displacement problems for the 3-P_RS and then for the 3-R_RRR manipulators. Inverse and forward displacement solutions for the 3-P_RS are compared to closed-form and Bezout's elimination method respectively.

326    R.J. Wood, S. Avadhanula, E. Steltz, M. Seeman, J. Entwistle, A. Bachrach, G. Barrows, S. Sanders, R.S. Fearing, "Design, fabrication and initial results of a 2g autonomous glider," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 8 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Utilizing the core technologies of emerging microrobotic structures, the rapid design and prototyping of a passive micro air vehicle with the final goal of locating an audio source while avoiding hazardous obstacles is presented. The airfoil and control surfaces are optimized empirically to maximize lift and maneuverability while minimizing drag. Bimorph piezoelectric bending cantilevers actuate the control surfaces. Since such actuators require high voltages, an efficient boost circuit is presented along with appropriate high voltage electronics. To locate audio sources, a pair of acoustic sensors is designed and prototyped using a phase detection algorithm while a custom optic flow sensor is developed to avoid obstacles and give estimates of object distances and velocities. Finally, each subsystem is demonstrated and the complete glider is integrated to demonstrate initial open loop control performance.

327    S. Tungpataratanawong, K. Ohishi, T. Miyazaki, "Force sensorless workspace impedance control considering resonant vibration of industrial robot," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new force sensorless impedance control scheme for industrial robot to deal with the industrial robot under impact with environment. With the novel motion control based on D-PD (derivative-PD) and feedforward inverse-dynamic torque compensation, the industrial robot is assured in performing task with accuracy and rapidity. Only stiff servo strategy, however, the robot tends to encounter with difficulties when robot collides with the environment. The proposed observer-based workspace impedance control scheme does well match with the D-PD position control, which uses both position and velocity references to implement the damping and stiffness characteristic of the impedance model. The flexible-joint modeled industrial robot with its robust resonant-suppression motion control and force sensorless impedance control is an adequate platform to implement on the ordinary industrial robot system. Finally, the experimental results of the workspace impedance control performed on the three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) robot manipulator confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

328    H. Kawai, H. Kobayashi, "A concept of networked cellular vision system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This article proposes a new concept for information processing of networked vision sensors. The networked sensor technology has a potential capability to solve some of our most important scientific and societal problems. But, difficulties of the information processing are inherent in such huge amount of information acquired by the distributed vision systems. The proposed concept gets a hint from information processing of human hearing organs. We get the visual recognition by detecting the physical motions of cell-vision systems that move autonomously in their allotted areas.

329    S. Izri, E. Brassart, L. Delahoche, A. Clerentin, C. Drocourt, "Multisensor cooperation of assistance to driving," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We will present in this article the principles of data-processing put into operation within the framework of a research project on the improvement of automobile safety. This project is based on the simultaneous use of two systems of exteroceptive perception: a system of omnidirectional vision with spherical reflector and a telemetric laser. We limit our study to the identification of objects discovered both in panoramic images and in clusters of points stemming from telemetric measures, and this obtained in outside motorway-type environment. After reiterating the mechanisms of creation of the omnidirectional images and clusters of points, we shall detail the various processes which we set up. Finally, we shall dedicate the last part to the experimental results.

330    S. Takezawa, G. Dissanayake, "Simultaneous localisation and mapping problems in indoor environments with stereovision," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a method for simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) in an indoor environment using stereo vision. Specially designed artificial landmarks distributed in the environment are observed and extracted from a camera image. The disparity map obtained from the stereo vision system is used to obtain the ranges to these landmarks. The main contribution of the paper is the formulation of the mathematical framework for SLAM for a robot moving on a planar surface among landmarks distributed in three dimensional space. The paper also presents the results of experiments conducted using a pioneer robot and a triclops stereo vision system. It is demonstrated that accurate robot and feature locations can be obtained using the proposed technique.

331    Kap-Ho Seo, Ju-Jang Lee, "Real-time object tracking and segmentation using adaptive color snake model," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Motion tracking and object segmentation are the most fundamental and critical problems in vision tasks such as motion analysis. An active contour model, snake, was developed as a useful segmenting and tracking tool for rigid or non-rigid objects. Snake is designed on the basis of snake energies. Segmenting and tracking can be executed successfully by energy minimization. In this research, two new paradigms for segmentation and tracking are suggested. First, because the conventional method uses only intensity information, it is difficult to separate an object from its complex background. Therefore, a new energy and design schemes should be proposed for the better segmentation of objects. Second, conventional snake can be applied in situations where the change between images is small. If a fast moving object exists in successive images, conventional snake will not operate well because the moving object may have large differences in its position or shape, between successive images. Snake's nodes may also fall into the local minima in their motion to the new positions of the target object in the succeeding image. For robust tracking, the condensation algorithm was adopted to control the parameters of the proposed snake model called "adaptive color snake model (ACSM)". The effectiveness of the ACSM is verified by appropriate simulations and experiments.

332    H. Kobayashi, S. Katsura, K. Ohnishi, "An analysis of parameter variations of disturbance observer for haptic motion control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Recent machines are hoped to have a haptic ability to work in open environment. Haptic motion control is based on position control and force control. To realize the position control and especially force control, the attainment of robustness is essential. This paper selects a disturbance observer to attain the robust acceleration control. A disturbance observer identifies the total mechanical load torque and parameter variations. The aim of this paper is to analyze a disturbance observer with the focus on parameter variations. Parameter variations have an influence on the cut-off frequency of bandwidth where robustness is assured and the stability of control system. This paper shows that the cut-off frequency depends on parameter variations. This paper focuses on the self-inertia variation and analyzes the stability of the position control system and the force control system. The design method of observer gains is also proposed.

333    T. Miyazaki, K. Ohishi, T. Hayano, D. Koide, H. Tokumaru, "Force sensorless robust tracking servo system suppressing periodic disturbance and sudden disturbance for optical disk system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In optical recording system, the tracking servo system must follow the track of optical disk against the influence of the track eccentricity and the force disturbance. In tracking servo system, the influence of the track eccentricity becomes periodic disturbance. The influence of force disturbance caused by shaking is treated as sudden disturbance. The several control methods suppressing the periodic disturbance have been proposed. On the other hand, it is difficult to detect the sudden disturbance without force sensor. In the conventional tracking servo system, the influence of sudden disturbance has been suppressed by the feedback controller. This paper proposes a new force sensorless robust tracking servo system, which detects and suppresses the both periodic disturbance and the sudden disturbance without force sensor. The proposed system estimates the both periodic disturbance and sudden disturbance based on a new sudden disturbance observer and memory of tracking error. Moreover, in order to suppress the periodic disturbance quickly, this paper designs the ZPET feedforward servo system with prediction of tracking error. The experimental results point out that the proposed tracking servo system has a precise tracking response against both periodic disturbance and sudden disturbance.

334    M. Mizuochi, T. Tsuji, K. Ohnishi, "Force sensing and force control using multirate sampling method," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on a bandwidth and a delay of force sensing. High bandwidth force sensing is important for motion control systems to cope with unknown environments. Reaction torque observer is utilized instead of force sensors to detect external force in this paper. The bandwidth of force sensing is limited by the sampling period and data noise. The delay in force information may deteriorate the performance of force control since force information is fed back. According to these considerations, this paper proposes application of a multirate sampling method to the force control system. Reaction torque observer is modified for the multirate system. The bandwidth of force sensing can be improved and the delay in force information can be decreased with the proposed method. The validity of the proposal is verified by stability analysis, simulation and experimental results.

335    B. Hredzak, G. Herrmann, G. Guo, "Short and long-span track seek control for hard disk drive dual-stage servo actuators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel strategy for design of a control system for a dual-stage servo actuator used in hard disk drives is proposed. The control system enables track-following, and both short-span and long-span track seeking. For this, a well-known decoupling structure is employed to disconnect the control of the primary voice coil motor (VCM) actuator from the loop for a secondary high-bandwidth actuator. The design procedure can be summarised in four steps: (i) design of an established non-linear seek-settle-track following controller for the VCM, (ii) design of a linear track following controller for the secondary actuator, (iii) observer design and (iv) design of a compensator to retain global stability and to improve performance. The compensator used in the secondary control loop is suitably combined with a saturation non-linearity to obtain actuator signal boundedness for the secondary actuator. The performance and robustness of the proposed control system is analyzed and demonstrated through simulation. Presented results show good track-following/seeking performance with negligible overshoot, fast settling time and smooth transition between short and long-span track seeking.

336    K. Natori, K. Ohnishi, "An approach to design of feedback systems with time delay," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Because of the distinctive characteristics, time delay is even now a difficult and unresolved problem in control engineering. Therefore many compensation methods of it have been proposed so far. The most famous one of them all is Smith predictor. It is a kind of prediction method and equivalently eliminates time delay from closed control loop. State predictive control is briefly an extension of Smith predictor in state space. However it should be noted that the performances of these methods deteriorate in case that time delay is fluctuant and unpredictable. In this paper, a new approach to design of feedback systems with time delay is proposed. It is based on innovative time delay compensation method by disturbance observer and the concept of network disturbance. Because this method does not need delay time model, it is applicable to the system with fluctuant and unpredictable time delay. Furthermore it also considers suppression technique of disturbance. Then new controller that can be designed regarding transient and steady-state response separately is proposed. The validity of proposed method is verified by simulation and experimental results.

337    A. Hace, A. Polic, K. Jezernik, "Rapid embedded control prototyping by Petri nets," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents rapid prototyping approach of control devices in mechatronics. The logic control device is considered as an embedded event-driven system. For modeling of the structure of such a system the paper proposes the use of a matrix representation of Petri nets. The dynamics are described by state-transition logic equations. The control concept for discrete event system resembles the conventional closed-loop concept of continuous and discrete time systems. The paper focuses on rapid logic control prototyping paradigm with Petri nets that is illustrated by the case study of a linear drive initialization procedure.

338    T. Tsuji, M. Mizuochi, H. Nishi, K. Ohnishi, "A velocity measurement method for acceleration control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel method of velocity measurement for motor drives with optical encoders. Acceleration control is indispensable for advanced motion control while it requires accurate velocity information. Although many methods on velocity measurement have been proposed, accurate measurement was not achieved in a high-speed range. We therefore propose "synchronous measurement method (S method)" that measures the velocity synchronized with alteration of pulse numbers. Accurate velocity measurement is achieved in all speed ranges with this method. Furthermore, other estimation methods are applicable in addition since the method does not require any model of a control object. Simulation and experimental results verify the validity of the proposed method.

339    K. Weiss, H. Worn, "Resistive tactile sensor matrices using inter-electrode sampling," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Tactile sensors can be used in many applications from object recognition in industrial grippers and medical devices to human-robot-interaction in service robotics. Among the different working principles of tactile sensors, the resistive is of particular interest. Those sensors are constructed in a simple way, are insensitive to shock and overdrive and can be designed with both, a high spatial resolution and a large sensing area. Conventional resistive tactile sensors are based on two electrode layers, located on opposed sides of a conductive polymer. Since this design has disadvantages affecting lifetime, we use a onesided contacting by the use of a regular electrode matrix. However, this increases the signal processing circuit's complexity. This paper introduces a novel kind of resistive tactile sensor matrix with an inter-electrode sampling technique for high speed measurements at an reduced number of electrodes and therefore a reduced complexity. The design of such sensor matrices is described and a method for comparing their performance based on the matrix efficiency is introduced. In addition, a working prototype was build and successfully tested.

340    B. Hredzak, G. Guo, "Active balancer with electromagnetic release of balancing members," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Active balancers are attractive to be used in applications where rotational imbalance is frequently varied. For example, in media level servo track writers used in hard disk drive industry, a set of blank disks is loaded on spindle motor for purpose of servo writing. Since servo writing is performed at high speeds, imbalance introduced by disks and spacers results in significant vibrations that can affect the quality of servo writing process. This paper proposes a new configuration of active balancer that enables to compensate for rotational imbalance each time a new set of blank disk is loaded into servo track writing machine. The active balancer is in a shape of ring with a number of grooves displaced around axis of rotation. Steel balls are placed inside the grooves and held by permanent magnets. Imbalance compensation is achieved by electromagnetically activated release of the steel balls. Main advantage of the proposed configuration is in large compensation range. Presented 3-D finite element analysis results and experimental results demonstrate and prove effectiveness of this novel configuration.

341    C.E. Lin, C.C. Ker, R.T. Wang, C.L. Chen, "A new ball and beam system using magnetic suspension actuator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a ball & beam system using a pair of magnetic suspension actuators by applying precision position control in performance. System characteristics including magnetic actuator, linear position sensor, load current control and feedback loop are discussed. To achieve the control, a single chip microprocessor with basic level electronics is designed and implemented. The designed system model is derived from Lagrangian function for system controller implementation. Oscillatory stable operation and sinusoidal tracking operation are tested to verify the system performance and functional capability.

342    S. Suzuki, Y. Suzuki, Y. Baba, K. Furuta, "Human skill and brain activity in machine operation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reports experimental analyses of human characteristic in machine operation by utilizing a stabilization task. For this aim, a test system composed of a force-feedback haptic device and a real-time computer graphics of a virtual pendulum was developed. Two kinds of analyses to the pendulum's movement and hand's motion revealed special characteristics of a skilled person: (1) a bode gain plot of the pendulum's movement becomes complex from one decline line to three decline lines, and (2) a spread at faster velocity range appears to a Gaussian distribution on velocity of human control. Additionally, a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor cortical changes in haemoglobin at an area covering the primary motor/sensor cortex in brain. It could be confirmed that human who mastered the stabilization task sufficiently (a) utilizes sensory information of wide body part, (b) reinforces on active visual sensing, and (c) decreases a ratio of paying attention to motor control of one's hand.

343    H. Igarashi, A. Takeya, Y. Kubo, S. Suzuki, F. Harashima, M. Kakikura, "Human adaptive GUI design for teleoperation system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper addresses a human adaptive user interface design for teleoperation system. An advantage of a teleoperation system is human abilities are included. For example, human has abilities to predict some trouble and make a global plan. These abilities contribute to flexible and intelligent operation which autonomous robots cannot achieve. On the other hand, a major problem of the teleoperation is that quality and quantity of feedback information are not enough due to communicational constraints. Furthermore, human cognition capabilities and presentation functions of a user interface have limitations although human operators should understand a lot of feedback information. To improve these problems, suitable presentation of alert information is considered. In our research, the graphical user interface, which has an effective alert function to reduce operator's misrecognition, is proposed. That is, the alert information is emphasized depending on human cognition characteristics. Note that, the characteristics are variable depending on information emphasis media and the position. In this paper, the human sensitivities on graphical user interface are measured in order to realize the efficient alert presentation.

344    L.G. Garcia-Valdovinos, V. Parra-Vega, J.-A. Mendez-Iglesias, M.A. Arteaga, "Cartesian sliding PID force/position control for transparent bilateral teleoperation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This article presents a novel, model-free, Cartesian sliding PID control scheme for obtaining transparency in teleoperation systems with parametric uncertainties and hard nonlinearities. A condition has been found, which establishes that it is equivalent to get transparency in dynamically similar teleoperation systems by simply implementing the same proposed controller at the master and the slave sites. In this manner, fast exponential convergence of position and velocity tracking errors, and an acceptable force tracking are attained, without acceleration measurements, nor any knowledge of the master/slave robot dynamics, nor estimating the impedance of human and environment. Moreover, computation of inverse kinematics and/or Cartesian robot dynamics are not necessary. Simulation results validate the proposed teleoperation scheme.

345    S. Bogosyan, P.R. Suravaram, M. Gokasan, "Sliding mode based rejection of load and torque ripple in a direct-drive 2 DOF robot arm," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This study aims to demonstrate the importance of torque ripple and its elimination for both position control and trajectory tracking applications in multi-degree of freedom (DOF) direct-drive (DD) systems. The problem of torque ripple has been studied intensively for 1 DOF systems, but to the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study addressing this issue for a 2 DOF DD system under gravity effects. For this purpose the system performance is evaluated with realistic simulation models using a chattering-free sliding mode controller (SMC) for a variety of reference trajectories for both links, also taking ripple torque and cogging torque into account for each link. The comparison of the results obtained with a well-turned PID controller demonstrates significant rejection of both torque ripple and load uncertainties achieved with the SMC and the resulting increase in tracking accuracy of the overall system.

346    Ki-Chang Lee, Jeong-Woo Jeon, Don-Ha Hwang, Yong-Joo Kim, "Comparison between software simulation and HIL simulation of antiskid brake system for aircrafts," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Today, most fixed-wing aircrafts are equipped with an antiskid brake system (ABS). The ABS can modulate braking moments in the wheels optimally whenever an aircraft lands. So it can reduce landing distance and increase safeties. The ABS for an aircraft is mainly composed of braking moment modulators (hydraulic servo valves) and brake control unit in addition to the conventional hydraulic brake system. In this paper, a Mark IV type-fully digital-brake controller is studied. For the development of its control algorithms, a 5 degree of freedom (DOF) aircraft landing model is composed in the form of the Matlab/Simulink model at first. Then antiskid control algorithms using wheel decelerations and slips are made. The developed algorithms are tested in software simulations using state-flow toolboxes in the Matlab/Simulink model. Also, the hardware in-the-loop simulation (HILS) systems are made using real-time simulators, where hydraulic brake systems of a real aircraft, braking moment modulator and its controller are included as hardware components. Algorithms tested in software simulations are coded and downloaded into a newly developed digital signal processing (DSP) controller and the dynamics models are downloaded to real-time simulators and the simulations have been done in the same road conditions as software simulations. Both the software and HIL simulation results are presented.

347    A. Ghobakhloo, M. Eghtesad, "Neural network solution for the forward kinematics problem of a redundant hydraulic shoulder," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a neural network based solution for forward kinematics analysis of a hydraulic shoulder is presented. The shoulder has three degrees of freedom rotational motion produced by four hydraulic cylinders which makes it a redundant parallel robotic shoulder. Unlike the serial robots, forward kinematics problem of parallel robots is not easily solved because of the nonlinearity and complexity of the parallel robot's kinematic equations and there are several solutions which are almost impossible to be found analytically. The neural network used in this paper is of the feedforward net type and a multi-layer back propagation procedure is utilized to train the network. A simulation study is performed using two types of trajectories to illustrate the advantages of the proposed method in solving the forward kinematics problem of the redundant mechanism. The results show the method provides a fast solution and good tracking performance.

348    J. Fonseca, J. Martins, C. Couto, "A Kalman filter for validate points and areas of constant depth in the acquisition of the profile surfaces," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents multisensor fusion techniques for the acquisition of the profile of surfaces with minimum error using low cost ultrasonic sensors. These surfaces are composed by areas with different depths, corners and specular surfaces. To minimize the constraints of sonar sensors, it was developed dedicated software and hardware, as well as an empirical model was obtained from real data. This model is based in two proposed concepts: points of constant depth (PCD) and areas of constant depth (ACD). Having this sonar model in mind, four sensor fusion techniques are used separately to validate the PCDs and decide the ACDs: average and variance, a simplified kalman filter and heuristic method based in rules. In this work a PUMA 560 manipulator was equipped with a CCD video camera and four ultrasonic sensors on the wrist, to acquire data for internally representation of the geometry of the part's surface, exploiting the mobility of the robot. The CCD camera defines the working area while the ultrasonic sensors enable the acquisition of the surface profile.

349    J. Gao, "Inductive power transmission for untethered micro-robots," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new concept for inductive power transmission is proposed to transmit constant power over a large area of interest. This concept includes a specially designed winding group at the power transmitting side, which is similar to the windings in a linear motor. The winding group generates a traveling magnetic field over the complete working area. This magnetic field causes an alternating magnetic flux through a receiving coil that is located in this magnetic field and therefore induces an alternating voltage in the coil. The realized prototype transmitted maximum 330 mW DC power at the operating voltage of 3.3 V to the power receiver, which has the dimension of 11.5 mm/spl times/11.5 mm/spl times/4.0 mm, throughout a working area of 180 mm/spl times/220 mm. Under different loads the output DC voltage of the power receiver varied from 2.6 to 5.1 V throughout the whole working area. A possible application of this method is powering of untethered micro-robots.

350    M. Matron, J.C. Garcia, M.A. Sotelo, E.J. Bueno, "Clustering methods for 3D vision data and its application in a probabilistic estimator for tracking multiple objects," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Probabilistic algorithms have been fully tested as the best solution in multiples areas, and thus in tracking tasks. Different solutions with them have been proposed for multiple objects tracking. The proposal of the authors is based on a particle filter whose robustness and adaptability is increased by the use of a clustering algorithm. Two different proposals for the segmentation process are presented in this paper, and interesting conclusions are extracted from their functional comparison. Tracking results are also presented in the paper, showing the reliability of the proposals.

351    Y. Ohba, S. Katsura, K. Ohishi, "Friction free bilateral robot based on twin drive control system considering two resonant frequencies," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a new friction free bilateral system based on twin drive control system considering it's resonant frequency. The twin drive system consists of two motors that are coupled by the differential gear. The output torque becomes a differential torque of both motors. The nonlinear friction torque of the twin drive system is easily compensated. However, this system has the resonant frequencies and the anti-resonant frequencies which are caused by the torsional vibration. This paper proposes a new three-inertial-model of twin drive system, and identifies the resonant frequencies and it's friction torque. This paper proposes a new vibration suppression controller for the three-inertial model without high order control system. Therefore, the operationality of bilateral teleoperation is improved by the proposed system.

352    S. Katsura, K. Ohnishi, K. Ohishi, "Transmission of force sensation by environment quarrier based on multilateral control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In recent years, realization of a haptic system is desired strongly in the fields of medical treatment and expert's skill acquisition. The bandwidth of force sensing and friction compensation are very important problems for reproduction of vivid force sensation. In this paper, an environment quarrier is proposed for bilateral teleoperation instead of force sensors. The environment quarrier is a novel force sensing method which consists of a twin robot system. Two same types of robots are required and they are controlled in the same position, velocity and acceleration by bilateral acceleration control based on a disturbance observer. One robot is in contact motion and the other is unconstrained. The purity of external force is obtained by subtracting the disturbance torque in the unconstrained robot from the constrained one. The environment quarrier can observe the external force with high bandwidth and friction compensation. In order to implement the environment quarrier to a bilateral control system, four robots are required. In this paper, the idea of multilateral control is introduced for attainment of simultaneity. Furthermore, this paper shows that the controller design of the multilateral control in the modal space. The experimental results showed the viability of the proposed method.

353    T. Shimono, S. Katsura, K. Ohnishi, "Improvement of operationality for bilateral control based on nominal mass design in disturbance observer," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In recent years, although there are many researches on bilateral control, there is little research on improvement of operationality. It will be so effective for operators to improve the operationality of the system in bilateral control. In this paper, a new improving method of operationality which is based on design of nominal mass in disturbance observer is proposed. First, disturbance observer which is implemented in the system is introduced. Then, the relationship between observer gain and nominal mass variation in disturbance observer is discussed. Secondly, bilateral control for transmitting of vivid force sensation is proposed. Then, the proposed method is applied to bilateral control. Finally, the experimental results show the viability of the proposed method.

354    S. Braune, S. Liu, "Design of a novel moving magnet linear motor for use as a valve actuator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes design considerations for a short-stroke high-dynamic linear actuator especially to be used as valve actuator in automotive applications, including the determination of actuator topology and geometry parameters as well as the force and dynamic calculations using finite element method. Special aspects concerning the practical realization are discussed. Furthermore, results of experimental measurements are presented.

355    X. Wu, S.K. Panda, T.C. Leong, "Servo control of micro-cylindrical ultrasonic motor using single/dual mode control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Cylindrical ultrasonic motor (CUSM), is a relatively new kind of piezoelectric actuator, having different type of characteristics from that of conventional electromagnetic motors. In order to choose the most suitable control variable for speed/position control applications, this paper evaluates the dynamic and steady state performance of the CUSM drive system by using three different control variables, namely, the amplitude, the frequency and the phase difference of the excitation signals. In the single mode control, only one control variable is used while the other two are maintained constant. Among the three variables, amplitude control is found to be superior as compared to other control variables. Furthermore, to achieve quick and precise position control, the dual mode control method is proposed in which two control variables are used simultaneously while maintaining the third variable constant. Experimental test results obtained by using a 10 mm diameter and 30 mm long CUSM verify that the dual mode control is superior to the single mode control. In dual mode control, the combination of amplitude and frequency control is the best choice for position control application.

356    M.K. Kurosawa, T. Suzuki, T. Shigematsu, K. Asai, "Surface acoustic wave motor with feed back controller considering dead zone," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Potential of surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor has been investigated during the past decade. A substrate of 128 degrees y-rotated lithium niobate was used for a stator of a SAW motor. Interdigital transducer (IDT) electrodes were fabricated by the vacuum evaporation and the lithography. These processes are familiar for SAW device fabrication and also MEMS field. Material of slider is now silicon substrate for the processes of lithograph and dry etching to fabricate surface texture. Up to now, several typical performances have been measured at several operating conditions and several kinds of SAW motors by the authors. In this paper, we tried feed back control by introducing a nonlinear function which compensates the motor response.

357    C.E. Lin, Chun-Liang Chen, C.C. Ker, "An one dimensional hybrid magnetic vibration actuator-design and implementation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Magnetic suspension technology has been developed into very mature state for system design and application. It presents non-friction, non-contact and non-noise in operation. This paper presents a magnetic vibration actuator using hybrid magnetic suspension design with feedback control. Magnetic field simulation is applied to establish system design parameters and identify its system characteristics for implementation. From simulation results, a system dynamic model is obtained to lead for further design and fabrication. The proposed hybrid magnetic vibration actuator has made a prototype for experiments and performance verification. A closed-loop PID controller is implemented to improve the vibration absorption performance with different conditions.

358    K. Iuchi, H. Niki, T. Murakami, "Attitude control of bicycle motion by steering angle and variable COG control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As well know, a bicycle is a high efficiency vehicle and is suitable for aging society in the future. In the practical use, however, the bicycle is not always stable and the motion stabilization is required for a widespread application. In an electric bicycle, two strategies are taken up to stabilize the running motion of a bicycle. One is center of gravity (COG) control of bicycle, and the other is a control of steering angle of handle. In the past research, there are few researches that consider an autonomous control of bicycle by using both steering and COG position control. To address this issue, this paper describes a strategy that realizes autonomous motion of bicycle with the use of steering and COG control. Numerical and experimental results are shown to verify the validity of the proposed strategy.

359    K. Matsushita, T. Murakami, "Nonholonomic equivalent disturbance based backward motion control of tractor-trailer with virtual steering," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a strategy of backward motion control in a tractor-trailer system. The backward motion of a tractor-trailer requires the control skill, because a position and an orientation of a trailer must be controlled by only an input to a tractor. When a driver changes orientation in backward driving, the steering angle must be controlled skillfully. This operation is different in case of the backward motion of a single vehicle. Then the uncontrollable situation of a tractor-trailer motion often happens, for example "jackknife phenomenon". Such a situation is often induced by nonholonomic constraint of wheeled system. In this research, the virtual steering is introduced to a trailer. This virtual steering controls orientation of a trailer, and suppresses nonholonimic equivalent disturbance. So with this virtual steering, a tractor-trailer is able to track straight trajectory in backward driving independently of nonholonomic constraint. Several numerical and experimental results are shown to confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

360    A. Shimada, S. Yajima, P. Viboonchaicheep, K. Samura, "Mecanum-wheel vehicle systems based on position corrective control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces a position corrective feedback control method using a vision sensor on Mecanum-wheel omnidirectional vehicles. Recently, this omnidirectional vehicle has been developed, and it is sometimes employed in wheelchairs. We believe that by exploiting its unique features, it can be more widely employed as a vehicle robot. The control system is based on unique kinematics under holonomic constraints. A CCD camera, which is a part of the vision sensor system, is suspended from the ceiling of the lab housing the moving vehicle. The vision system is used to correct the vehicle position. The position data of the vehicle is calculated using the visual data. Further, the position of the vehicle is corrected smoothly by continuously entering the data into the position feedback loop. This paper describes the structure of the control system and a position correction feedback method. Further, experimental results obtained from the evaluation of this method are presented.

361    M. Kumar, D.P. Garg, R. Zachery, "Multi-sensor fusion strategy to obtain 3-D occupancy profile," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a strategy to fuse information from two vision sensors and one infrared proximity sensor to obtain a three-dimensional occupancy profile of robotic workspace, identify key features, and obtain a 3-D model of the objects in the work space. The two vision sensors are mounted on a stereo rig on the sidewall of the robotic workcell. The IR sensor is mounted on the wrist of the robot. The vision sensors on the stereo rig provide information about the three-dimensional position of any point in the robotic workspace. The IR sensor provides the distance of an object from the sensor. The information from these sensors has been fused using a probabilistic approach based on Bayesian formalism in an occupancy grid framework to obtain a 3-D occupancy model of the workspace. The proposed fusion and sensor modeling scheme is demonstrated to reduce individual sensor uncertainties and perform at a superior level as compared to some other schemes.

362    U.K. Madawala, S. Pillay, "A magnetic field based technique for 3D position tracking," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a technique that can be used for tracking garments in washing machines. The technique creates an asymmetrical magnetic field inside washing machines that can be detected by magnetic sensors embedded into the garments. The magnetic field, detected at regular intervals during a wash cycle, is stored and later compared with calibrated and simulated magnetic fields to determine the 3D position of the garment at any given instant of the wash cycle. Different arrangements for creating asymmetrical magnetic fields inside the washing machine are investigated by simulation and the results are presented. The feasibility of the proposed technique is tested on a scaled-down version of a washing machine with Hall sensors and the results are discussed.

363    H. Oshima, N. Tsujiuchi, T. Koizumi, A. Ito, Y. Nojiri, Y. Tsuchiya, N. Hirama, S. Kurogi, "Characteristics of tactile sensor and movement detection of attached object," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: To realize a dexterous robot hand, we must acquire information at the robot's fingertips. A tactile sensor has been developed for dexterous robot hands. Since this tactile sensor consists of multiple three-axis force sensors with strain gauges, it enables to get force and torque information at robot's fingertips. In this paper, the static characteristics of the three-axis force sensor that is a part of the tactile sensor are demonstrated, and the best experimental method to obtain accurate and precise force values is proposed. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental results of attached object movement detection with this tactile sensor are described in this paper.

364    O. Elmatboly, A. Homaifar, M. Zolghadri, "Giant magneto resistive sensing of critical power system parameters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Several experimental and computational attempts to sense and measure the most critical electromechanical operating parameters of power system are conducted in the laboratory. In this paper, power system parameters such as load current (I), partial discharge (PD), corona discharge (CD), capacitive charging current (CCC), and applied high voltage (HV) are under investigation. The objective is to optimize the utilization of some newly developed, low cost, and commercially available hardware sensors and equipment. The hardware includes some novel elements such as, giant magneto resistive (GMR) current/magnetic field sensors. All components are contained around power conductors in a specially designed, none-magneto equipotential cylindrical structure (NECS) prototype. Objectives are being met to manipulate GMR to sense I and HV. From the experimental results and feasibility calculations, GMR sensors are found to maintain their known wide linearity range and accuracy. The manipulations to measure I include: distance, current, bias, and orientation alterations. The manipulations of sensing PD, CD, CCC, and HV include the utilization of a sensitive GMR earth field sensor to measure the short circuited CCC through the NECS prototype.

365    T. Chang, Z. Chen, B. Cheng, M. Cody, M. Liska, W. Marshall, M. Recce, D. Sebastian, D. Shishkin, "Enhancing handgun safety with embedded signal processing and dynamic grip recognition," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the first phase results in personalized weapons technology utilizing biometrics, in order to develop a user only system that recognizes unique human characteristics of a specific individual. In particular, the investigation is focused on development of a dynamic grip recognition (DGR) system where a sensor embedded grip and digital signal processing unit have been fabricated to perform user recognition in real time. Specifically, grips with 16 piezoelectric sensors have been developed and fitted to an M9 pistol. In addition, the required trigger switch has also been developed and incorporated into the DGR system. The DGR method performed as well in live fire (93% recognition rate) as it did in the simulator environment (95% recognition rate). Furthermore, all of the electronics, signal capture devices and sensors were demonstrated to be unaffected by the environmental extremes of live fire (over 400 shots), and to perform well.

366    T. Inari, N. Aoki, "A proximity sensor using power variation of a laser diode caused by returned light and its characteristics of stability," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The proximity sensor using power variance of a laser diode caused by returned light from the target is examined. The output is taken by a photo-diode included in the laser diode for monitoring the power. The output of the sensor is attenuated exponentially with distance from the target. This attenuation characteristic is assumed in this paper to be caused by attenuation of the light during propagation between the target and the sensor. The details of the influences on the accuracy by drift of the sensor are examined, and then, a control or compensation method is proposed in the paper.

367    R.K. Amineh, M. Ravan, "Dynamic range of SAW sensors regarding electrical constraints," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the dynamic range for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors incorporated in free running oscillator loops. Investigation of dynamic range is performed for two types of SAW devices known as resonators and delay lines configured in asynchronous and synchronous cases. Phase noise specifications of these SAW devices are considered to determine the lower bound of dynamic range termed as limit of detection while the oscillation conditions are considered to predict the upper bound of dynamic range termed as saturation limit.

368    W.A. Roshen, "A bi-stable micro-machined switch employing three magnets," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new electromagnetic micro-machined switch structure is presented with two (on, off) stable states. These states can be maintained without any current in the actuating coil, thus reducing joule losses. The switch can be implemented either in silicon or using a modified high-density interconnect (HDI) process, thus providing higher voltage isolation in the off-state while providing higher current handling in the on-state. The switch structure is particularly well suited for circuit breaker and relay applications.

369    K. Tsuchiya, S. Tanisawa, H. Hirose, "Airflow rate measurement using a set of sound radiator and sound detector in a sub-pipe," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We report a novel method by which to measure airflow rate. Unlike the sound velocity differential method used in most ultrasonic flow meters, the proposed method is not overly sensitive to the fluid temperature because the flow rate is evaluated based on the magnitude of sound pressure. The measurement system is composed of a main pipe and a small sub-pipe connected to the main pipe. A dog whistle, used as a sound radiator, generates ultrasonic waves, the sound pressure of which is detected by a microphone. The dog whistle has been supersensitized by bias airflow. A data-acquisition and processing system controlled by a PC was used in the experiments to measure various types of data. The results of these experiments reveal that the proposed method has a high feasibility. The advantages of the proposed method are as follows: the effect of changes in the fluid temperature is slight, the low-pressure gas flow rate is measurable, and the electronic circuit is comparatively simple.

370    R.M. Nelms, M.L. Langford, R.F. Halpin, "Problem-solving videos as an instructional aid for engineering education," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Described in this paper is the use of problem-solving videos as an instructional aid for teaching an introductory engineering circuit analysis course. The instructor prepared step-by-step video solutions, with audio, of classroom examples, homework problems, and examination solutions. The videos were accessed through a Website; as a result, they were available to the students twenty four hour per day and seven days per week. Web usage statistics indicate that the students were using the videos extensively as they studied course materials. Student surveys indicate that they believe that the videos were improving their understanding of the course material.

371    R. Casanueva, C. Branas, F.J. Azcondo, S. Bracho, "Resonant converters: properties and applications for variable loads," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper summarizes a complementary lesson on resonant converters intended for under-graduate students finalizing the industrial engineering program (equivalent to MSc Electrical Engineering) or post-graduates initiating the PhD program that begin their research activities on power electronics. The contents motivate the students to find suitable resonant converter applications of industrial interest. An approach to resonant converters is presented focused on their properties at certain frequencies, such as for voltage sources, current sources or sink and power source operation with very variable loads. The analysis of the converters enables the identification of these operating points and, by means of a sensitivity analysis with respect to the components of the resonant tank, explains the robustness of their behavior. Using as a starting point the fulfillment of the desired property, we propose that the students develop open-loop designs with stable behavior, or closed-loop designs with very small variation in the operating point. Two practical application examples are shown: electronic ballasts for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps and power supplies for electrical discharge machining (EDM).

372    J. Garcia-Zubia, D. Lopez-de-Ipina, P. Orduna, "Towards a canonical software architecture for multi-device WebLabs," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Traditionally the focus on WebLab design has been placed on the hardware side, i.e. enabling data and program transfer between a PC remotely accessible through TCP/IP and its attached controllable/programmable device. Little attention has been paid to the other communication segment going from the controlling PC (WebLab server) and the remote users' PCs, since this has been regarded as a "solved software problem". Consequently, aspects such as security, scalability, accessibility, user friendliness, or the possibility of collaborative work in WebLabs have often been disregarded. This situation may be resolved if a serious effort is placed on the definition of a proper distributed software architecture for WebLabs. In this paper, we describe such ideal software architecture, resulted from an iterative process seeking a Web-based, secure, scalable, multiuser, multi-device WebLab.

373    L. Esteves, V.F. Pires, "WPEC-a new Web tool for the power electronics learning," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new Web tool for the power electronics learning. This tool has several goals. The first goal is to teach power electronics through interactive animations. To support the student's learning in a more active way a chat option is also provided. This interactive option allows the students to communicate with the teacher and with other students. In order to test and verify the students knowledge an option with questions are also provided. This option provides several oriented questions in order to identify some problems in the learning of the students. This last tool will give to the students a path where they should focus their study.

374    A. Abu-El Humos, B. Alhalabi, M.K. Hamzal, E. Shufro, W. Awada, "Remote labs environments (RLE): a constructivist online experimentation in science, engineering, and information technology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Since the invention of the Internet, many academicians, educators, and researches have been searching for effectual virtual lab experiments; however, the very nature of real experimentation was not possible or missing. Yet, in the past few years, many scholarly articles and published research reports claimed the availability of virtual laboratories that mimics real laboratory experimentations. Nonetheless, within these self-claimed virtual experiments' infrastructures, the elements of real experimentation-in comparison to conventional laboratories were far distant from constructing real experimentations online. Such a lack of real experimentation, over the internet, gave birth to an authentic leap beyond the limitations of antiquated virtual laboratories. The recent birth of Remote Labs Environment (RLE) at the Centre of Advanced Distance Education Technologies (CADET) brings with it a world of possibilities and innovative computing technologies. For this reason, this paper was written to inform and to set forth a discussion of RLE experiments. RLE brings into play a diverse state-of-the-art technologies including but not limited to: single-chip web server/controller hardware technologies, component object model (COM) software technologies, instructional design models and an embedded instructional cognitive subsystem (ICD), and in-house middleware applications. RLE's technology is systematically integrated into one unified computing system to help institute real experimentation environment online. All experiments presented in this paper were actually designed and implemented in CDA6316 grad course (embedded systems, taught by one of the authors of this paper). These experiments will be used in undergraduate engineering courses, where students get to manipulate experiments online and from different remote locations.

375    C. Cardeira, J.S. da Costa, "A low cost mobile robot for engineering education," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Robotic competitions are becoming widely used on education. The use of products from the market makes building robots possible at a very low-cost awakening the engineering nature of students and researchers. In this paper we present a low cost mobile robot which uses a normal laptop to guide itself through a track. The low cost robot involves the use of one or more cameras to control the position of the robot's position relative to the environment. Motors are from battery operated screwdrivers and the interface with the laptop is based on an USB card, recently made available from a data acquisition cards manufacturer. The goal for this work is to build a large set of these robots, lend them to the engineering students and make them participate in a local university contest. Moreover, along the years, the student integrates more and more knowledge in the robot allowing it to perform as better as their knowledge increases along the course.

376    J. Yanez, D. Quintana, C. Quintans, J. Farina, J.J. Rodriguez-Andina, "FPGA-based system for the education in data acquisition and signal generation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Signal generation, signal conditioning and data acquisition systems usually have fixed structures, whose functionality cannot be modified. In an educational context, students can only modify some of their functional parameters and check the effect of such changes on the generation and acquisition processes. This paper presents a reconfigurable signal generation, conditioning and acquisition system that, in addition to cover these basic educational tasks, allow students to test different structures and to choose the most suitable for a given application. It basically consists of a SCXI environment from national instruments and an FPGA development board, which adds reconfigurability capabilities to the system. An application example is discussed, in which functionality is reconfigured for reading an incremental encoder and generating a PWM signal.

377    L. Gomes, "Programmable logic devices supporting embedded system design curriculum," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper argues towards the usage of programmable logic devices as supporting platforms for experimentation, from introductory to advanced courses, including microprocessor-based system design, within a typical "embedded systems track" course structure in the framework of a Electrical and Computer Engineering curriculum. We argue that the usage of programmable logic devices is adequate to be adopted as common implementation platform, whenever the design of digital and embedded systems should be introduced. A remote laboratory, taking advantage of dynamic reconfiguration of programmable logic devices, is proposed, giving adequate support for remote experimentation, and additional opportunities to the students to get involved with experimentation, on top of simulation environments already in use and physical experimentation in crowded laboratories.

378    Y. Torroja, O. Garcia, T. Riesgo, E. de la Torre, "Teaching embedded systems and microcontrollers using scale models," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One of the main problems that appear in teaching subjects like embedded systems and microcontrollers is to adequate the theoretical and practical lessons. In this paper we present a teaching experience based on scale models of real systems. The main advantage of the teaching method is the combination of theoretical concepts and practical application of all the concepts learnt at the lectures, using a real system. In this case we have developed two scale models: a garage and a washing car system. The prototypes have been built using Fischer-Technik and contain different electromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, all of them controlled from a 68HC11 board. The experience has been run on two different subjects with a total of 27 students at UPM and the results were extremely good, in terms of concepts learnt and in terms of student satisfaction.

379    D.T. Pham, A.A. Afify, "RULES-6: a simple rule induction algorithm for supporting decision making," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: RULES-3 Plus is a member of the RULES family of simple inductive learning algorithms with successful engineering applications. However, it requires modification in order to be a practical tool for problems involving large data sets. In particular, efficient mechanisms for handling continuous attributes and noisy data are needed. This paper presents a new rule induction algorithm called RULES-6, derived from the RULES-3 Plus algorithm. The algorithm employs a fast and noise-tolerant search method for extracting IF-THEN rules from examples. It also uses simple and effective methods for rule evaluation and continuous attributes handling. A detailed empirical evaluation of the algorithm is reported in the paper. The results presented demonstrate the strong performance of the algorithm.

380    T. Mora, M. Ulieru, "Minimization of energy use in pipeline operations-an application to natural gas transmission system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 8 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We aim to determine the pipeline operation configurations requiring the minimum amount of energy (e.g. fuel, power) needed to operate the equipment at compressor stations for given transportation requirements. Considering the problem as a search for the optimal operation conditions, speedup of the process can be achieved by careful formulation of the search model and integration of knowledge about the application into the search control. Knowledge incorporation will not only be used to reduce the solution space and guide the search process but also to create heuristics that characterize a proper initial state for every search. Due to the complexity of the fuel cost function (non-convex, non-smooth) selection and proper design of the search paradigm to solve the optimization problem is crucial. Genetic algorithms have been chosen as initial optimization technique to address the optimization problem. Each candidate solution generated by the search algorithm will be evaluated by a hydraulic model that simulates the steady state gas flow in the pipeline network to obtain the reaction of the system at specific control nodes and determine the feasibility of the given solution and perhaps evaluate if it is near-to-optimal. The new method will assist in the optimization of pipeline operations by providing a portfolio of feasible near-to-optimum solutions to decision makers in a timely manner. This set of solutions will represent the network operation conditions that decrease energy consumption. Reduction of energy use will not only have a tremendous economical impact but, nevertheless an environmental one: the more efficient the use of compressors stations is the less greenhouse emissions are dissipated.

381    C. Wu, E. Chang, P. Thomson, "A decision support system for QoS-enabled distributed Web services architecture," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Service selection is crucial for fulfilling the requirements of service requestors. While in the real service-oriented environment, quality of services (QoS) is one of the greatest concerns for consumers during service selection. Existing Web services' standards do not tackle the QoS issue adequately when service discovery and selection are performed. In this paper, we argue that the process of services selection is a kind of decision making-to decide which service should be selected dependent on their QoS and trustworthiness values as well as their functional capabilities. Hence, we propose a service selection solution which utilizes the decision support systems module (DSS Module) to select the most appropriate service. In DSS module we introduce service trust to carry out the service QoS measurement based on the context-specific quality aspects. The architecture of DSS module is presented in detail and the solution is also integrated into one of the components-domain-broker-in our proposed distributed Web services architecture. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, we apply DSS module into Web services, thus opening a new, fertile ground for DSS research in Web services literature and secondly, we provide a novel and feasible solution for QoS-based service selection.

382    X. Yu, A. Chiou, R. Dodd, "A novel decision support framework for industrial processes," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel industrial decision support framework is discussed. This framework takes consideration of special features of industrial processes and makes use of intelligent and complex systems technologies to facilitate quality decision-making in industrial setting. The structure of the framework is described in details with some case studies used to illustrate its use.

383    T.J. Coggins, M.N. Cirstea, "FPGA implementation of a fastflex supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) remote telemetry unit," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation aspects of a novel supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) remote telemetry unit (RTU), developed as a system on a programmable chip (SoPC). Transmitton Ltd. is an electronic control equipment manufacturer for the railway and process control industries. The company has embarked on a process of modernising its products by developing a new range of their fastflex control system, in collaboration with Anglia Polytechnic University. Modern electronic design automation (EDA) methodologies are being employed, based on hardware description languages (HDL) and targeting FPGAs for implementation. Advantages such as in-house design capability, company's IP rights, cost savings, compact implementation and high speed of the circuit are obtained.

384    T.J. Coggins, M.N. Cirstea, "A novel system on a programmable chip design of a fastflex data controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Transmitton Ltd. is a competitive manufacturer of industrial control equipment in the UK. The company has embarked on a process of re-designing its products, using hardware description languages (HDLs) and targeting reprogrammable devices-field programmable gate arrays (FPGA's) for implementation. This paper presents a novel approach to the redesign of the existing discrete integrated circuits used in Transmitton's fastflex range of products, as system on a programmable chip. This marks the objective of ongoing research collaboration between the company and Anglia Polytechnic University, UK. The advantages of applying the HDL-based methodology consist of: i) using the same environment for modelling, design and implementation, ii) a computer platform independent model (VHDL files are ASCII files), iii) the ability to reuse components of the model in different data-processing applications (in combination with other models to form complex controller systems), iv) the prototyping via FPGA implementation, giving extra benefits. The new university led approach will bring important benefits to the company in terms of commercial competitiveness, intellectual property (IP) ownership, flexibility in the range of in-house developed systems and short time to market for new products.

385    M. Wang, C.-I.H. Chen, "Architecture and design synthesis of 2.5 Gsamples/s 4-b pipelined flash ADC in SoC applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an architecture and design synthesis of a 4-bit pipelined flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The preliminary results show the ADC designed in 130 nanometer CMOS technology has superior performance of sampling rate of 2.5 GHz for an input signal bandwidth of 1 GHz. For the purpose of design reuse, a general architecture and synthesis flow of the ADC is proposed. One of such work is about solution of a long-standing open problem on the design synthesis of high-performance ADC.

386    J. Wibbenmeyer, C.-I.H. Chen, "Built-in self-test for analog-to-digital converters in SoC applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a built-in self-test (BIST) architecture for testing high speed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with sampling rates in excess of 1 GHz. A methodology for performing mixed-mode BIST simulations in SoC applications is proposed along with hardware for performing on-chip BIST. The architecture presented utilizes an on-chip ROM and allows for the generation of test signals with single frequency as well as multiple frequencies signals. The issues associated with BIST signal generation for low voltage ADCs are also discussed. Simulations revealed that the SFDR of the sinusoidal signal generated from the BIST hardware was 25.28 dB with a frequency of 312.5 MHz and 19.88 dB with a frequency of 416.67 MHz.

387    M. Olivieri, F. Pappalardo, G. Visalli, "Performance-timing overhead trade-off analysis for a low-power data bus encoding based on input lines reordering," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyzes the performance and timing overhead trade-off for a recently proposed data bus encoding scheme for low-power based on data lines reordering. The bus switch (BS) mechanism introduces greater activity savings than previous approaches; the hardware complexity of the encoder suggests to apply BS in off-chip buses, where the parasitic capacitance makes dynamic power dissipation in the bus lines the dominant contribution to power consumption. In the basic BS implementation, the encoding circuits included extra bus lines which degrade the energy saving. This paper illustrates and analyzes a circuit implementation with only one extra line, at the cost of a small time overhead. This solution strongly enhances the advantage in off-chip communications, where the available number of pads represents a key resource in low-cost packages. Our results indicate that the effectiveness of the approach strongly depend on an a-priori traffic analysis.

388    D. Trevisan, W. Stefanutti, P. Mattavelli, P. Tenti, "FPGA control of SIMO DC-DC converters using load current estimation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates a digital control for non-isolated single-inductor multiple output (SIMO) step-down DC-DC converters using load current estimation. The proposed control architecture has been applied for SIMO converters operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM), where there is a cross-regulation issue between output voltages. The adopted control includes a separate regulation of the common-mode and the generalised differential-mode output voltages for the input half-bridge and for the output switches respectively. Due to the differential-mode control loop dependence on the load current, an inductor current estimation is used to perform a variable gain for the differential-mode regulation. Moreover, a non-linear evaluation of the common-mode voltage have been investigated in order to improve the system dynamic response at different load conditions. Even if aimed to an integrated solution, experimental investigation has been performed using discrete components, implementing the digital control in a field programmable gate array (FPGA). Simulation results on a three output converter and experimental results on dual output converter (V/sub in/=2.5/spl divide/5 V, V/sub o1/=V/sub o2/=0.9/spl divide/5 V, I/sub o1/=I/sub o2/=0/spl divide/0.6 A) confirm the proposed analysis.

389    F. Iannuzzo, "FPGA implementation of the race-control algorithm for the full-bridge passive resonant commutated poles converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The inedited race control algorithm (RCA) for full-bridge passive resonant commutated poles (FB-PRCP) is presented and implemented with FPGA technique. It enhances the basic control algorithm of that topology allowing quicker responses, like those required by welding applications, as manual metal arc welding (MMA), in which very fast duty cycles dynamics are required. The effectiveness of the RCA have been experimentally tested on a true converter.

390    Z. Yang, R. Gay, C. Miao, J.-B. Zhang, Z. Shen, L. Zhuang, H.M. Lee, "Automating integration of manufacturing systems and services: a semantic Web services approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present a semantic Web services approach to automated integration of manufacturing systems and services. A service-oriented integration architecture, enhanced with semantics, is presented. We construct a service-oriented environment via virtualization by taking a WS-resource framework approach. All Web services (newly developed manufacturing services or those from the virtualization) are semantically enhanced using service upper ontology OWL-S and manufacturing domain ontologies which are written in standard Web ontology language (OWL). Within this semantic rich environment, integration is achieved by Web services composition, and automation is accomplished via the combination of semantic Web and software agents.

391    S. Apolloni, M.M. Savino, "Ecological plant indicator development for a small sized enterprise," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Environmental performance is fast becoming a selection criterion both in the consumer and industrial markets. Some consumer market segments use environmental criteria when selecting a brand. In the industrial market, supplier selection by multinational firms may soon be conditioned on vendor environmental performance. This paper attempts to explore the impact of the ISO 14000 rules on a small sized enterprise. The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications that ISO 14000 adoption will have for SMEs, including how ISO 14000 will likely impact plant structure. In the end we have analysed-referring to an automotive production site-the plant utilities (electricity, compressed air, heating and air conditioning, transport) with the objective to realise an EMS with the two main tasks of minimising the environmental impacts and maximising, at the same time, global performance of those utilities in terms of energy saving and maintenance activities, and global management costs.

392    M. Luo, D. Wang, M. Pham, C.B. Low, J.B. Zhang, D.H. Zhang, Y.Z. Zhao, "Model-based fault diagnosis/prognosis for wheeled mobile robots: a review," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a survey on model-based fault diagnostics and prognostics for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). Numerous cases of faults diagnosis and prognosis solutions show that, for a complex machine like a WMR, model-based methods that utilize analytical models of the system are desirable because analytical models can well represent the nominal behaviours of the system. On the other hand, data-driven methods are not practical for WMRs since they require a lot of failure cases and data that are too costly, if possible at all, to obtain. Fault prognosis for a system in general and for WMRs in particular is still at the preliminary stage. System models can also be used to predict the remaining useful life of the system.

393    Wei Jian, Yuncan Xue, "Modified particle swarm optimization algorithm for steelmaking charge plan based on the pseudo TSP model," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An optimum furnace charge plan model for steelmaking continuous casting planning and scheduling is presented. Based on the analysis of the difficult to solve the problem, a pseudo travel salesman problem model is presented to describe the plan and scheduling model. An improved particle swarm optimization with variant particle is presented to solve the optimum charge plan problem. Simulations have been carried and the results show that the pseudo travel salesman problem is very fit to describe the model. The computation with practical data shows that the model and the solving method are very effective.

394    W.K. Ho, A. Tay, K.W. Lim, A.P. Loh, W.W. Tan, "Integrated metrology and processes for semiconductor manufacturing," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The 2003 international technology road map for semiconductors, stated under the section grand challenges that real-time in-situ, integrated, and in-line metrology is required for manufacturing. The 2003 report of the international panel on future directions in control, dynamics and systems has identified that the use of control is critical to future progress in the semiconductor sectors. Modeling plays a crucial role and control techniques must make use of increase in-situ measurements to control at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. This paper gives two examples of research on integrated metrology and processes that address some of the challenges. An integrated bake/chill/spin module and in-situ metrology for photoresist thickness will be discussed.

395    Jun Li, Xianzhong Dai, Zhengda Meng, "Improved net rewriting systems-based rapid reconfiguration of Petri net logic controllers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes an approach to rapid reconfiguration of Petri net (PN) logic controllers for reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS). Above all, we present improved net rewriting systems (INRS) that overcome the limitation of net rewriting systems (NRS) by modifying the transfer relation and prescribing the kinds of the left and right hand sides in a rewriting rule of them. Based on INRS, the method for rapid reconfiguration of a PN logic controller is developed, which can preserve the correctness of the original one during reconfiguring. Thus for a new configuration of a given RMS, only the rewriting of the existing PN logic controller is needed and the efforts of redesign and re-verification of a new one are avoided. Eventually, a RMS example is used to demonstrate our method presented.

396    L.B. Siong, Li Xiang, Z. JunHong, G.K. Mok, T.T. Wee, N.W. Keong, "Online self-learning design of an integrated automated laboratory line," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main objective is to explore new on-line techniques that can extract, distil and integrate the raw data gathered from the scientists into design requirements for the manufacturers of automated laboratory line. A Web-based prototype is implemented. It allows the equipment designers to interactively modify the questions after the launch of the survey and enables the scientists to create new needs through the questions raised. In the analysis stage, the associative rule mining and the multi-preference patterns discovery, MPD techniques are developed. This knowledge discovery toolkit empowers the equipment designers with a new perspective and deeper understanding of the unique features required by a certain stratum of the survey population.

397    L.Q. Zhuang, J.B. Zhang, Y.Z. Zhao, M. Luo, D.H. Zhang, Z.H. Yang, "Power-aware service-oriented architecture for wireless sensor networks," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Integrating wireless sensor networks (WSNs) into the service-oriented architecture poses many research challenges. One of these challenges is how to apply Web services to the resource constrained WSNs in terms of communication and computation capabilities. Another research challenge is how to build power-aware service-oriented data streaming for WSNs. This paper addresses serviceability issues of WSNs using the Web services resource framework (WSRF) under the open grid service architecture (OGSA). It also addresses the issue of power efficiency for sensor application services that are built on WSRF and provides a query optimization mechanism at Web services level based on the Markov decision process (MDP). We use a work-in-progress project involving condition-based maintenance (CBM) as an industrial application show case.

398    M.D. Mills-Harris, A. Soylemezoglu, C. Saygin, "RFID data-based inventory management of time-sensitive materials," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an adaptive inventory management model, which is founded on a forecasting algorithm that utilizes RFID-based state and event data for tracking and dispatching of time sensitive materials in a manufacturing facility, is presented. The impact of integrating RFID technologies with inventory control on the shop floor is discussed. This study compares a traditional, static inventory model with the proposed model on the basis of cost savings, inventory and waste reduction, and decision making complexity. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated in a simulation environment, which also demonstrates the overall benefits and effectiveness of RFID technologies in providing low cost manufacturing solutions, reduced inventory levels, and lower overall waste.

399    H.M. Lee, Z. Shen, R.K.L. Gay, C. Miao, C.S. Kuay, L. Xiong, T.W. Tan, "Integrated biomanufacturing workflow design and implementation: from R&D to diagnostic kits," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The manufacturing industries are facing a rapidly changing landscape and new challenges are evolving. It is thus imperative for manufacturing enterprise to address these concerns with new innovation in order to stay competitive and achieve sustained growth. The competitive edges and innovation that enterprises can developed includes integrating quality services into well-established manufacturing processes for efficiency and effectiveness, practicing sustainable product development, adopting a total product life cycle oriented approach and leveraging on the up and coming Web technology in the emergence of virtual enterprises. In this paper, a generic integrated manufacturing and services system (IMSS) framework is being proposed and subsequently it was deployed in a biomanufacturing scenario as an initial proof of concept. An agent-based goal-oriented modelling approach is being used in the realization of the framework architecture.

400    J. Zhou, X. Li, A.J.R. Andernroomer, H. Zeng, K.M. Goh, Y.S. Wong, G.S. Hong, "Intelligent prediction monitoring system for predictive maintenance in manufacturing," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an intelligent prediction and monitoring system for equipment failure prediction to support equipment maintenance, diagnostics and prognostics in manufacturing environment. The system architecture and implementation techniques, such as agent framework, real-time data acquisition and federated communication are briefly described. Details are given on the intelligent prediction engine which is the key component of the system. A case study for machining tool useful lifetime prediction is presented to demonstrate the usability of the system.

401    Yuncan Xue, Wei Jian, Qiwen Yang, "Integrated optimum steelmaking cast plan based on the pseudo TSP solution," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An optimum furnace cast plan model for steelmaking continuous casting planning and scheduling is presented. A pseudo travel salesman problem model is presented to describe the model. Genetic algorithm is used to solve the pseudo travel salesman problem. Simulations have been carried and the results show that the pseudo travel salesman problem is very fit for describe the model. The computation with practical data shows that the model and the solving method are very effective.

402    M. Luo, J.B. Zhang, M.M. Wong, L.Q. Zhuang, K.C. Ng, S.W. Aung, "A heuristic approach to auto-recovery in the supervisory control of heterogeneous automatic equipment for material handling," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A heuristic approach-the cost-based ant colony system (CACS) is introduced to perform auto-recovery for the supervisory control of an automatic material handling system (AMHS) in a dynamic manufacturing environment. The proposed algorithm incorporates the dynamic nature of the AMHS into the ant colony system to search for a path with the minimum material transfer cost. The test results demonstrate that the proposed CACS can find optimal solutions within an acceptable computation time, and therefore can be successfully applied to the auto-recovery of the supervisory control of heterogeneous material handling systems.

403    R. Lempkowski, K. Lian, M. Eliacin, P. Kulkarni, "A PWB-based MEMS switched filter bank using lumped element embedded passives," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Printed wiring board (PWB)-based MEMS RF switches were developed using modified processes and similar materials as used for high density interconnect/embedded passives (HDI/EP) components. By constructing cantilever-beam electrostatic mechanisms, single-pole single throw through single-pole four-throw RF switches were developed with suitable performance in the microwave band. Combining these switches with embedded lumped element filter components using the same substrate materials, a switched filter bank was simulated, fabricated, and measured results shown.

404    Chang Won Jung, Ming-jer Lee, G.P. Li, F. De Flaviis, "Monolithic integrated re-configurable antenna with RF-MEMS switches fabricated on printed circuit board," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 2329- 2334, 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Not Available

405    A. Sundaram, R. Ramadoss, L.M. Feldner, "Electronically steerable antenna array using PCB-based MEMS phase shifters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, MEMS phase shifters have been monolithically integrated with antennas on duroid substrate using printed circuit processing techniques. Specifically, 3-bit phase shifters have been integrated with a two-element folded slot antenna array for electronically scanned array (ESA) applications. As a proof-of-concept, a preliminary ESA prototype with beam steering of 4/spl deg/ at 10 GHz is presented. The proposed approach is suitable for fabrication of low cost, large area MEMS-based ESAs on Teflon or polyimide like low dielectric constant printed circuit board (PCB) substrates.

406    M. Swaminathan, A. Bavisi, W. Yun, V. Sundaram, V. Govind, P. Monajemi, "Design and fabrication of integrated RF modules in liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) substrates," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design and fabrication of fully-packaged RF modules that are suitable for integration in portable handset applications. The system blocks utilize high Q passive devices that are embedded in liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) based substrates. Firstly, the paper introduces the packaging technology that utilizes multiple sheets of LCP substrate. Characterization of high Q inductors on the multi-layer process is then demonstrated showing scalability of inductor size and Q from 900 MHz to 10 GHz. Finally, the paper presents the results of the following key LCP based RF modules: voltage controlled oscillators, concurrent dual-band oscillators, mixers, filters, and baluns. A comparison with the current state-of-the-art is made. The paper shows that the implemented system modules are smaller in size, with superior electrical performance to currently available discrete solutions. The paper shows that the proposed technology supports high-density integration at low cost and hence, is suitable for large volume commercial wireless handheld applications. Finally, a MEMS process to be integrated on the proposed LCP technology for tunability of the modules is presented.

407    D. Fries, H. Broadbent, G. Steimle, S. Ivanov, A. Cardenas-Valencia, J. Fu, T. Weller, S. Natarajan, L. Guerra, "PCB MEMS for environmental sensing systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We are developing integrated microsystems and sensor networks for in-water measurements using PCB MEMS, also known as organic MEMS. The PCB MEMS laminates are based on liquid crystal polymers (LCP), polyimide (PI) and FR-4 materials with the various sensing elements made within or on top of the printed circuit substrates. Single layer, double layer, and laminate constructions have been achieved. The sensing systems that utilize this technology are directed toward chemical, biological and physical sensing devices. Recent progress in sensor development has yielded PCB MEMS sensors operating in the field. We have developed a multisensor system that measures conductivity, temperature and pressure, and a compact 3D system-in-package wireless module based on the 802.11b protocol. Combining the sensor and telemetry modules yields wireless sensor systems capable of being scaled into networks. The microsystems made in this economical PCB MEMS format can be utilized in the marine environment, especially in emerging adaptive sensor grids, but also be applied to terrestrial, atmospheric and industrial process control environments.

408    J.N. Palasagaram, R. Ramadoss, "MEMS capacitive pressure sensor array fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based capacitive pressure sensors are typically fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques. In this paper, novel liquid crystal polymer (LCP) based capacitive pressure sensors, fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques, are reported. LCP exhibits good dimensional stability, material flexibility, high chemical resistance, and extremely low moisture absorption, which makes it suitable for MEMS applications. The pressure sensor comprises of a cylindrical cavity formed by a sandwich of LCP substrate, LCP spacer layer with circular holes and LCP top layer. The bottom electrode and the top electrode of the capacitive pressure sensor are defined on the top surface of the LCP substrate and the bottom surface of the top LCP layer, respectively. A typical pressure sensor with a diaphragm diameter of 3.2 mm provides a total capacitance change of 0.7627 pF for an applied pressure in the range of 0-170 kPa.

409    R. Dean, J. Pack, N. Sanders, P. Reiner, "Micromachined LCP for packaging MEMS sensors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is a thermoplastic material with a variety of useful properties that can be exploited to yield new types of packaging for MEMS sensors. Although each type of MEMS sensor has unique packaging requirements, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) MEMS humidity sensor, the Hygrometrix HMX2000 was selected as a representative MEMS sensor for packaging development. The packaging process consists of patterning and Sn coating the Cu cladding on the LCP substrate, followed by micromachining the LCP substrate to realize an environmental access port for the sensor. The sensor is then attached to the LCP substrate using AuSn intermetallic bonding on a flip chip bonder.

410    L. Pagel, S. Gabmann, "Microfluidic systems in PCB technology," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a technology for the production of microfluidic systems is presented. In an overview the design and properties of produced fluidic elements are described. The basic element is a thermal driven micro pump using FR4 as basic material. A design of a pressure sensor in PCB using polyimide membranes demonstrates how to overcome problems with bad material properties like thermal expansion coefficient and the dependence of elastic constant on humidity of polyimide. The compensation of the pressure force with electrostatic force is one possibility for the elimination of material properties of membrane. The ability of the technology to integrate microfluidic elements, optical sensors and electronics in a monolithic PCB-stack is demonstrated by a development of a flow-injection-analysis (FIA). This analysis system contains two micro pumps, one fluid mixer, one optical detector, and one reservoir for the fluidic reagent and, of course, the electronics for the amplification of sensor-signals and the control unit for pumps. The correct functionality of the PCB-FIA is demonstrated by the detection of iron (III) ions using the reagent Thiocyanat.

411    L. Mao, H. Koser, "An integrated MEMS ferrofluid pump using insulated metal substrate," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel ferrofluid micropump utilizing traveling magnetic fields is designed based on previous numerical analysis. A cost-effective fabrication process combining insulated metal substrate etching and soft lithography is used to realize the prototype ferrofluid micropump. Preliminary results show good agreement of pumping characteristics between theory and experiment.

412    Y. Okamoto, M. Ogita, "A new exposure method using cover glass," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present a new exposure method to achieve super resolution of a projection lens. The idea is based on a cover glass inserted between an optical lens and image plane. We have designed a projection lens system using a cover glass. It has found that the resolution of the projection pattern can be improved by use of a cover glass under the condition that the practical size of the projection lens is restricted. We have also set up a proto-type exposure evaluation system of reduction projection lens. It has been found that projection image of mask pattern was improved using a cover glass inserted between a projection lens and its image plane. We have also found that projection image of mask pattern was much improved by use of both phase shifting mask and a cover glass inserted between a projection lens and its image plane.

413    Ching-Fuh Lin, Eih-Zhe Liang, Chu-Ting Huang, Kung-An Lin, Shiu-Jia Shu, "Electrically-pumped Si-laser using nano-particle-modified metal-oxide-Si structures," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Measurement on the carrier lifetime shows that the radiative-recombination rate in Si can be enhanced to be more than twice of the non-radiative-recombination rate at large injection current using the nano-particle modified metal-oxide-silicon (MOS) structure. With the enhanced radiative recombination, the device with such a MOS structure exhibits lasing behaviours under forward bias of current injection at room-temperature and cw operation. The laser has the threshold current of 56 mA. The lasing wavelength well corresponds to the Si indirect-bandgap energy.

414    A. Hirata, "Nanolubricants and applications-nanotechnology in solid lubrication," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 3 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The current direction of nanotechnology in the realm of tribology is outlined. The key issue on the micro/nano tribological studies to understand interfacial phenomena occurring in from micro/nano to macro structures is shown to be the exploration of the properties of a few atomic surface layers. Investigation of new materials represented by nanoparticles for surface films is another critical issue for tribology that provide advanced applications of the tribological systems from micro/nano to macro scale. The researches on carbon onion are briefly presented as an example of nanolubricants to introduce the current state of the studies on nanoparticles for innovative lubrication technology.

415    F.A.M. Koeck, Y. Yang, R.J. Nemanich, "Thermionic and field electron emission from nanostructured carbon materials for energy conversion and vacuum electronics," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: While initial interest in using diamond materials for electron emission was derived from the observation of a negative electron affinity of the material, the nanoscale structure of the material has proven to be critical to obtaining field emission at an applied field of less than 2 V//spl mu/m. This study presents topographic and emission site images of nanocrystalline diamond films. The results suggest that morphology variations are insufficient to explain the observed emission patterns. The thermionic properties of sulphur doped nanocrystalline diamond films and carbon nanotubes were measured and analyzed in terms of Schottky barrier lowering. The results indicated a general consistency of the field emission and thermionic emission from the same films. The potential for thermionic energy conversion based on these films is presented.

416    H. Kirkici, M. Serkan, K. Koppisetty, "Nano-dielectric materials in electrical insulation application," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High performance electrical insulation materials and structures must be free from unwanted and unpredictable dielectric breakdown through the insulator as well as surface flashover along the interface between the insulator and the ambient or vacuum. The last decade has witnessed significant developments in the area of nano-particulate and nano-dielectric materials, and significant effects of nano-scale fillers on electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of polymeric materials have been observed. Surface flashover is one of the major issues in electrical insulation in power systems operating either in space (vacuum or partial vacuum) or atmospheric (earth-bound) environments. Thus, development of new and advanced materials to be used in power systems requires extensive studies on electrical insulation characteristics of these materials before they can be used in commercial systems. Most of the research in characterization of nano-dielectric materials has been for systems operating in atmospheric environment; there are limited or no data for systems using these materials in space environments. In this paper, we present experimental results of surface flashover characteristics of epoxy resin and epoxy resin cast with powdered Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in partial vacuum. The flashover studies were conducted separately using DC and AC signals. Surface flashover voltage and current waveforms of the samples and light emission waveforms and video images during the breakdown were recorded. Optical data collected by a video camera along with the PMT light emission data are analyzed and the results of the optical emission characteristics of surface flashover are presented along with the electrical data. The samples used in the experiments were produced by using either epoxy resin of known properties or by mixing known quantities of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with epoxy. The electrode material placed over the dielectric samples was copper.

417    Chin-Long Wey, "Nanoelectronics: silicon technology roadmap and emerging nanoelectronics technology in Taiwan," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This article presents the current research and development of nanoelectronics in Taiwan and its roadmaps. The focus of the nonelectronics is placed on the semiconductor memories, such as volatile DRAMs, nonvolatile MRAMs and OUMs, and CMOS organic electronics. The vision of the National nanoelectronics R&D program is to enhance the technology development of next generation semiconductor memories for the products of high-speed, high-density, and low-power applications, and to establish the world-class nanoelectronics R&D platform supporting local semiconductor manufacturers to develop advanced technology for next generation semiconductor ICs. This article reviews the major features of Taiwan's IC industry, and its current development.

418    T. Richards, M.-Y. Chow, "Performance characterization of IP network-based control methodologies for DC motor applications. Part I," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Using a communication network, such as an IP network, in the control loop is increasingly becoming the norm. This process of network-based control (NBC) has a potentially profound impact in areas such as: teleoperation, healthcare, military applications, and manufacturing. However, limitations arise as the communication network introduces delay that often degrades or destabilizes the control system. Four methods have been investigated that alleviate the IP network delays to provide stable real-time control. This paper presents the four methodologies, while the companion paper presents a case study on a DC motor with a networked proportional-integral (PI) speed controller with various network delays and noise levels. The four methodologies are gain scheduling middleware (GSM), optimal stochastic methodology, queuing methodology, and robust control methodology. Simulation results show that NBC combined with these techniques can successfully maintain system stability, allowing control of real-time applications.

419    T. Richards, M.-Y. Chow, F. Wu, "Performance characterization of IP network-based control methodologies for DC motor applications. Part II," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For part I see ibid., p.Z002490-Z002495. Using a communication network, such as an IP network, in the control loop is increasingly becoming the norm. This process of network-based control (NBC) has a potentially profound impact in areas such as: teleoperation, healthcare, military applications, and manufacturing. However, limitations arise as the communication network introduces delay that often degrades or destabilizes the control system. Four methods have been introduced in Part I of these two companion papers that alleviate the IP network delays to provide stable real-time control. Part II of these papers defines a performance measure for a case study on a DC motor with a networked proportional-integral (PI) speed controller with various network delays and noise levels. Simulation results show that NBC combined with these techniques can successfully maintain system stability. This allows for control of real-time applications.

420    M. Velasco, P. Marti, R. Villa, J.M. Fuertes, "Stability of networked control systems with bounded sampling rates and time delays," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we study stability properties of networked control systems whose control loops are subject to sampling rates and time delays, both time varying. We represent these time incertitudes as non-static parametric uncertainties in the linear discrete-time closed-loop model. Then we apply robust control techniques, and present a sufficient stability condition based on interval algebra methods that allows testing system stability by simply evaluating a time invariant matrix.

421    Jd. Kommineni, A. Malinowski, "Study of time delay distribution in IP protocol family for IP-network based control applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Internet protocol (IP) networks are gaining popularity in network-based control applications because IP is a common denominator protocol in non-proprietary networks and because of mass production of devices that support IP. Even though IP being a best effort protocol was originally not designed for demand of this kind of application. However, recent advancements in bandwidth and reliability allow successful attempts of IP-based control. This paper examines the relationship between the media type, network architecture, protocol type and the packet round trip time for various case studies.

422    Suk Lee, Kyoung Nam Ha, Jee Hun Park, Kyung Chang Lee, "NDIS-based virtual polling algorithm of IEEE 802.11b for guaranteeing the real-time requirements," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on the feasibility of IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN for real-time wireless industrial network. In general, it has been known that IEEE 802.11b is not suitable for industrial networking because its medium access control method is the contention-based CSMA/CA (carrier sensing multiple access with collision avoidance) that exhibits unstable performance under heavy traffic and unbounded delay distribution. As an attempt to circumvent the probabilistic nature, this paper presents an enhanced four-layer architecture using the network driver interface specification (NDIS) and a virtual polling algorithm. Also, the enhanced four-layer architecture's performance is compared with that of conventional IEEE 802.11b. Based on the experimental results, it is found that the enhanced four-layer architecture for IEEE 802.11b is a very promising alternative for wireless industrial networking.

423    Y. Tipsuwan, S. Aiemchareon, "A neuro-fuzzy network-based controller for DC motor speed control," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Network-based control (NBC) systems can provide several advantages among traditional control systems. Nevertheless, the performances of NBC systems can be degraded due to undesired network behaviors such as network-induced delays. Several NBC algorithms usually neglect several network behaviors due to assumptions in problem formulations. The incompleteness and ambiguity of this network information implies ambiguities in NBC performances. In this paper, we propose a novel NBC gain scheduling scheme by applying a SANFIS (self-adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) along with gain scheduling to handle ambiguities in network behaviors. The SANFIS is utilized to classify a current network condition in order to select an optimal gain for this condition. A simulation result shows that the PI controller with the proposed approach yields significantly better NBC performances.

424    Z. Li, R. Vanijjirattikhan, M.-Y. Chow, Y. Viniotis, "Comparison of real-time network traffic estimator models in gain scheduler middleware by unmanned ground vehicle network-based controller," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We propose a gain scheduler middleware (GSM) module, for use in IP network-based control applications. The network traffic estimator (NTE) module of GSM must provide good estimation of the real-time network delay in order for the overall IP network-based control to provide satisfactory results. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantages of the NTE module vs. non-delay estimation control. Five delay estimation models are introduced and compared by using three typical network delay datasets. A network-based control of an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) path-tracking problem is used to illustrate the performance of the NTE model. Simulation results show that the generalized exponential model outperforms the other models on the three criteria, including the UGV tracking error, travelling time and the computation time of the estimation model.

425    N.B. Loden, J.Y. Hung, "An adaptive PID controller for network based control systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Presented here is an algorithm for retuning controller parameters to mitigate the effect of time delay in a network-based control system. An examination of the effects of time delay on network-based control systems is presented. The proposed methodology measures the present time delay in a control system to intelligently update the controller parameters to maintain nominal system performance. A comparison of systems with modified and unmodified controller parameters is given. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is used in the two examples (one short time delay and one long time delay).

426    E.J. Bueno, F.J. Rodriguez, F. Espinosa, S. Cobreces, "SPLL design to flux oriented of a VSC interface for wind power applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Accurate phase information is crucial for most of modern power electronic systems such as VSC connected to the grid. In this paper, it is proposed an algorithm software phase-locked loop (SPLL) to obtain phase and frequency information of the grid voltage. This is based in an algorithm of on-line separation of the grid voltage sequences (DSC), and a discrete traditional PLL. A criterion to tune the SPLL constants from a PLL discrete linearized model is discussed. The SPLL response is evaluated for different grid disturbances and different SPLL parameters. Besides, a VSC connected to the grid through and L filter with the SPLL obtained in this paper has been tested for different configurations of SPLL and different grid perturbations. Conclusions about where to apply the SPLL different configurations are obtained from these last tests.

427    R. Pena, R. Cardenas, J. Proboste, J. Clare, G. Asher, "A hybrid topology for a variable speed wind-diesel generation system using wound rotor induction machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a energy system topology consisting of a diesel and wind turbine generation units is presented. Wound rotor induction machines are considered to provide energy to an isolated load at constant voltage and frequency. Both generator rotor currents are vector controlled and operate at variable speed. The scheme uses a common DC bus for the voltage source PWM rotor side inverter of each machine. Another vector controlled voltage source PWM inverter is connected between the DC bus and the stator to allow sub and super synchronous speed operation of both generators. The diesel generator unit balances the system power and changes the speed according to power demand in order to minimise the fuel consumption. The variable speed operation of the wind energy conversion system maximises the energy capture by controlling the generator electric torque. An experimental prototype has been set with the diesel engine and the wind turbine emulated with a AC and DC drive respectively. The system has been tested to load impacts and step changes in wind velocity and experimental results for optimum speed tracking are shown.

428    R. Cardenas, R. Pena, M. Perez, F. Vargas, G. Asher, J. Clare, "Power balancing in variable speed wind-energy systems using vector control of front-end converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel power balance control method for wind energy systems feeding an isolated grid. The system is based on a variable-speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) connected to an AC load using a power converter. An energy storage system, connected to the AC load using an additional converter, is used to balance the power generated by the WECS with the load. In this paper the vector control systems for both interfacing power converters are discussed. The proposed control methods are implemented in a 2 kW experimental prototype and the experimental results are fully analysed and discussed in the paper.

429    B. Dakyo, C. Nichita, El Mokadem, H. Camblong, G. Tapia, I. Vechiu, "Modelling and control of single VSI leading experimental hybrid power system integrating a wind turbine simulator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses a hybrid wind diesel system aims to validate wind powered section of the experimental system. The experimental system proposed consists of a wind turbine simulator, a permanent magnets generator, a diode bridge rectifier, a step down converter, a bank of battery, a load and a control unit. An other operation of three-phase, four-wire voltage source inverter (VSI) under unbalanced voltage conditions is also investigated.

430    S. Cobreces, E. Bueno, F. Espinosa, F.J. Rodriguez, C.J. Martin, "Contributions to the DC-bus voltage controller of back-to-back voltage source converters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A very interesting feature of VSC based back-to-back converters connected to the grid is their capacity to work in the four quadrants, and consequently their capability to change the converter power flow direction eventually. Variable speed wind turbines represent one of the main applications of these devices. The objective of this article is the study of the influence of R/sub L/ and C/sub DC/ value over a back-to-back converter from a classic linear control point of view. The analysis that is presented in this article begins with the extraction of two different models for the DC bus which permits the deduction of ranges of nominal values for the DC bus capacitor (C/sub DC/) and for the load resistance (R/sub L/) which ensures system stability. A stability analysis of these models as a function of the operating mode of the VSC (rectifier, inverter), of the DC-bus capacity and of the value and sign of the current across the DC-bus is the objective of the second part of this article. Finally, a control scheme for both models is proposed. Special interest is dedicated to the effects of DC-bus parameters (R/sub L/ and C/sub DC/) over the controller operation and to a correct chose for that values: an analytic method for constant design is presented. Control system correct operation is verified under a non-linear back-to-back simulation environment.

431    M.R. Rathi, N. Mohan, "A novel robust low voltage and fault ride through for wind turbine application operating in weak grids," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Wind turbines are very susceptible to any disturbance, faults and low grid voltages. They are disconnected from the grid whenever these conditions arise and reconnected once the grid is healthy. Maintaining the wind turbine connected to grid is real challenge. Future grid codes will require wind turbines connected to grid even during the fault condition and have low voltage ride through (LVRT) feature installed. LVRT feature is not available in most of the present wind turbine and few do with addition circuitry and control increasing the cost of the system. In this paper, a novel control strategy and LVRT for wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators is presented to maintain the turbine connected to grid during fault and post fault condition without addition circuitry. The controller is designed using H/sub /spl infin// technique and /spl mu/-analysis based robust control technique to take into account various adverse conditions. The controller is tested on low power hardware prototype and the results are presented.

432    N. Patin, E. Monmasson, J.-P. Louis, "Analysis and control of a cascaded doubly-fed induction generator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Due to the recent interest in renewable energy systems (windmills, small-scale hydropower) and embedded applications (more electric aircraft and vehicle), control of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) generators has become a very important research topic. Among the possible types of VSCF generators, a good candidate is the cascaded doubly-fed induction generator (CDFIG). This brushless robust structure is also driven by a low power converter in comparison to the power provided to the grid. However, because of its inherent complexity, an efficient control design methodology is needed. The presented paper proposes to establish a rigorous design methodology based on the inversion of the dynamical model of the system. It also uses an original representation of the system called dynamical equivalent circuit. This method has been successfully applied to two cases: a CDFIG connected to a utility grid and a CDFIG connected to an isolated grid in the presence of a significant amount of nonlinear load.

433    R. Kennel, P. Szczupak, "Sensorless control of 3-Phase PWM rectifier," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a simple sensorless voltage oriented control strategy for PWM rectifier and a phase voltage tracking method is presented. The experimental tests show the advantages of the proposed phase tracking method. The control method is applicable to PWM drive converters without hardware changes whether they use space vector modulation method or hysteresis based modulation.

434    D. Das, R. Esmaili, L. Xu, D. Nichols, "An optimal design of a grid connected hybrid wind/photovoltaic/fuel cell system for distributed energy production," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a hybrid energy system consisting of wind, photovoltaic and fuel cell designed to supply continuous power to the load. A simple and economic control with DC-DC converter is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extraction from the wind turbine and photovoltaic array. Due to the intermittent nature of both the wind and photovoltaic energy sources, a fuel cell is added to the system for the purpose of ensuring continuous power flow. The fuel cell is thus controlled to provide the deficit power when the combined wind and photovoltaic sources cannot meet the net power demand. In worst environmental conditions, when there is no output power from the wind or photovoltaic sources, the fuel cell will operate at its rated power of 10 kW. Hence this system under any operating condition will ensure a minimum power flow of 10 kW to the load. This hybrid system allows maximum utilization of freely available renewable energy sources like wind and photovoltaic and demand-based utilization of hydrogen-based fuel cell. The proposed system is attractive owing to its simplicity, ease of control and low cost. Also it can be easily adjusted to accommodate different and any number of energy sources. A complete description of this system is presented along with its simulation results which ascertain its feasibility.

435    M. Liserre, A. Pigazo, A.D. Aquila, V.M. Moreno, "Islanding detection method for single-phase distributed generation systems based on inverters," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The detection of the islanding condition of a distributed generation system is crucial for safety reason, as discussed in IEEE Standards, and specifically required by some national codes. Several anti-islanding methods have been investigated and classified as passive (measurement of the natural effects of islanding) and active (based on the measurement of the effects due to transients or harmonics deliberately introduced in the system). In case the power drained by the load matches the power generated by the DG inverter the effect of islanding are small and the passive detection methods fail. However the active methods that have been developed to overcome these limits create disturbances that can interact with those generated by other DG systems. In this paper a new anti-islanding method is proposed. It exploits the natural sensitivity to disturbances of a grid voltage sensorless control to highlight islanding condition. The adopted grid voltage sensorless control is adapted to a single-phase system with the use of resonant controllers on the basis of the internal model control law: a resonant controller-based observer results. Then a Kalman-filter-based algorithm is used to detect the islanding condition on the basis of the energy mismatch between the estimated 3/sup rd/ and 5/sup th/ harmonics and the real ones. Simulation and experimental results support the analysis.

436    H. Koizumi, K. Kurokawa, "A novel maximum power point tracking method for PV module integrated converter using square root functions," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Solar cells have a current-voltage (I-V) characteristic which is affected by the radiation and the temperature. To obtain the maximum electricity from solar cells, the power converters for PV (photovoltaic) modules have a function called MPPT (maximum power point tracking). The DC voltage and current are controlled to track the maximum power point (MPP) where the PV modules feed the maximum output power. A module integrated converter (MIC) is individually installed behind of a PV module to seek the MPP. One example is AC module composed of a PV module and a small inverter. In case of AC module, the basic characteristic of the PV module is known by the manufacturer. The domain of MPP can be approximately predicted. The proposed MPPT method takes full advantage of the known I-V characteristic. The I-V plane is divided into two domains by the square root function. One includes MPPs and the other one doesn't. In the previous research, we proposed to use linear functions. However, the linear functions with high slope are effective for high radiation, and those with low slope are suitable for low radiation. The square root functions can cover the both. The operating point can be rapidly approached to the MPP. Around the MPP, the algorithm is switched to the IncCond method. Circuit experiments have been carried out. The measured approaching time to the MPP is reduced from 56.8% to 85.4% compared to the IncCond algorithm. The proposed method can be easily applied to various MPPT algorithms.

437    D. Sera, T. Kerekes, M. Lungeanu, P. Nakhost, R. Teodorescu, G.K. Andersen, M. Liserre, "Low-cost digital implementation of proportional-resonant current controllers for PV inverter applications using delta operator," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performances of the P+Resonant controller in case of current control for a single phase grid connected inverter have been proved to be superior to the PI controller, since it is able to remove the phase error of the control at the fundamental frequency of the grid. It offers also the possibility of selective harmonic compensation. However, in case of digital implementation on a low-cost fixed-point DSP, the limited computational power and the limited numerical representation precision can restrict the utilization of it. The present paper proposes a different way of digital implementation of the P+Resonant controller with selective harmonic compensation on a low-cost fixed-point DSP. The resonant part of the P+R has been implemented as a second order filter based on delta operator. The current controller, together with harmonic compensation for the 3/sup rd/, 5/sup th/, and 7/sup th/ harmonics has been successfully tested in practice with a 1.5 KW PV inverter, achieving a 1.2% total harmonic distortion (THD) of the grid current.

438    A. Bouscayrol, X. Guillaud, Ph. Delarue, "Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a wind energy conversion system using energetic macroscopic representation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a wind energy conversion system is developed using the graphical tool energetic macroscopic representation. A 1.5 kW DC machine is controlled to impose a 900 kW wind turbine behavior on the induction generator shaft by using adaptation coefficients. Experimental results are provided for a medium wind velocity.

439    Y. Wang, C. Klumpner, "Optimal design of a DC/DC converter for photovoltaic applications," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Renewable energy is taken into consideration as the only viable alternative for the future energy demand in response to the undesired global warming perspective caused by the increase in CO/sub 2/ level which is associated with the excessive exploitation of the fossil energy supplies in the last century. As the wind energy already became industrially competitive, most of the research effort is now directed on cutting down the cost of capturing and utilizing the solar energy, which is another source of clean energy. This paper presents an approach on how to design and minimize the power losses and the cost of a DC-DC converter suitable for photovoltaic applications.

440    F. Bertling, S. Soter, "Improving grid voltage quality by decentral injection of current harmonics," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 3 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This research project deals with the development of an adjustable converter for injection of fuel cell power. A DC/DC converter stage increasing the voltage level is connected to a DC/AC inverter for grid current injection via a high capacitance DC link. This decouples the momentary power drawn from the energy source from the momentary power being injected into the grid, allowing arbitrary output current waveforms without an increase of input current ripple. Conventionally, pure fundamental frequency currents are considered the optimum waveform regarding the injected currents impact on the grid. This paper demonstrates how grid voltage harmonics caused by nonlinear loads can be minimized by adapting the converters injected current shape. In contrast to harmonics compensation in industrial applications where the compensation current is determined by measuring the local loads current harmonics, the intended decentral application in private houses suggests a different approach to improve overall grid voltage quality. The digital signal processor used for the converters control and monitoring functions calculates the frequency spectrum of the measured grid voltage run by digital Fourier transformation (DFT) and determines the current harmonics necessary to counteract the present voltage harmonics. The resulting current frequency spectrum is modulated into a time dependant current shape that is added to the fundamental frequency current run determined by the requested amounts of active and reactive power. This way, harmonic currents of the local loads are compensated without changes in the house installation for measuring the loads currents. Also current harmonics of neighbouring houses are compensated.

441    Su-Jin Jang, Tae-Won Lee, Ku-Sam Kang, Soo-Seok Kim, Chung-Yuen Won, "A new active clamp sepic-flyback converter for a fuel cell generation system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new active clamping sepic-flyback converter has been proposed, which is suitable for a fuel cell based power generation system. The proposed converter is superposition of sepic converter mode and flyback mode. It has outstanding high boosting output voltage, component utilization and high efficiency characteristics under the inherently severe low output voltage of the fuel cell generator. The proposed converter for a full cell generator is described and verified by simulation and experimental result that make used of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) generator.

442    E.J. Bueno, S. Cobreces, F.J. Rodriguez, A. Hernandez, F. Espinosa, R. Mateos, J.C. Garcia, F. Lopez, "Optimized design of a back-to-back NPC converter to be used as interface for renewable energies," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As the number of wind power with power electronics interfaces in the grid increases, it becomes unacceptable to disconnect the generating units every time a disturbance occurs, as was a common practice in the past. Keeping the converter online during unbalanced voltage and guaranteeing the actual standards of the converter connected to the grid becomes a very critical issue. From these goals, the design of a robust back-to-back NPC (three levels) converter of 100 KVA is researched in this work. The converter is divided into two main parts: the power electronics system and the control electronics system. In both designs, some important contributions are shown. Concerning the first part, the paper presents primarily the converter limitations to compensate unbalanced dips, the grid filter design and the DC-bus capacitor design. Concerning the control electronics system, the chosen electronic structure and the tasks distribution between the chosen processors are shown.

443    S. Abe, H. Nakagawa, M. Hirokawa, T. Zaitsu, T. Ninomiya, "Stability improvement of distributed power system by using full-regulated bus converter," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The bus architecture, consisting of bus converter and POLs (point of load), has become very popular since POL can respond to some demands of multi power supply voltage, low driving voltage and series sequence/tracking of LSI with more flexibility than isolated DC-DC solution. However, the customer suffers the system instability issue caused by impedance overlap between the bus converter and POL. Bus converter has three types i) un-regulated, ii) semi-regulated, iii) full-regulated, and each type has different output characteristic. This makes matter more complex to understand and difficult to resolve the instability phenomena. This paper presents, the availability of full-regulated bus converter for system stability as compared with un-regulated and semi-regulated case, and is examined analytically and experimentally. As a result, it has been found that in the case of full-regulated bus converter, the bandwidth is extended in the presence of feedback loop due to damping of output impedance peak, and achieved higher stability.

444    C. Marinescu, L. Clotea, M. Cirstea, I. Serban, C. Ion, "Controlling variable load stand-alone hydrogenerators," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper aims to establish a common way in controlling the electric energy quality in micro hydro plants. The considered situation deals with the stand alone synchronous and induction generators. The research investigates a power control scheme that would allow avoiding the mechanical control of the turbine. For the control study, simulations were made for variable loads. The considered control circuit performs the voltage and frequency regulation, separately and together, for both types of generators.

445    A. Yazidi, H. Henao, G.-A. Capolino, D. Casadei, F. Filippetti, "Double-fed three-phase induction machine abc model for simulation and control purposes," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to develop a doubly-fed induction machine (DFIM) model suitable for the simulation of this machine in any system with control circuits and/or connections to the grid by means of power electronics converters. The circuit-oriented approach has been chosen in order to represent the DFIM model as a rotating transformer. In fact, a class of universal machine model has been built to be used with simple input electrical parameters such as stator and rotor resistances, self, leakage and mutual inductances. With the model, it is possible to simulate any kind of asymmetry in both stator and rotor sides with or without variations of the machine parameters. A specific wound-rotor induction machine model, using only resistances, inductances and controlled voltage sources, has been developed. The coupling effects between stator and rotor have been taken into account stator-rotor mutual inductances. The performances of the model have been verified by comparison between simulation and experimental results on a 0.09 kW-220 V/380 V-50 Hz-4 poles DFIM working in motoring mode at standstill, no-load and rated load conditions.

446    W. Roshen, "Iron losses in permanent magnet synchronous motors," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Iron losses in permanent magnet synchronous machines form a larger portion of the total losses than in the induction machines and, hence, more importance should be given to the minimization of iron loss. Previously, models have been presented for the calculations of these losses but these models still rely on finite element simulations to obtain correction factors, which are substantial, to apply to the theoretically derived formulas in order to obtain good agreement with the experimental data. In this paper we point out the source of this correction factor: the neglect of excess eddy current loss component. In many cases this loss component dominates the total iron losses and need to be incorporated in the theoretical considerations. We also provide a more complete model of iron loss, which greatly reduces the need for calculating the correction factors using FEM. The use of this more complete model will result in reduced design time especially when a number of candidate designs need to be analyzed because otherwise the calculation of these correction factors using FEM would be cumbersome as these correction factors tend to be non-linear.

447    Z.W. Vilar, D. Patterson, R.A. Dougal, "Thermal analysis of a single sided axial flux permanent magnet motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a lumped parameter thermal network model for the stationary single sided axial-flux permanent magnet motor. Parameter values extracted from the experiments are presented. The theoretical model was validated by comparing simulation results to the experimental data. Later work will determine the convection during the operating conditions.

448    K. Boughrara, R. Ibtiouen, O. Touhami, "Numerical analysis of brushless permanent magnet motors using Lagrange multiplier," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we present a finite element method for analysis a brushless surface mounted permanent magnet motor with Lagrange multipliers for movement, dirichlet and anti-periodicity consideration.

449    Jeong-Woo Jeon, Mitica Caraiani, Ki-Chang Lee, Don-Ha Hwang, Joo-Hoon Lee, Yong-Joo Kim, Taek-Kun Nam, Sung-Shin Kim, "High-precision control of magnetic levitation system," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we address two position control scheme; the lead-lag control and the sliding mode control for a stage system, which is levitated and driven by electric magnetic actuators. This consists of a levitating object (called platen) with 4 permanent magnetic linear synchronous motors in parallel. Each motor generates vertical force for suspension against gravity and propulsion force horizontally as well. This stage can generate six degrees of freedom motion by the vertical and horizontal forces. Dynamic equations of the stage system are derived simply. The sliding mode control algorithm is more effective than the lead-lag control algorithm to reduce effects from movements and disturbances of other axis.

450    S. Rajagopalan, J.A. Restrepo, J.M. Aller, T.G. Habetler, R.G. Harley, "Selecting time-frequency representations for detecting rotor faults in BLDC motors operating under rapidly varying operating conditions," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electric motors work continuously under operating conditions that rapidly vary with time. Motor diagnostics in a non-stationary environment is challenging due to the need for sophisticated signal processing techniques. In this paper, the use of quadratic TFRs is presented as a solution for the diagnostics of rotor faults in brushless DC (BLDC) motors operating under constantly changing load and speed conditions. Four time-frequency representations are considered in this paper-short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD), Choi-Williams distribution (CWD), and the Zhao-Atlas marks distribution (ZAM). The drawbacks of these distributions and methods to overcome them are also presented. The TFRs are implemented in real-time and their load computations are compared in order to study their suitability for implementation in a commercial system.

451    J.L.H. Silva, A.J.M. Cardoso, "Bearing failures diagnosis in three-phase induction motors by extended Park's vector approach," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces a new approach, based on the spectral analysis of the motor current Park's vector modulus, for diagnosing the occurrence of bearing faults in three-phase induction motors. The major theoretical principles of the extended Park's vector approach are described. Experimental tests with artificial bearing damages were conducted by applying the conventional vibration and motor current spectral analyses as well as the extended Park's vector approach. The sensitivity of these methods was compared in order to evaluate the usefulness of the new approach for the development of reliable and convincing unified condition monitoring systems. Additionally, this paper presents a new technique for artificially introducing bearing damages regarding the experimental simulation of several failure types, such as pitting, fluting or false brinelling.

452    B. Ayhan, H.J. Trussell, M.-Y. Chow, M.-H. Song, "Application of notch filtering under low sampling rate for broken rotor bar detection with DTFT and AR based spectrum methods," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper demonstrates with experimental results that the use of a lower sampling rate with a notch filter is feasible for motor current signature analysis in broken rotor bar detection with DTFT (discrete time Fourier transform) and AR (auto regressive) based spectrum methods. The use of the lower sampling rate does not affect the performance of the fault detection, while requiring much less computation and low-cost in implementation, which would make it easier to implement in embedded systems for motor condition monitoring.

453    S.H. Kia, H. Henao, G.-A. Capolino, "Zoom-MUSIC frequency estimation method for three-phase induction machine fault detection," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fault diagnosis of electrical machines based on frequency analysis of stator current has been the interest of many researchers for the past twenty years. Several frequency estimation techniques have been developed and are used to help the induction machine fault detection and diagnosis and it is still necessary to test new methods. This paper presents a technique to improve the diagnosis by using the well known MUSIC (multiple signal classification) method. This method is a powerful tool extracting meaningful frequencies from the signal and it has been largely used in different areas included electrical machines. In this application, fault sensitive frequencies have to be found in both the stator current and the stray flux signatures. They are often numerous in a given frequency range and they are affected by the signal-to-noise ratio. Then, the MUSIC method takes a long computation time to find more frequencies by increasing the order of the frequency signal dimension. To solve this problem, an algorithm based on zooming in a specific frequency range is proposed with MUSIC in order to improve the diagnosis performances to extract frequencies. The proposed method has been applied to detect incipient broken bar rotor fault in a three-phase squirrel-cage induction machine.

454    Don-Ha Hwang, Ki-Chang Lee, Joo-Hoon Lee, Dong-Sik Kang, Jin-Hee Lee, Kyeong-Ho Choi, "Analysis of a three phase induction motor under eccentricity condition," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents results of the finite-element (FE) analysis of air-gap flux variation in an induction motor when the rotor vibrates due to its eccentricity. An accurate modeling and analysis of rotor vibration in the machine are made using air-gap flux simulation, and search coils are used for measuring the actual air-gap flux. The simulation was done for the induction motor with 380 [V], 5 [HP], 4P, 1,742 [rpm] ratings using the commercial FE analysis tool. The simulation and experiment results can be useful for on-line vibration monitoring of an induction motor.

455    X. Liu, L. Li, Y. Hori, T. Akiba, R. Shirato, "Optimal traction control for EV utilizing fast torque response of electric motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is well-known that the separately-wound DC motor has effective torque (current) reduction characteristics in response to rapid increase of the rotational speed of the motor. This characteristic has been utilized in adhesion control of electric locomotives with DC motor. In this paper, we have proposed a new slip prevention method for EVs, utilizing this characteristic and have made experiments with the hardware slip simulator "motor-generator setup" and our new vehicle "UOT CADWELL EV" which is equipped with BLDC motors. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of our proposed method.

456    Y. Aoki, T. Uchida, Y. Hori, "Experimental demonstration of body slip angle control based on a novel linear observer for electric vehicle," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a body slip angle observer based on yaw rate /spl gamma/ and side acceleration a/sub y/, and a novel control method of body slip angle /spl beta/ are proposed. Body slip angle observer is robust against parameter variation and change of road. Some experimental results by UOT MarchII (Fig.1) are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed observer. Next, we proposed new control methods for 2-dimension control. We control beta by yaw moment with PID controller. This method is known as DYC (direct yaw moment control) in internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs). However, the torque difference can be generated directly with in-wheel motors. We performed experiments by UOT MarchII. The experimental results proved that our proposed method was good.

457    H. Fujimoto, A. Tsumasaka, T. Noguchi, "Direct yaw-moment control of electric vehicle based on cornering stiffness estimation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, novel direct yaw-moment control (DYC) with road condition estimation and anti-slip control is proposed for electric vehicles. An inner-loop observer controls the vehicle traction, and an outer-loop controller stabilizes the yawing motion. An immeasurable parameter known as cornering stiffness is estimated from the detected yaw-rate, steering angle, wheel speed and yaw-moment observer output in real time. Thus, the accurate control input can be generated with the estimated parameters. The proposed adaptive control is compared with a conventional robust control on dry and snowy terrain conditions. The experimental results show that the yaw-rate error is properly attenuated by the proposed control algorithm.

458    P. He, Y. Hori, M. Kamachi, K. Walters, H. Yoshida, "Future motion control to be realized by in-wheel motored electric vehicle," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses novel motion control strategies for in-wheel motored electric vehicle (EV), including 2-DOF control, dynamic optimal traction force distribution control and direct yaw moment control (DYC). Two electric vehicles, "UOT March II" and "COLT EV", are used for experiments. The control algorithms are verified by simulations and experiments, which show that the control strategies are efficient and effective.

459    K. Kawashima, Y. Hori, T. Uchida, "Stabilizing control of vehicle motion using small EV driven by ultra capacitor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the stabilizing control of electric vehicle motion, driven only by "electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC)" as the energy source. This vehicle provides easy experiment of electric vehicle motion control, since it has extremely simple structure and helps us to perform some experiments easily taking advantage of the peculiar characteristic of large current charging. It shortens the charging time, which makes any experiments convenient and comfortable. In this paper, the basic characteristic of capacitor, basic driving experiment and our vehicle system are shown, at the last our future plans on vehicle system and motion control will be discussed.

460    Yee-Pien Yang, Tsan-Jen Wang, "Electronic gears for electric vehicles with wheel motor," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel electronic gearing is proposed in the propulsion system for an electric vehicle driven directly by a wheel motor. This electronic gearing assembles the parallel and serial connections of batteries and motor windings into four gears to accommodate various driving patterns in the permissible range of speed and torque. The objectives of this invention are to extend the speed range of constant power, as well as to improve the driving performance and efficiency of the vehicle. The proposed electronic gearing is tested on a dynamometer to simulate the ECE40 driving pattern, and the driving range is estimated by measuring the state-of-charge of lead-acid batteries, which are normally used as the power source of electric vehicles. The experimental results show that the efficiency increases in terms of the driving range of electric vehicles.

461    A.W. Colombo, F. Jammes, H. Smit, R. Harrison, J.L.M. Lastra, I.M. Delamer, "Service-oriented architectures for collaborative automation," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a vision for utilising service-oriented architectures (SOA) to support the lifecycle needs of automation systems in the context of agile manufacturing, i.e., engineering easily configurable manufacturing systems composed of standard components that may be remotely supported by geographically distributed engineering partners to suit changing and unpredictable business needs. The paper briefly reviews the relevant state of the art in collaborative automation systems and considers the potential of SOA to support the practical implementation of such systems, with traditional product-oriented methods replaced by more service-oriented ways of working. As the SOA paradigm holds the promise of being applicable across the entire spectrum of manufacturing systems and devices, down to sensors and actuators, the paper further addresses issues involved in discovery and orchestration of device-level services and discusses the potential benefits of using semantic Web techniques for automating service selection, invocation and composition, so as to facilitate rapid reconfiguration. This discussion is supported by a practical example of device-level SOA.

462    S. Illner, A. Pohl, H. Krumm, "Model-driven security management of embedded service systems," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paradigm of service oriented architectures spreads throughout the domain of business software and enterprise networks. With the proposal of the device profile for Web-services also small, less powerful embedded devices should be able to interact with services of the network infrastructure they are connected to. New challenges arise when it comes to the adaptive management of these devices. The available computing power is often too low to allow extensive runtime evaluations for automatic adaptation to new situations. Moreover when thinking of large scaled device networks the creation and management of security policies may become a complex task. In this paper we address the latter by splitting the security management task into a design-time and run-time task. At design-time the considered access control policy is graphically modeled applying the concepts of role based access control and the definition is aided by a modeling tool. At run-time the configurations created by this tool are the basis for the access control computations of a security service infrastructure.

463    I.M. Delamer, J.L.M. Lastra, "A peer-to-peer discovery protocol for semantic Web services in industrial embedded controllers," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 7 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One of the significant challenges for current and future manufacturing systems is that of providing rapid reconfigurability in order to evolve and adapt to mass customization. Service-oriented architecture has been proposed as a technology facilitator to create systems by encapsulating, composing and reconfiguring machines and devices rather than reprogramming the hard code. The SOA paradigm holds the promise of being applicable across the entire spectrum of manufacturing systems and devices, down to sensors and actuators. One of the pillars of SOA is the mechanism by which service advertisements are published by providers and subsequently discovered and selected by requestors. This paper presents a protocol for the dynamic discovery of services in industrial environments. The protocol is designed for operation in embedded industrial controllers, and operates in a peer-to-peer topology without a need for centralized service registries. Furthermore, the protocol enables conveying information regarding services that are semantically interoperable but that use different invocation syntax. In order to infer such semantic relationships between services, the OWL-S semantic Web services ontology is used. The protocol was deployed in embedded industrial controllers in order to facilitate the reconfiguration of assembly systems that employ CAMX standards for communications.

464    M. Obayashi, H. Nishiyama, F. Mizoguchi, "Secured cooperative multi-agent system in limited resources for intelligent sensor network," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we develop a multi-agent language that enables us to easily define sensor network behavior. A sensor network usually consists of many autonomous sensors equipped with wireless communication capabilities, and it is constructed to be autonomous using an ad-hoc network protocol. These sensor nodes make it possible to monitor the actual state of a real environment as well as track various activities of a person equipped with a sensor node. When the only purpose of the system is to collect environmental data, all the nodes merely need to be capable of sending data to the receiving station. However, if directions are arbitrarily sent to each node to control actuators also equipped with nodes, a ubiquitous computing environment is formed. These circumstances require bidirectional communication between nodes, autonomous control by each sensor node to determine the intercommunication suitable for its situation, and recognition and cooperation between unspecified numbers of sensor nodes in the heterogeneous network to provide the various system services. To solve these problems, we developed a multi-agent system capable of execution in a sensor node with limited computer resources. We then demonstrate the applicability of our system through the experimental results.

465    B. Lu, L. Wu, T.G. Habetler, R.G. Harley, J.A. Gutierrez, "On the application of wireless sensor networks in condition monitoring and energy usage evaluation for electric machines," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Condition monitoring of electric motors avoids unexpected motor failures and greatly improves system reliability and maintainability. Energy usage evaluation, which shares many common requirements with condition monitoring, could be implemented into an integrated motor monitoring system. Advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems, wireless communications, and highly integrated electronics have enabled the implementation of wireless sensor networks (WSN). The unique characteristics of WSNs such as flexibility, high fidelity, self-organization, inherent intelligence, low cost, and rapid deployment make them the ideal structure for incorporating energy usage evaluation and condition monitoring functions. This paper proposes a scheme for applying WSN in energy usage evaluation and condition monitoring for electric machines. The importance of this scheme lies in its non-intrusive, intelligent, and low-cost nature. As the focus of this paper, the system requirements and non-intrusive methods for energy usage evaluation and motor condition monitoring are discussed. Finally, the overall system applicability is investigated by verifying the air-gap torque method for motor efficiency estimation and the air-gap eccentricity detection algorithm for motor condition monitoring in the proposed scheme using experimental results.

466    R.C. Luo, Ogst Chen, S.H. Pan, "Mobile user localization in wireless sensor network using grey prediction method," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Knowing the position of mobile user is an important role for location services in the building. The characteristics of wireless sensor network are low power, low cost and low complexity. With these functions, wireless sensor network have great potential to develop indoor position system. However, radio signal propagation is easily affected by diffraction, reflections, and scattering of radio in the building, the received signal strength need good calibration method to improve the accuracy of position estimation system. In this paper we use grey prediction method in wireless sensor network and employ wireless LAN medium (Zigbee/802.15.4). The grey prediction is used to predict the tendency of RSSI (received signal strength indicator), and we also designed dynamic triangular (DTN) location method. We have done some experiments and compare with other classical location finding methods. The mean distant error of RSSI on mobile user can be within 2.3 m at offline stage. As a result, grey predication with DTN provides more accurate predicted position and carries out mean distance error within 1.3 m at run-time stage.

467    P.A. Novak, D. Czarkowski, "Intelligent power supply for wireless sensor network nodes," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 4 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on the design and implementation of a low-power intelligent power supply to be used in a wireless network sensors solution intended for installation in structural monitoring systems or other power critical systems. The system consists of a power source (battery, fuel cell or similar), a microprocessor as the control unit, battery monitor, and integrated DC-DC converters. All the components communicate via an I/sup 2/C bus. The power supply will comprise from off-the-shelf technology components that are low-cost and rich in functional features.

468    H.R. Kanan, K. Faez, "PZMI and wavelet transform features in face recognition system using a new localization method," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 5 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper compares performances of the pseudo zernike moment invariant (PZMI) and wavelet transform features in the application of face recognition. In this study, after preprocessing and face localization of an image, we optimize the exact location of oval shape of face in the image with genetic algorithm which improves the recognition rate. High order PZMI and discrete wavelet transform (Haar wavelet) is utilized to produce feature vectors. In the wavelet transform step, we used Mallat pyramid algorithm for finding approximation of the image in lower resolution and decomposed each image in 4 resolution level. Also RBF neural network with HLA learning algorithm has been used as a classifier. Simulation results on ORL database show that approximately the same results are obtained for both PZMI and wavelet features. But feature extraction using wavelet transform has a rate of 0.078 image/Sec that is about 11 times faster than the rate of PZMI feature.

469    T. Omar, N. Lahcene, I. Rachild, F. Maurice, "Modeling of the induction machine for the diagnosis of rotor defects. Part I. An approach of magnetically coupled multiple circuits," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 8 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The authors develop the squirrel cage induction machine model for the diagnosis of defects from an approach of magnetically coupled multiple circuits. The generalized model is established on the base of mathematical recurrences. The winding function theory is used for determining the rotor resistances and the inductances in the case of n-broken bars and broken end-ring. Simulation results, in Part. II of this paper, confirm the validity of the proposed model.

470    "Modeling of the induction machine for the diagnosis of rotor defects. Part. II. Simulation and experimental results," Industrial Electronics Society Annual Conference, Vol.1, pp. 6 pp., 6-6 Nov. 2005 .   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For part I see ibid., p.Z001665-Z001672. Two softwares are coupled for the parameter calculation and the differential integration of the dynamic model of the squirrel cage rotor induction machine, in part. II of this paper. From theoretical study of the induction machine by an approach of multiple coupled circuits, we worked out the necessary various blocks to simulation. The calculation of machine inductances (with and without rotor defects) is carried out by the tools of software MATLAB before the beginning of simulation under Software SIMULINK. The machine parameters are then computed by using the concepts of the construction of electric machines. Simulation and experimental results are presented to confirm the validity of proposed model.