International Symposium on Industrial Electronics 

4-7 June 2007           Access to the IES Annual Conference on IEEE XPLORE     IE Society Home Page




1    W.D. Harbour, T.W. Martin, "Development of a Fuzzy Logic Control System on a Freescale 68HCS12 Microcontroller for an Air Impingement Oven ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1 - 6 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Stein Lab Oven is an air impingement oven used for research at the University of Arkansas on the elimination of pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli from ready-to-eat beef and poultry products. This oven allows for control over cooking time, cooking temperature, humidity and airflow. During research the oven is operated at desired constant temperature, humidity and airflow values, but the temperature and humidity values deviate from the desired values when disturbances occur, such as when raw product is brought into the oven. A fuzzy logic control system is developed on a Freescale 68HCS12 microcontroller to maintain constant temperature and humidity values and quickly recover from disturbances to the oven. A model of the oven is developed in Matlab to facilitate the testing and verification of the fuzzy logic controller.

2    A. Gensior, J. Weber, H. Guldner, J. Rudolph, "An algebraic parameter identification algorithm and asymptotic observers for estimation of the load of a boost converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 7 - 11 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper provides a comparison between an algebraic parameter identification algorithm for the load of a boost converter and classical asymptotic observers for the same purpose. Two asymptotic observers are presented and an algebraic identification algorithm is derived. Aspects of the implementation in fixed point arithmetic are discussed and experimental results are given which highlight the properties of both approaches.

3    J. Becedas, V. Feliu, H. Sira-Ramirez, "Control of Flexible Manipulators affected by Non-Linear Friction Torque based on the Generalized Proportional Integral Concept ," ISIE 2007, pp. 12 - 17 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this article, a new method to control an uncertain flexible robotic arm using a conventional motor with a gear actuator strongly affected by non-linear friction torque is proposed. This control method does not require friction compensation and hence the estimation of this term because the control scheme is robust with respect to this effect. On the other hand, the only variables to measure are the motor shaft and tip angular positions. Velocity measurements, which always introduce errors and noises, are not required.

4    I. Yaesh, U. Shaked, "Neuro-adaptive H estimation and its application to improved tracking in GPS receivers ," ISIE 2007, pp. 18 - 23 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A neuro-adaptive scheme is suggested for improving the tracking properties of H-optimal filters. The design approach is based on embedding the H-optimal filter within a simplified adaptive control loop that is driven by the innovation process. The stability of the overall estimation scheme is established under strictly passive conditions of a related system. The suggested method is applied to improve the tracking properties of a GPS receiver during user maneuvers.

5    U. Shaked, I. Yaesh, "Robust servo synthesis by minimization of induced l/2 and l/i∞ norms ," ISIE 2007, pp. 24 - 29 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of designing induced l2 (i.e. H ) and l (i.e. lscr1) output-feedback controllers for linear discrete-time systems with polytopic type uncertainties is considered. The design process involves a state augmentation procedure which results in a nonminimal system the states of which are obtained by delayed inputs and outputs of the plant. Applying state-feedback control to this plant, using an LMI technique, output-feedback controllers are readily obtained which are of order comparable to the one of the plant. These controllers ensure quadratic stability and disturbance attenuation with a prescribed level within the uncertainty polytope. The resulting method is simple and most powerful. It is illustrated via a solution of an ECC'95 benchmark problem that deals with the control of a flexible transmission system with varying loads.

6    Rajesh Kumar, R.A. Gupta, A.K. Bansal, "Identification and Control of PMSM Using Artificial Neural Network ," ISIE 2007, pp. 30 - 35 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Rotor speed in permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) suffers from accuracy due to variation of motor parameters such as stator resistance, stator inductance or torque constant. The conventional linear estimators are not adaptive. Neural networks (ANN) have shown better results when estimating or controlling nonlinear systems. In this paper an artificial neural network based high performance speed control system for a PMSM is introduced. The rotor speed of the PMSM can be made to follow an arbitrarily selected trajectory. The main purpose is to achieve accurate trajectory control of the speed, when the motor and load parameters are unknown. The unknown nonlinear dynamics of the motor and the load are captured by the ANN. The performance of the identification and control algorithm are evaluated by simulating them on a typical PMSM motor model.

7    Li-Wei Fong, "Multi-sensor Track-to-Track Fusion Using Simplified Maximum Likelihood Estimator for Maneuvering Target Tracking ," ISIE 2007, pp. 36 - 41 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The focus of this paper is to present the distributed architecture of track-to-track fusion for computing the fused estimate from multiple filters tracking a maneuvering target with the simplified maximum likelihood estimator. The architecture consists of sensor-based Kalman filters, local processors and global fuser. Each sensor tracker utilized in the reference Cartesian coordinate system is described for target tracking when the radar measures range, bearing and elevation angle in the spherical coordinate system. The Bar-Shalom track-to-track fusion algorithm is used in each local processor to merge two tracks representing the same target. The decoupled process is adopted to simplify the batch form of the maximum likelihood estimator due to the block-diagonal covariance matrix. The resulting global fuser can be implemented in a parallel structure to facilitate estimation fusion calculation. Simulation results show that the proposed fusion estimator has computational advantages over the maximum likelihood estimator with similar performance.

8    J.A. Perez, J.L. Ocana, C. Molpeceres, "Real Time Fuzzy Logic Control of Laser Surface Heat Treatments ," ISIE 2007, pp. 42 - 45 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This article introduces a new real time incremental fuzzy logic controller for laser surface heat treatments, which allows to improve notably the uniformity and final quality of the process, reducing the rejection rate and increasing significantly the productivity and efficiency of the process. Besides to analyze the main characteristics and advantages of the developed control system, using the typical validation and analyze criteria, such as the overshooting and the settling time, in a complementary way, it is analyzed other unusual parameters of great practical interest, as the design and tuning time, as well as the experience and knowledge necessary for their design and implementation.

9    J.A. Perez, J.L. Ocaa, C. Molpeceres, "Neural Model Reference Control of Laser Surface Heat Treatments ," ISIE 2007, pp. 46 - 49 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces an innovative model reference neural controller for laser surface heat treatments, which allows to improve considerably the uniformity and final quality of the process, reducing the rejection rate and increasing significantly the productivity and efficiency of the process. Basically, the proposed adaptive controller allows to assimilate the complex system dynamics to a simple first order linear system, easily controlled by a conventional proportional, integral and derivative controller, PID, providing exceptional results.

10    A.R. Maouche, M. Attari, "Hybrid Control Strategy for Flexible Manipulators ," ISIE 2007, pp. 50 - 55 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The motion control of a planar manipulator with two flexible arms is studied. Dynamics are developed in Lagrange's formulation. A novel control system structure is proposed to control the joint position and velocity as well as deflection of the tip for each arm. First, nonlinear control law based on the equations of motion of the robot is presented and stability analysis is studied. Then, an adaptive neural controller is implemented to compensate structured and unstructured uncertainties. Efficiency of the new controller obtained by combining the two control laws is tested facing an important variation of the dynamic parameters of the flexible manipulator and compared to the nonlinear control taken solely. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the control strategy proposed.

11    Andrei Dinu, Marcian Cirstea, "A Digital Neural Network FPGA Direct Hardware Implementation Algorithm ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2307 - 2312 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An algorithm for compact neural network hardware implementation is presented, which exploits the special properties of the Boolean functions describing the operation of perceptrones (artificial neurones with step activation function). The algorithm contains three main steps: the digitisation of the ANN mathematical model, the conversion of the digitised model into a logic gate structure, and finally the hardware optimisation by elimination of redundant logic gates. A set of C++ programs has been developed to implement the algorithm. The programs generate an optimised VHDL model of the ANN implementation. This strategy bridges the gap between the ANN design and simulation software and software packages used in hardware design (Viewlogic, Xilinx). Although the method is directly applicable only to neural networks composed of neurones with step activation functions, it can also be extended to sigmoidal functions.

12    A. Fernandez Villaverde, C. Raimundez Alvarez, A. Barreiro Bias, "Digital passive teleoperation of a gantry crane ," ISIE 2007, pp. 56 - 61 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Gantry cranes still pose a control challenge, mainly due to the problem of load swing suppression in underactuated conditions. In the teleoperation setup, the operator-master dynamics and the transmission delay complicate the overall system design. Fortunately, the framework of passivity theory offers the necessary resources to address this problem. This paper presents the design of a digital teleoperation system for a gantry crane, entirely using tools from passivity theory. Special attention is paid to the communications issue, where recently developed tools are applied, which make the control system suitable for handling internet-like communication networks with large, time-varying delays and loss of information.

13    E.C. Diniz, O.M. Almeida, L.H.S.C. Barreto, "A new predictive control of water conductivity using a microcontroller applied to off-set printing ," ISIE 2007, pp. 62 - 65 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Water conductivity is a decisive factor in off-set printing nowadays, especially in daily newspapers. Keeping it stable affects printing brightness directly, what is relevant in the calculation of advertisement costs. Besides, print jobs are interrupted because the printer has to be cleaned after some time, delaying the process. Furthermore, if conductivity is not controlled, the ink is not adequately fixed to the printing surface. Within this context, this work proposes a generalized predictive control (GPC), with three steps ahead for plant controller, using the extended least-squares algorithm in the plant identification. A low cost solution with easy implementation results then, which can be adapted to small or big printing companies, minimizing delays. A variation equal to about 1.5% around the setpoint in steady-state is verified, but it is acceptable since the chemical process is very noisy. In addition to this, such error is much smaller than that obtained with manual process, which is about 20% to 30%.

14    Yee-Jin Cheon, Jong-Hwan Kim, "Unscented Filtering in a Unit Quaternion Space for Spacecraft Attitude Estimation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 66 - 71 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel approach to the straightforward implementation of unscented filtering in a unit quaternion space is proposed for spacecraft attitude estimation. A method of weighted mean computation for quaternions is derived in a rotational space, leading to a quaternion with a unit norm. Quaternion multiplication, which allows a quaternion in the filter to lie in the unit quaternion space, is then used for predicted covariance computations and quaternion updates. In this study, quaternion process noise, which increases the uncertainty in attitude orientation, is either modeled as the vector part of the quaternion or as a rotation vector. Simulation results indicate that the proposed approach successfully estimates spacecraft attitude.

15    C. Olalla, M.I. Arteaga, R. Leyva, A. El Aroudi, "Analysis and Comparison of Extremum Seeking Control Techniques ," ISIE 2007, pp. 72 - 76 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Two non-perturvative extremum seeking control approaches are analyzed; the first approach needs the sensing of the function's gradient while the second one does not. Relationships between the algorithms parameters and their dynamic behavior are found. Also expressions for the steady state error of both approaches are derived. Finally, these results are used to verify and to compare, by means of simulation, the performance of both methods.

16    B. Marami, N. Bigdeli, M. Haeri, "Active Queue Management of TCP/IP Networks Using Rule-Based Predictive Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 77 - 82 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Model predictive controllers, due to their capability to control the time variant and delayed systems, are considered for congestion control in computer networks. To extend the application of these controllers as an active queue management (AQM) system in dynamic TCP/IP networks, a new rule-based predictive controller is proposed. This controller uses the small signal linearized fluid-flow model of the TCP/IP networks and simulates the future behavior of control system by applying few candidate control sequences. Using the extremes of the resulted predicted output sequences, optimal control signal is determined based on some appropriate rules. This approach benefits from the mentioned capabilities of the model predictive controllers while the computational complexity is reduced compared to the commonly used MPC schemes. Low queue fluctuation, fast response and good disturbance rejection are the features of the proposed controller which are compared via simulations with those of PI and RED, the two well-known AQM methods.

17    Chuanjiang Li, Guangfu Ma, "Adaptive Backstepping Control for Attitude Tracking of a Spacecraft ," ISIE 2007, pp. 83 - 88 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of adaptive attitude tracking control for a rigid spacecraft with uncertain inertia matrix is addressed by means of backstepping technique. As a stepping-stone, we first construct a nonadaptive control scheme that is dependent on exact knowledge of the spacecraft inertia matrix. The control scheme is then redesigned to be adaptive, which is independent of any inertia parameters. The Modified Rodrigues Parameter (MRP) is adopted as attitude variable due mainly to its global nonsingular description when combined with its shadow sets. One salient feature of the proposed controllers is that they allow integral control action, which can potentially eliminate or reduce steady-state attitude errors in the presence of constant external disturbances. Simulation results for the derived controllers demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed backstepping strategy in achieving attitude tracking for spacecraft with inertia uncertainty.

18    F. Baronti, S. Saponara, E. Petri, R. Roncella, R. Saletti, L. Fanucci, P. D'Abramo, "Hardware Building Blocks for High Data-Rate Fault-Tolerant In-vehicle Networking ," ISIE 2007, pp. 89 - 94 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the hardware implementation of high speed and fault-tolerant communication systems for in-vehicle networking. Emerging safety-critical automotive control systems, such as X-by-wire and active safety, need complex distributed algorithms. Large bunches of data have to be exchanged in real-time and with high dependability between electronic control units, sensors and actuators. According to this perspective, the FlexRay protocol, which features data-rates up to 10 Mb/s, time and event triggered transmissions, as well as scalable fault-tolerance support, was developed and it is now expected to become the future standard for in-vehicle communication. However, collision avoidance and driver assistance applications based on vision/radar systems, poses requirements on the communication systems that can hardly be covered by current and expected automotive standards. A candidate that will play a significant role in the development of safety systems which need data-rates up to hundreds of Mb/s as well as fault-tolerance seems to be the new SpaceWire protocol, whose effectiveness has already been proved in avionic and aerospace. This paper presents the design of the major hardware building blocks of the FlexRay and SpaceWire protocols.

19    Te-Wei Wang, Ming-Ji Yang, Kuo-Kai Shyu, Ching-Ming Lai, "Design fuzzy SOC estimation for sealed lead-acid batteries of electric vehicles in Reflex TM ," ISIE 2007, pp. 95 - 99 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a fuzzy state-of-charge (SOC) estimation for ReflexTM battery charging, which allows rapid and efficient charging for sealed lead-acid batteries used in electric vehicles. The proposed SOC estimation can avoid undercharging or overcharging. Overcharge in particular can shorten a battery's lifetime. The charging control and the SOC estimation are based on fuzzy theorem and they are implemented by a digital signal controller (dsPIC30F4011). The battery's SOC is estimated while the system was charging the battery and the estimated error is maintained within an acceptable range (±5%) . Moreover, this system used a method of equivalent internal resistance to calculate the internal resistance of the batteries. During the ReflexTM charging, the controller can self-tune the discharging time according to the internal resistances, which reduces the thermal rises and the lifetimes for the batteries. Finally, experimental results are provided to verify the performance of the system and the feasibility of the proposed SOC estimation in this paper.

20    L. Lahoucine-Abaih, A. van Bennekom, M. Fathi, "Development of an ANN for the Prediction of Heat Treatment Temperatures for Martensitic Stainless Steels ," ISIE 2007, pp. 100 - 105 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the current status of the research project aimed at predicting the optimum tempering temperature during the quenching and tempering heat treatment process of martensitic stainless steels, based on the chemical composition and previous metallurgical history. At present, in the iron and steel industry, time-consuming and cost-intensive laboratory tests often relies on to minimize the tolerance ranges of the mechanical properties. This paper contains a proposal as to how an artificial neural network (ANN) can be used in future to predict the optimum tempering temperature without considering complex metallurgical and mathematical models describing the evolution of the microstructure during the quenching and tempering process. Prior to developing an ANN for the prediction, the entire quenching and tempering process must be clearly understood. This stage will be followed by a comprehensive literature survey to determine the current state of the art. The usefulness of ANN for process control is demonstrated through a model which was developed by Siemens GmbH to predict the mechanical properties of hot rolled steels. This prediction is based on the outcome of a combination of a calculation and an ANN. Although the hot rolling operation affects the quenching and tempering process, we will show why a purely mathematical approach is insufficient. Thus, this paper will outline the input and output parameters and the design of the structure required for a new ANN.

21    F. Garcia, P. Castelo J, P. Pazos A, J.L. Calvo Rolle, "On AMBs Diagnosis by Analytical Redundancy ," ISIE 2007, pp. 106 - 111 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the study of the diagnosis task carried out on active magnetic bearings on the basis of analytical redundancy. Since the faults affecting an active magnetic bearing has its origin in one or more of the elements: coil circuit, sensors or machine rotor due to mechanical and/or magnetic disturbances, coils current is a reliable variable which can be measured and predicted simultaneously based on the electromagnets models. This information is used to diagnose the closed loop controlled mechanical system using analytical redundancy associated to a parity space approach. Achieved results by simulation of a case study are shown and discussed.

22    M. Koksal, F. Yenici, A.N. Asya, "Position Control of a Permanent Magnet DC Motor by Model Reference Adaptive Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 112 - 117 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Model reference adaptive control (MRAC) is one of the various techniques of solving the control problem when the parameters of the controlled process are poorly known or vary during normal operation. To understand the dynamic behavior of a dc motor it is required to know its parameters; armature inductance and resistance (La, Ra), inertia of the rotor (Jm), motor constant (Km), friction coefficient (Bm), etc. To identify these parameters, some experiments should be performed. However, motor parameters change under operation according to several conditions. Therefore, the performance of controller, which has been designed considering constant motor parameters becomes poorer. For this reason, a model reference adaptive control method is proposed to control the position of a dc motor without requiring fixed motor parameters. Experimental results show how well this method controls the position of a permanent magnet dc motor.

23    A. Banos, A. Vidal, "Design of PI+CI Reset Compensators for second order plants ," ISIE 2007, pp. 118 - 123 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Reset control is a special kind of nonlinear compensation that has been used to overcome limitations of linear time invariant, LTI, compensation. In recent works by the authors a new type of reset compensator, referred to as PI+CI, has been introduced. It basically consists of adding a Clegg integrator, CI, to a Proportional-Integral, PI, compensator, with the goal of improving the closed loop response by using the nonlinear characteristic of this element. It turns out that by resetting a percentage of the integral term of a PI compensator, a significant improvement can be obtained by considerably reducing overshoot percentage and settling time. This work is devoted to the extension of this previous work by deriving new tuning rules for second order plants with and without delay.

24    M. Wahba, "MIMO Indirect Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Induction Motors ," ISIE 2007, pp. 124 - 129 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new adaptive fuzzy control technique applied to induction motors (IM). The control task of such motors is considered complicated by the fact that these motors have uncertain time-varying parameters and are subjected to unknown load disturbance. A nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) state feedback linearizing control is designed for the IM modeled in a stationary reference frame. An indirect adaptive fuzzy controller is proposed to estimate the nonlinear functions that appear in the state feedback input-output linearizing control. Simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controller even in the presence of motor parameter variations and unknown load disturbance.

25    B.M. Gonzalez-Contreras, J.L. Rullan-Lara, L.G. Vela-Valdes, A. Claudio S., "Modelling, Simulation and Fault Diagnosis of the Three-Phase Inverter Using Bond Graph ," ISIE 2007, pp. 130 - 135 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a bond graph fault diagnosis methodology applied to a three-phase inverter is presented. A qualitative approach is used, which is based on signal amplitude behavior analysis when a fault in the system is presented. For a complete bond graph modelling of the three-phase inverter, sub-models for each power switches are used. Considerations about switching devices from the bond graph point of view are made in order to cope the simulation aspect and, at the same time, to avoid causality problems in the qualitative diagnosis approach employed. We include both open-circuit and short-circuit faults on power switches.

26    Jin-Shyan Lee, "A Command Filtering Framework to Collision Avoidance for Mobile Sensory Robots ," ISIE 2007, pp. 136 - 141 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Inside a wireless sensor network comprising both static sensors and mobile robots, as human commands are issued within the control loop, particular improper actions may cause accidents and result in disasters. For such systems, this paper has proposed a command filtering framework to accept or reject the human-issued commands so that undesirable executions are never performed. In the present approach, Petri nets (PN) are used to model the operated behaviors and to synthesize the command filters for supervision. An application to a mobile wireless surveillance system is provided to show the practicability of the developed approach. It is believed that the technique presented in this paper could be further applied to large-scale wireless mobile sensor networks.

27    A. Mendelson, R. Tenno, "Identification of the Mass-Transfer and Kinetic Parameters from Voltammograms ," ISIE 2007, pp. 142 - 146 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: State and parameters estimation of a nonlinear distributed parameter system is considered in this paper. This system comes into sight from voltammetric measurements of electrochemical substances used in plating chemistry. Two-stage identification procedure is developed for estimation of the mass-transport parameters and electrode kinetics parameters. The efficiency of the method proposed is demonstrated in the simulation experiment.

28    Yonghua Cheng, J. Van Mierlo, P. Lataire, G. Maggetto, "Test Bench of Hybrid Electric Vehicle with the Super Capacitor based Energy Storage ," ISIE 2007, pp. 147 - 152 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the research and test bench of hybrid electric vehicle has been presented, which comprises power supply system, super capacitor based energy storage, traction system and the simulated load of vehicle. In order to ensure good operating condition of main power supply and high efficiency in hybrid electric vehicle, energy sources control and management strategies were specified. They have been verified in this platform.

29    R. Tenno, A. Pohjoranta, "Microvia Fill Ratio Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 153 - 156 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A control law for microvia fill process optimization is proposed in this paper. The law enables linear growth of either microvia fill ratio by applying nonlinear control of cell voltage or plating current density, implemented as a set point trajectory for a potentiostat or galvanostat, respectively. Linear deposit growth enables accurate prediction of plating duration and end time. The control system is simulated and compared with results of via fill tests.

30    R. Dhaouadi, R. Jafari, "Adaptive PID Neuro-Controller for a Nonlinear Servomechanism ," ISIE 2007, pp. 157 - 162 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we propose an adaptive PID control scheme based on recurrent neural networks (RNN). The control system includes a RNN-PID control network and a RNN emulator. The recurrent neural networks are trained on-line using the RTRL learning algorithm. The plant sensitivity Information is calculated on-line using the emulator network and is fed back along with other inputs to train the control network. On-line simulation studies and results for a one-degree of freedom robot arm servomechanism are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

31    A. Banos, J. Carrasco, A. Barreiro, "Reset times-dependent stability of reset control with unstable base systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 163 - 168 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Reset control systems are a special type of hybrid systems in which the time evolution depends both on continuous dynamics between resets and the discrete dynamics corresponding to the reset instants. In this work, stability of reset control systems is approached by using an equivalent (time-varying) discrete time system, and necessary and sufficient stability conditions that explicitly depends on the reset times are used. These conditions have been applied for the case in which the linear base control system is unstable.

32    D. Chrenko, M.-C. Pera, D. Hissel, "Fuel Cell System Modeling and Control with Energetic Macroscopic Representation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 169 - 174 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the application of Energetic Macroscopic Representation (EMR) to model complex multi domain devices like fuel cell systems. The basic elements of EMR and its inversion - the Maximum Control Structure (MCS) - are given and the advantages of this tool to evaluate model based control are pointed out. Than the application of EMR on fuel cell systems is demonstrated. Furthermore the application of EMR and selected aspects of MCS on a commercially available fuel cell system is shown. The simulation results show that EMR is a valid tool to describe fuel cell systems.

33    H. Lopez, A. Robles, I. Machon, E. Fernandez, L.F. Sancho, "Temperature monitoring system in the mould of a slab continuous casting line ," ISIE 2007, pp. 175 - 179 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this article a study is introduced that was carried out for the implementation of a temperature monitoring system in the mould of a slab continuous casting line in ACERALIA's LD3 steel factory in Aviles (Asturias). To achieve this, instrumentation has been proposed consisting on precision thermocouples placed along the vertical mid-line of both the broad face and the narrow face of the mould. Signals are converted and sent through an industrial bus to the acquisition station. Here, the data from the process computer (the conditions under which the casting develops) is also stored. The ultimate objective is the retrieval of actual data on temperatures at specific locations of the mould. These data can be used for the adjustment of models of mould operative behaviour.

34    E. Laffly, M.-C. Pera, D. Hissel, "Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Modelling and Parameters Estimation for Ageing Consideration ," ISIE 2007, pp. 180 - 185 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a static and dynamic model of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell based on empirical equation and equivalent electrical impedance modeling. Polarisation curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy provide static and dynamic model parameters. A study of parameter variation during life of the stack, leads to ageing phenomena and durability considerations.

35    S. Muyulema, E.J. Bueno, F.J. Rodriguez, S. Cobreces, D. Diaz, "Response of the grid converters synchronization using p.u. magnitude in the control loop ," ISIE 2007, pp. 186 - 191 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This document presents interesting results in a grid converter synchronization based on the p.u. magnitudes in the positive reference frames. This methods introduces small modifications respect to the sPLL (software phase locked loop) presented by the authors in previous works. The main idea is to compare the two sPLL systems: in the first one, the error signal is Vdp (positive refence frame); whereas in the second one, the error signal is Vdp divided by its magnitude. For this reason, the method receives the name: "p.u. magnitude". The desired objective is to reflect correctly the abrupt phase changes in the control synchronization system of the grid converters, which will be more important under hard unbalance dips and phase-angle jumps in the grid system. On other hand, in the introduction of this paper, the new "generalized functions block" for the synchronization systems are suggested that are used to represent the models in great part of the different works about this topic. This generalization includes two blocks which are denominated: SIB (signal interface block) and CB (calculator block).

36    R.F. Garcia, J.P. Castelo, A.P. Pazos, J.L.C. Rolle, "Disturbance Rejection on AMBs by Cascade Controllers ," ISIE 2007, pp. 192 - 196 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the study of disturbance effects carried out on active magnetic bearings when cascade controllers are inserted into the feedback control loops. Since the disturbances affecting an active magnetic bearing has its origin in one or more of the elements: machine rotor due to mechanical and/or magnetic disturbances, which can be measured and predicted simultaneously based on the electromagnets models, well adjusted cascade controllers contributes to performance under abrupt load changes. Achieved results by simulation of a case study are shown and discussed.

37    J.A. Cortajarena, J. De Marcos, P. Alvarez, F.J. Vicandi, P. Alkorta, "Indirect Vector Controlled Induction Motor with four Hybrid P+Fuzzy PI Controllers ," ISIE 2007, pp. 197 - 202 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new high performance induction motor drive is presented. The induction motor is controlled with four proportional plus fuzzy PI controllers (P+FUZZY PI). This hybrid controller replaces the conventional PI controllers traditionally used for indirect vector control of induction motors. The hybrid indirect vector control using the fuzzy controllers offers enhanced performance both in mathematical simulations and during actual test utilizing a 7.5 kW induction motor. The results demonstrate the superior performance and robustness of the fuzzy logic controller over the conventional controller when there are mismatched motor parameters. Notably, the performance of the fuzzy logic controller is retained when a new different motor replaces the test motor.

38    H.R. Koofigar, M.R. Ahmadzadeh, J. Askari, "Improving Transient Response of Model Reference Neuro-Controller via Constrained Optimization ," ISIE 2007, pp. 203 - 208 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A robust adaptation algorithm based on error normalization is introduced to update the weights of model reference neural network controller. Tracking error is normalized by a variable normalizing gain specified by solving a constrained optimization problem. The so-called piecewise quadratic cost function is proposed as the performance index to improve the transient response specifications. The conditions for robust convergence, saturation limit of actuators and maximum possible speed of response form the constraints of the problem in terms of the variable normalizing gain. Simulation results provided, demonstrate the improvements in transient behavior of control signal and output response obtained by the method, even in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations.

39    H. Tanabe, K. Suyama, "Multi-input multi-output robust model predictive control with pairs of process models ," ISIE 2007, pp. 209 - 214 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the RMPC the authors have proposed is extended to the MIMO case. Its control law based on intuitional control strategy can efficiently deal with model uncertainty especially in time-delays appropriately, which causes frequently fatal problems in process industry.

40    P. Gaspar, G. Szederkenyi, "Combined LPV and nonlinear control of an active suspension system ," ISIE 2007, pp. 215 - 220 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the design of a two-level controller is proposed for active suspension systems. The required control force is computed by applying a high-level controller, which is designed using a linear parameter varying (LPV) method. The suspension structure contains nonlinear components, i.e., the dynamics of the dampings and the springs and the actuator dynamics. The model is augmented with weighting functions specified by the performance demands and the uncertainty assumptions. The actuator generating the necessary control force is a nonlinear state-dependent switching system, for which a low-level backstepping-based force-tracking controller is designed.

41    O. Elmaguiri, F. Giri, "Digital backstepping control of induction motors ," ISIE 2007, pp. 221 - 226 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of controlling induction motors is generally dealt with in the continuous-time context (using different nonlinear control approaches). The obtained continuous-time nonlinear regulators can not be exactly implemented using today's digital equipments. Therefore, approximate versions, obtained through discretization and ZOH, are resorted to. However, the performances of these digital regulators may rapidly deteriorate if the sampling period is not sufficiently small. In this paper, a quite different alternative is considered to get digital regulators. First, the model of the controlled system is discretized using the delta operator formalism. Second, the (continuous-time) backstepping design technique is adapted to get a discrete-time regulator. Then, an upper bound on the sampling period is formally established so that the (discrete-time) closed-loop control system remains globally asymptotically stable and achieves the tracking performances it is designed for. On the other hand, the ZOH digital regulator thus obtained turns out to be less sensitive to the value of sampling period than digital the regulator designed by the continuous-time backstepping technique.

42    S.J. Amodeo, A.E. Leon, H.G. Chiacchiarini, J.A. Solsona, C.A. Busada, "Nonlinear Control Strategies of a Flywheel driven by a Synchronous Homopolar Machine ," ISIE 2007, pp. 227 - 232 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The homopolar synchronous machine is considered for use in a high-performance flywheel system. Two model- based control laws are developed using the feedback linearization methodology based on the model in different reference frames including the restriction due to the pulse amplitude drive modulation. An observer for the torque angle is developed to implement a nonlinear control strategy. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of both control strategies.

43    A. Abouloifa, F. Giri, I. Lachkar, M. Haloua, J. Rodellar, F. Ikhouane, "Concurrent and Simple Controller for AC/DC Power Converters - Theoretical Design and Experimental Evaluation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 233 - 238 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of controlling PWM AC/DC power converters is considered. The focus is made on a class of full- bridge boost rectifiers commonly referred to power factor correctors. We seek both output voltage regulation and power factor correction. These are achieved thanks to a cascade control structure involving two loops. The inner loop acts on the switching device so that the input current tracks a sinusoidal reference that is in phase with the supply network voltage. The outer loop modulates the amplitude of the current sinusoidal reference so that the converter output voltage tracks its reference. The above loops involve simple PI regulators together with suitable variable changes. The controller thus obtained turns out to be simple and can be implemented by analogue hardware. The performances of the resulting closed-loop are theoretically analysed and experimentally evaluated.

44    A. Caddemi, F. Catalfamo, N. Donato, "Two Computational Approaches for Noise Modeling of Advanced Microwave Transistors ," ISIE 2007, pp. 239 - 244 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A complete noise modeling of advanced microwave transistors is of great importance for the development of high sensitivity electronic systems. In the present paper, two computational approaches for modeling the noise performance of low noise microwave transistors are reported. The adopted techniques here presented involve the development of an artificial neural network tool and the implementation of an evolutionary algorithm. Each implemented approach is validated by a comparison between the expected values of the noise parameters (available from measurements) and the obtained data values. A thorough analysis of the results allows us to affirm that the application of these techniques quickly and originally solves the noise modeling task here examined.

45    A. Kazemy, S.A. Hosseini, M. Farrokhi, "On-Line Intelligent Control of Submarine Periscopes ," ISIE 2007, pp. 245 - 250 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, first, the dynamic equations of a submarine periscope will be extracted and verified with real data. These data are acquired from an experimental setup. Then, using a neural network, an intelligent control method will be developed to control the periscope model. The neural network will be trained on-line to cope with the changes in the system parameters. Simulation results will be compared with off-line trained neuro controller, which reveals good performance of the controller.

46    A. Kazemy, S.A. Hosseini, M. Farrokhi, "Second Order Diagonal Recurrent Neural Network ," ISIE 2007, pp. 251 - 256 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a new diagonal recurrent neural network that contains two recurrent weights in hidden layer is proposed. Since diagonal recurrent neural networks have simpler structure than the fully connected recurrent neural networks, they are easier to use in real-time applications. On the other hand, all diagonal recurrent neural networks in literature use one recurrent weight in hidden neurons, while the proposed network takes advantage of two recurrent weights. It will be shown, by simulations, that the proposed network can approximate nonlinear functions better than the existing diagonal recurrent neural networks. After deriving the training algorithm, the convergence stability and adaptive learning rate will be presented. The performance of the proposed network in model identification shows the accuracy of this network against the diagonal recurrent neural networks. Moreover, this network will be applied to realtime control of an image stabilization platform.

47    M. Abedi, H. Bolandi, F.F. Saberi, M.R. Jahed-Motlagh, "An Adaptive RBF Neural Guidance Law Surface to Air Missile Considering Target and Control Loop Uncertainties ," ISIE 2007, pp. 257 - 262 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new guidance law for medium range homing missiles is developed by invoking the adaptive neural control theory. This approach is novel in that an integrated guidance-control model is derived to consider target maneuvers and missile dynamic uncertainties, also an RBF neural network is employed to adaptively compensate for the mentioned model nonlinearities. The network weights are adapted using a Lyapunov-based design. In addition an adaptive compensator is used in conjunction with the adaptive intelligent system for tolerating of the approximation errors and disturbance effects. This proposal yields a guidance law that is robust against different target maneuvers and in comparison to other introduced modern approaches is far easier to implement and need to a few numbers of inputs. Presented proof for the stability of guidance-control loop and simulated results demonstrate the effective performance of designed guidance law.

48    H.R. Pourshaghaghi, M.R. Jaheh-Motlagh, A.-A. Jalali, "Optimal feedback control design using genetic algorithm applied to inverted pendulum ," ISIE 2007, pp. 263 - 268 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces an application of genetic algorithm (GA) to determine weighting matrices Q and R elements in linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimization process. The weighting matrices, Q and R are the most important components in LQR optimization and determine the output performances of the system. Commonly, a trial-and-error method has been used to construct the elements of these matrices. This method is simple, but very difficult to choose the best values that have good control performances. Because of this, the Bryson method can be employed to give better results. In this paper, we use GA to construct the weighting matrices Q and R properly with help of Bryson method. This idea gives a new alternative procedure in time varying feedback control to improve the stability performance. This design implemented in an inverted pendulum as a benchmark control problem.

49    M. Khezri, M. Jahed, N. Sadati, "Neuro-Fuzzy Surface EMG Pattern Recognition For Multifunctional Hand Prosthesis Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 269 - 274 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electromyogram (EMG) signal is an electrical manifestation of muscle contractions. EMG signal collected from surface of the skin, a non-invasive bioelectric signal, can be used in different rehabilitation applications and artificial extremities control. This study has proposed to utilize the surface EMG (SEMG) signal to recognize patterns of hand prosthesis movements. It suggests using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to identify motion commands for the control of a prosthetic hand. In this work a hybrid method for training fuzzy system, consisting of back-propagation (BP) and least mean square (LMS) is utilized. Also in order to optimize the number of fuzzy rules, a subtractive clustering algorithm has been developed. The myoelectric signals utilized to classify, were six hand movements. Features chosen for SEMG signal were time and time-frequency domain. Neuro-fuzzy systems designed and utilized in this study were tested independently and in a combined manner for both time and time-frequency features. The results showed that the combined feature implementation was the best in regard to identification of required movement tasks. The average accuracy of system for the combined approach was 96%.

50    D. Koscielnik, "The Integration of the Control Network with the ISDN User Network ," ISIE 2007, pp. 275 - 280 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This article presents an idea of integration of a control network with the S-bus of an ISDN user network. The proposed solution assumes to assure a complete compatibility of the constructed system with the effective standards. The main advantage of the solution consists in an important reduction of costs related to the implementation of a field network, resulting from the utilisation of the existing wiring as well as manufactured in huge quantities transmission interfaces. Moreover, the control and monitoring system uses proven mechanisms and transmission protocols, which guarantee its stability and reliability. The article include the comparison of the transmission mechanisms used in the proposed solution with those used in the well known CAN standard. We have also presented the results of a quantitative analysis of the integrated system, permitting to assess its suitability for different applications.

51    Qiong Shen, T.N. Chang, Lan Yu, "Automated Real-Time Spotting System for DNA/Protein Microarray Applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 281 - 286 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the implementation of an automated real-time spotting system is discussed. It is intended for high density, high yield microarray fabrication to facilitate diagnostic and research effort in genomics and proteomics. The method is based on a self-sensing, fully automated aspiring/dispensing pin. System performance is evaluated by several batch runs with de-ionized water solution of 0.3% fluorescent Cy-3 dye which has similar physical properties to the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probe materials. Experiment results show that this system is capable of fast and robust DNA/protein microarray fabrication in high volume while keeping spot size as small as 60 mum consistently. Based on the laser scanned images and experimental data of the spotted microarrays, it is also verified that this system can recognize and prevent the formation of abnormal spots.

52    A. Cysewska-Sobusiak, G. Wiczynski, Z. Krawiecki, A. Sowier, "Imaging Used to Control the Esophagus Stenting ," ISIE 2007, pp. 287 - 291 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The subject matter of this paper concerns advanced techniques of procedures and imaging used in minimally invasive surgery and in nonoperable cases of the digestive tract tumor therapy. Examples of imaging the application of stents allowing for the performance of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures practiced by the authors are presented. Stenting with self-expanding stents can be an effective minimally invasive technique in palliative treatment of advanced, inoperable cancers of esophagus. Numerous patients were successfully stented. Examples of imaging used to control the application of stents are presented.

53    M. Aredes, G. Santos, M.S. Ndiaye, E.L. van Emmerik, S.L. Iasbeck, "A SCADA System to Analyze Harmonic Currents Propagation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 292 - 297 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Equipment located in HVDC stations such as passive filters usually trip in the presence of sufficient high currents flowing for a given period of time. In these cases, a study of the origin and path followed by these currents may be of great interest when identifying and taking alleviating actions. This task is suited to be accomplished by a SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system, specifically designed to measure and analyze currents passing through the bus where the element to be protected is connected. This paper describes the architecture of such a system, including hardware, network and software components, as well as a didactic example and an on-going real implementation in the Brazilian HVDC system.

54    A. Catarino, A. Rocha, J.L. Monteiro, F. Soares, "A Pattern Recognition System Based on Cluster and Discriminant Analysis for Fault Identification during Production ," ISIE 2007, pp. 298 - 303 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on one stage of a research project concerning online surveillance of the knitting process, which intends to detect faults as soon as possible. The objective of the paper is focused on the pattern recognition stage, i.e, distinguishing faults. For that purpose, discriminant analysis is proposed as the approach to be explored. The general problem is discussed, followed by the prototype developed up to this stage. The techniques used for detecting faults are also briefly presented in order to follow immediately into the main issue of the paper: pattern recognition using discriminant analysis. Results obtained from experiments on industrial weft knitting machines are presented and discussed and future improvements and approaches are also presented.

55    M.M. Balas, V.E. Balas, J. Duplaix, "Optimizing the Distance-Gap between Cars by Constant Time to Collision Planning ," ISIE 2007, pp. 304 - 309 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper is focused on the optimal control of the distance gap between following cars, using TTCDPs (Time to Collision Distance Planners). This planner is designed on the base of the constant time to collision criterion, using a functional computer model of the following car. The TTCDP is compared to the conventional AICC (Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control) polynomial imposed distance-gap between cars. TTCDP is able to optimize the distance-gap between cars in an adaptive manner, for any desired intensity of the traffic flow and with respect to the specific technical data of the following car.

56    M. Medugno, "A Smart Sensor for Fluidic Systems Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 310 - 313 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We propose a low cost electronic circuit based on a microcontroller unit (MCU), suitable for electrochemical control in several systems requiring fluid detection and discrimination. We describe the hardware and software design of the smart fluid sensor implementing the necessary programmed logic, signal generation and processing. Testing application to devices and systems over different dimensional scales as in microfluidic devices and in power plants are discussed.

57    I. Petruzela, "Testing of a Reactor Control System in Closed-Loop ," ISIE 2007, pp. 314 - 317 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Paper describes hardware closed-loop testing, when controller is connected with simulator. Such dynamic testing tool can save time and reduce risk before commission of new control systems. It allows to detect failures and to find proper gains setup of controller in factory. Testing of Reactor control system is showed as example. Reactor controller is a part of control system modernization at Dukovany nuclear power plant and it was built on SPINLINE 3 technology. Closed-loop testing has allowed deeply verification of controller before installation on site. Tests results have confirmed that behavior of new digital controller is the same as old analogue one. Closed-loop testing was one of major assumptions of unit commissioning on time.

58    A. Bensenouci, A.M. Abdel Ghany, "Step-Wise Optimum Adaptive Variable-Structure Load-Frequency Control Design Using Simulated Annealing ," ISIE 2007, pp. 318 - 323 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents three optimum adaptive variable-structure controllers and their applications to load frequency control (LFC) of an interconnected power system, namely, optimum dither (DT), optimum proportional-integral (PI), and optimum variable input (VI) control. The aim of this work is to maintain robustness while reducing the chattering effect in variable structure control (VSC) at the same time fulfilling the LFC requirements. Contrary to the widely used trial-and-error technique, the proposed approaches allow the determination of the controller gains systematically and adaptively in a step-wise fashion using simulating annealing, a well known robust optimization technique. The VSC gains computation problem is converted to an optimization problem using a suitable cost function that is based on Lyapunov theory of VSC. Comparison study is carried out between the proposed approaches as applied to the power system subjected to disturbances variation and parameters change with the presence of the system inherent nonlinearity.

59    C.F. Silva, C. Quintans, E. Mandado, M.A. Castro, "Methodology to Implement Logic Controllers with both Reconfigurable and Programmable Hardware ," ISIE 2007, pp. 324 - 328 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The flexibility and benefits of field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) technology to carry out reconfigurable logic controllers (RLC) in order to implement parallel control strategies in a natural way has been recently proved. Moreover, programmable logic controllers (PLC) are widely introduced in the industrial market. Therefore the necessity of obtaining a global and complete solution to combine traditional design process and the hardware implementation with both technologies appears. This paper describes a hardware-software platform which enables the implementation of logic controllers with both PLC and RLC. The software aids the development of logic controllers using design methods based on Petri nets (PN) and translates them into instruction lists or into hardware description language (HDL) codes. The hardware utilized is formed by a commercial Simatic S7 and a specific reconfigurable hardware which consists of a main card, combining a cyclone FPGA and a USB controller, and on a set of digital and analog I/O cards. This hardware, as well as doing typical automation tasks, contributes to achieving additional characteristics such as simulation and monitoring.

60    L. Egiziano, A. Giustiniani, G. Lisi, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, M. Vitelli, "Experimental characterization of the photovoltaic generator for a hybrid solar vehicle ," ISIE 2007, pp. 329 - 334 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the experimental characterization and the model identification of a photovoltaic generator for a hybrid solar vehicle are described and discussed. After a discussion about the decisions made during the design stage, the experimental results obtained by using a prototype of hybrid solar vehicle are presented and compared with those ones obtained by means of a non linear numerical model, both under uniform irradiance level as well as in mismatching conditions. The experimental test bed is described in detail and results of the measurements, in terms of power and energy produced during daylight, are used to sketch the future activities concerning the optimization of the prototype of hybrid solar vehicle.

61    H.R. Radmanesh, H.G. Shakouri, J. Nazarzadeh, "Synchronous Generator Parameter Estimation Using Pseudo-Inverse Method in Hybrid Domain ," ISIE 2007, pp. 335 - 340 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an efficient alternative method to estimate synchronous generators parameters using real time operating data. The main idea considers the use of hybrid legendre block-pulse functions for fitting measured input-output synchronous generator signals. This allows writing a set of linear algebraic equations that can be solved for the unknown parameters using the pseudo-inverse. The results obtained by this method show accuracy and robustness against the noise corruption in process and/or measurements. Therefore, this alternative utilizes two advantages: first, Integration for calculating basis functions coefficients, and averaging the signals, so that the noise corruption is highly reduced. Second, the minimum squared error concept is used in pseudo-inverse method, so that the remained error from previous stages is minimized.

62    M.U. Iftikhar, D. Sadarnac, C. Karimi, "Input Filter Damping Design for Control Loop Stability of DC-DC Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 353 - 358 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An input filter is often employed for EMI noise reduction between a dc-dc converter and its power source. However, its presence, in turn, often results in degradation of dynamic performance and instability of the system even if the filter attenuation is brilliantly designed. The detrimental interaction between an input filter and a switched mode converter is a function of the input filter parameters as well as the supply voltage. This paper addresses the instability problem in dc-dc converters under strong influence of input filter interaction and suggests a systematic design procedure to damp the input filter using R-C parallel damping in order to stabilize the whole filter- converter system without over sizing or under sizing. It is then possible to define a dc-dc converter's stable operating region based on the input filter's damping circuit parameters. A buck converter under voltage-mode control is used as an illustrative example. Computer simulations and experimental results validate theoretical results of this paper.

63    D. Vinnikov, J. Laugis, T. Jalakas, "Development of Auxiliary Power Supplies for the 3.0 kV DC Rolling Stock ," ISIE 2007, pp. 359 - 364 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper discusses design and development problems of auxiliary power supplies (APS) with output powers up to 100 kW to be used in 3.0 kV DC commuter trains. Focus is on the implementation of 6.5 kV IGBTs in IHVM of APS. Using single 6.5 kV IGBT module instead of several series-connected IGBTs or even converters helps to achieve more reliable, efficient, compact and lightweight design than ever. For the APS with output power up to 100 kW, the simple half-bridge topology and two 200 A 6.5 kV IGBTs (one for the TOP and one for the BOT switch) it is sufficient to fulfill all the design requirements. Given paper generally deals with topology selection, analysis of switch losses and cooling of HV IGBT as well as with control and protection of the new power supply. Some generalizations and practical considerations are given.

64    N. Blasco, A. Martinez, F.J. Perez Cebolla, J.E. Vicuna, I. Lacamara, J.A. Oliva, "Evaluation of power converters for MMA arc welding ," ISIE 2007, pp. 365 - 370 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper evaluates several DC-DC power converter topologies suitable for arc welding focusing on MMA type (manual metal arc). The aim is to outline the main characteristics of this process that directly affect the electronic design of the DC-DC converter and to set criteria to select the most adequate. They will be compared taking into account volume, weight, cost and functionality. As a result, it will be selected those that fit better for the application. To conclude, some experimental results on a full-bridge converter confirm the study and the selection procedure followed.

65    A. Allag, M. Hammoudi, S.M. Mimoune, M.Y. Ayad, M. Becherif, A. Miraoui, "Tracking control via adaptive backstepping approach for a three phase PWM AC-DC converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 371 - 376 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new control strategy for a three phase PWM converter, which consists of applying an adaptive backstepping control. The input-output feedback linearisation approach is based on the exact cancellation of the nonlinearity, for this reason, this technique is not efficient, because system parameters can vary. The nonlinear adaptive backstepping control can compensate the nonlinearities in the nominal system and the uncertainties. Simulation results are obtained using Matlab/Simulink. These results show how the adaptive back-stepping law updates the system parameters and provide an efficient control design both for tracking and regulation.

66    E. Ortjohann, A. Mohd, A. Schmelter, N. Hamsic, M. Lingemann, "Simulation and Implementation of an Expandable Hybrid Power System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 377 - 382 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A hybrid power system formed by photovoltaic generators, wind energy turbines, batteries and other renewable energy systems is one of the solutions to the increasing energy demand and the lack of energy in rural, remote and difficult to reach zones. A key issue is the selection of the suitable power system architecture and the proper way to implement it. This paper describes the feasibility of an innovative concept of autonomous electrical supply units with a power output larger than 20 kW. New strategies for the system development process have been tested. A PV/battery hybrid power system was successfully modeled, simulated and built up. Control functions for the system management have been developed, and integrated into a standard industrial soft PLC terminal. The results show that the developed system performance meets the design goals. Further, it uses standard industrial components which offer low prices, easy maintenance, high availability and high reliability.

67    M.-Y. Ayad, M. Becherif, A. Miraoui, "Sliding Mode Control of DC Bus Voltage of a Hybrid Sources using Fuel Cell and Supercapacitors for Traction System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 383 - 388 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of fuel cells (FCs) as embarked electrical energy needs a storage system with high dynamic performances. This device allows a peak load shaving, and compensates the intrinsic limitations of the main source. The use of supercapacitors (SC) as a storage system is quite suitable, because of: appropriate characteristics (huge capacitance, weak serial resistance), of direct storage (energy ready for use), of easy control by power electronic conversion and high dynamic storage elements in compare with slow dynamic FC device. This paper concerns the control of the Dc voltage of a hybrid sources using FC as main source and SCs as transient power source. The proposed structure is presented with a sliding mode control and simulation results.

68    A. Radan, A.H. Shahirinia, M. Falahi, "Evaluation of Carrier-Based PWM Methods for Multi-level Inverters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 389 - 394 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Carrier-based methods have been used widely for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to space vector modulation (SVM). Several multi-carrier modulation methods with miscellaneous properties have been already known. The paper also proposes another three new multi-carrier techniques being more efficient for high-power inverter applications. While evaluating and comparing these new methods with all basic methods, such as PS, PD, POD and APOD through measures like THD, WTHD, WTHDO, switching losses and DC bus utilization, the paper shows their advantages for applications of diode-clamped and cascade multi-level topologies by simulation results. The validity of obtained results is approved by experimental results.

69    H. El Fadil, F. Girt, "Backstepping Based Control of PWM DC-DC Boost Power Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 395 - 400 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on the problem of controlling DC-to-DC switched power converter of Boost type. The system nonlinear feature is coped with by resorting to the backstepping control approach. Both adaptive and nonadaptive versions are designed and shown to yield quite interesting tracking and robustness performances. A comparison study shows that backstepping nonlinear controllers perform as well as passivity- based controllers. For both the choice of design parameters proves to be crucial to ensure robustness with respect to load resistance variations. From this viewpoint, adaptive backstepping controllers are more interesting as they prove to be less sensitive to design parameters.

70    V.V.N. Obreja, "On the Maximum Permissible Working Voltage of Commercial Power Silicon Diodes and Thyristors ," ISIE 2007, pp. 401 - 406 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Most of commercial high voltage/current diodes and thyristors cannot operate without risk of failure, even for short time, above of a specified value of the blocking voltage, towards the breakdown region. Only for controlled-avalanche diodes, the maximum value of the working reverse voltage specified for steady-state operation can be overcome in specified conditions, so that, the breakdown region to be reached. Typical electrical characteristics are shown and analyzed for silicon diodes and thyristors. For ordinary rectifier diodes and thyristors, deviation of the leakage blocking current from linear voltage dependence takes place around the specified value of the working voltage, due to uncontrolled phenomena at the PN junction edge. For controlled-avalanche diodes, such deviation is not visible at the maximum specified working voltage value and linear variation is exhibited, practically, up to the breakdown region. Pulsed current-voltage characteristics exhibiting the breakdown region are shown for controlled-avalanche devices. Surge power limited to 100 kW for 10 mus in the breakdown region is specified for commercial high voltage controlled-avalanche diodes although junction temperature increase induced by such energy is not significant. This limitation of low power in the breakdown region is also related to the PN junction edge leakage current.

71    J. Tlusty, V. Valouch, "Self-Tuning Controller of Active Power Filter in an Industrial Power System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 407 - 412 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The procedure for calculating controller parameters of an active power filter (APF), which is implemented into a multibus industrial power system for harmonic voltage mitigation, is presented. The node voltage detection control strategy is applied and the controller basic gain is found, taking into account required values of THDs of voltages at the bus-bars of the system and RMS values of the APF current. The structure of a self-tuning controller of the APF is proposed as well. The controller assures that the real APF current is hold in a proper range regardless the changes in operation modes of harmonic current sources in the power system.

72    C. Hinow, D. Dimitrov, D. Vasilev, G. Hinow, P. Hinow, "Power of the Series Inverter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 413 - 418 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The common solution of the differential equations is represented as a vector field, which is determined by the Q-factor. The final vector, at the end of the zero starting half-period, is the only parameter that determines the series inverter. The trajectory of the stationary mode is selected from the vector field and is an element of the vector model of the series inverter. The model combines the motion of the vector arrow along the trajectory with the commutation jumping of the vector center. The basic modifications of the model are presented, which determine the trajectory in stationary mode, the current and the voltage, with an emphasis on some characteristic phenomena taking place while generating different frequencies. The starting vector of the free oscillations determines the energy potential of the latter. The differential of the energy potential determines the generated energy. The power of the series inverter is determined solely by the capacitor voltage at the moment of commutation.

73    L.A. Barragan, I. Urriza, D. Navarro, J.I. Artigas, J. Acero, J.M. Burdio, "Comparing simulation alternatives of FPGA-based controllers for switching converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 419 - 424 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digital controllers implemented in an FPGA for switching power converters are becoming an important alternative to the traditional analog solutions. Assuming that the digital controller is described using a hardware description language, this work gives an overview of models, and mixed-signal simulation alternatives that support the simulation as a whole of the digital controller with the power electronic circuit, in order to validate the closed-loop behavior.

74    M. Pascual, G. Garcera, E. Figueres, J.M. Benavent, F. Gonzalez-Espin, "Robust Model-Following Control of Parallel UPS Single-Phase Inverters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 425 - 430 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a robust control technique applied to modular UPS inverters operating in parallel. When compared to conventional PI control, the proposed technique improves the response of the output voltage to load steps and to high distorted output currents. Furthermore, an excellent distribution of currents between modules is achieved, resulting in a fine power equalization between the inverters on stream. The crossover frequency of the different loop gains involved is moderate, so that robustness to variations of the operation point and to tolerances of the output LC filter components values is achieved. A comparative study with a two-loop conventional P1 control scheme is presented. Experimental results on a 1 kVA modular UPS system confirm the viability of the proposed scheme.

75    G. Grandi, G. Serra, A. Tani, "Space Vector Modulation of a Nine-Phase Voltage Source Inverter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 431 - 436 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A generalized multi-phase space vector theory is considered for developing the space vector modulation of a nine-phase voltage source inverter (VSI). The space vector modulation (SVM) is based on the control of the voltage vector in the first d-q plane, imposing to be zero the voltage vectors in second, third, and fourth d-q planes, as in the relevant case of balanced sinusoidal load voltages. The proposed switching pattern includes one-leg commutation at a time, with the possibility to share the zero voltage between the two null vectors. The modulation limits are analytically determined. In particular, it is shown that the maximum modulation index coincides with the theoretical value obtained in the case of sinusoidal balanced waveforms of a nine-phase VSI, proving that the proposed SVM strategy allows full dc bus voltage utilization. The analysis is confirmed by a complete set of numerical simulations.

76    F.M. Rodrigo, L.C.H. de Lucas, S. de Pablo Gomez, J.M.G. de la Fuente, "Analysis of the Efficiency Improvement in Small Wind Turbines when Speed Is Controlled ," ISIE 2007, pp. 437 - 442 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyzes the efficiency of three small commercial wind turbines, from different manufacturers and with different technology. Their actual energy production is compared with the case where they use turbine speed control to follow the wind speed variations. The simulation uses a Weibull probability distribution for the wind speed. A fixed pitch turbine with permanent magnets generator is simulated to demonstrate the wind turbine efficiency reduction when the speed is not controlled.

77    F.M. Rodrigo, L.C.H. de Lucas, J.M.R. Gonzalez, J.A.D. Vazquez, "Wind Turbine with Induction Generator Controlled to Extract the Maximum Power ," ISIE 2007, pp. 443 - 448 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a novel control system for fixed pitch wind turbine using an induction machine. It can obtain the maximum wind power for each wind speed without a wind speed sensor. The system measures the power generated by the turbine and changes the generator speed to increase the generated power. The induction generator is voltage source controlled. The good system performance is tested using simulation models and variable speed wind profiles.

78    M. Pakdel, K.R. Khoshoei, A.Z. Nezhad, "Three Topologies and a Control Strategy for Harmonic Suppression in Single-Phase Systems Using a Shunt Active Power Filter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 449 - 454 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a control scheme with three topologies for harmonic suppression and power factor correction in a single-phase system with a diode rectifier load. It is assumed that inductive or capacitive loads are connected to the dc side of the diode rectifier. Simulation results show that the designed active power filter is very effective in harmonic elimination and power factor correction of rectifiers with inductive or capacitive loads. Three topologies and operation principle of the proposed control method are discussed in details. It is shown that the one leg active power filter has the same performance of two legs active power filter but its cost is very low. Thus from economic aspect, the one leg active power filter is preferred. Finally, the three topologies and the proposed control method are simulated with psim software.

79    Ching-Ming Lai, Rong-Chyang Lee, Te-Wei Wang, Kuo-Kai Shyu, "Design and Implementation of a Single-Stage LLC Resonant Converter with High Power Factor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 455 - 460 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A zero voltage switching (ZVS) based on LLC resonant topology is proposed to implement a single-stage ac/dc converter which performs both input-current harmonics reduction and power factor correction (PFC). By integrating a boost-PFC cell and an LLC resonant dc/dc cell into a single power conversion stage, the power losses in the secondary rectifier diodes and the primary switches can be significantly reduced. The proposed architecture exhibits extreme simplicity and lower cost while providing nearly unity power factor and well-regulated output; hence, the proposed converter is very suitable for low power level applications. The operating principles and design procedures for the proposed converter are analyzed and discussed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results from a 125W laboratory prototype are provided to verify the feasibility.

80    J. Bracker, M. Dolle, "Simulation of Inductive Loads ," ISIE 2007, pp. 461 - 466 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the development of a highspeed bidirectional current source module which allows the simulation of inductive loads. Due to its full four-quadrant operation capability, the module is able to simulate realistic current waveforms of AC motors. The applications for hardware- in-the-loop testing of e-motor controllers are discussed, as well as the technical realization.

81    M. Auer, M. Cech, F.A. Himmelstoss, "Modeling a Synchronous Generator with Real-Time Hardware ," ISIE 2007, pp. 467 - 472 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A model of a synchronous generator including saturation and the oscillation of rotor caused by changes in the applied mechanical power is realized on a real-time hardware. Therefore it is possible to build a closed-loop system consisting of an excitation device as device under test and a simulated synchronous generator as test tool, which offers the opportunity for setting-up, testing and designing excitation devices. The model reads the excitation voltage from the excitation device and calculates in real-time the stator voltages and currents as output values depending on the parameters "applied mechanical power" and "voltage of the supply network".

82    F. Mekri, M. Machmoum, B. Mazari, N.A. Ahmed, "Determination of Voltage References for Series Active Power Filter Based on a Robust PLL System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 473 - 478 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Power quality (PQ) is one of the most important issues of modern electrical distribution. The series active filter can play a very significant role in the correction of PQ problems such as voltage unbalance, sag, interruption and voltage harmonics. This paper deals with the determination of voltage references for series active power filter based on a robust three-phase digital locked loop (PLL) system. Whatever the nature of supply voltages perturbation, the PLL block allows to extract fundamental positive sequence voltages system on the common coupling point and to estimate the mains frequency. Various regulators PI, RST and fuzzy logic are studied and compared in order to assure good reliability, a fast tracking performances and a good attenuation of undesirable frequencies. The robustness of the regulators allows the PLL operating under non ideal conditions and provides good results under unbalanced and/or distorted supply voltages conditions. Simulation results are presented to confirm the validity of the proposed design.

83    Lijun Hang, Zhengyu Lu, Zhaoming Qian, "Research of Digital Control Strategy for Multi-Resonant LLC Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 479 - 484 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digital control of distributed power system is the developing trend of power electronic system integration. The prominent merits of LLC resonant topology can be specified as follows, full range of ZVS for primary switches and ZCS for secondary diodes are achieved, integration of resonant inductor and transformer is easy, wide range operation is realized. This paper deals with investigation about application of digital technology in LLC topology. Combined with the operation analysis of LLC topology, strategy of increment mode digital PID variable frequency control, which is based on DSP, is adopted, and that the flexibility of digital control facilitates modulation process. Main topology with voltage-doubler output and control algorithm are given. Design consideration and flow chart of software are specified. A prototype is built to verify the theoretical analysis. Experimental waveforms of the prototype are illustrated. Feasibility of analysis is proved and digital control strategy is verified. Operating range of switching frequency is 100 K to 160 K when input is from 104 V to 250 V(amplitude).

84    Lijun Hang, Zhengyu Lu, Zhaoming Qian, "High Speed and Intelligent Communication Topology Dedicated to Complex Power Electronic System Integration ," ISIE 2007, pp. 485 - 490 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The universal control structure used for digital power system does not fully utilize merit of digital communication. For power electronic application with requirements of high system complexity and high power, distributed communication structure is the developing trend of system integration. A novel intelligent communication topology with high speed for PEBB is presented. The prominent characteristic of the very structure is that data source for every communicating unit can be determined by its current state. Propagation delay is reduced and transmitting speed is improved. The topology fits to be adopted in complex power system, contributing to distributed control and integrated management for the power system. Compared with the original communication topology, it is more suitable for real time response system. The synchronous problem introduced by original communication topology can be eliminated. The very structure also reduces cost for fiber net Experimental waveforms are presented and propagation delay between two adjacent nodes is obtained. According to capacity calculation, the very control system adapts to power electronic converter with high switching frequency as well.

85    J. Acero, J.M. Burdio, L.A. Barragan, R. Alonso, "A model of the equivalent impedance of the coupled winding-load system for a domestic induction heating application ," ISIE 2007, pp. 491 - 496 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an analytical model of the equivalent impedance of a planar circular induction system is derived. The considered induction system is composed of an n-turn planar winding loaded by a metallic material, and its equivalent impedance consists of the series connection of an equivalent resistor and inductor. The influence of the number of turns, the load electromagnetic properties, the frequency of the excitation currents and the geometrical dimensions is studied. Furthermore, the frequency-dependent resistance of windings, including both skin and proximity effects, is also included in the model. Validation of the proposed model is carried out through experimental measurements.

86    N.B.H. Youssef, K. Al-Haddad, "Experimental Implementation of a New Quasi-Linear Control Technique on a 1.5 kW Three-Phase Boost-Type Vienna Rectifier ," ISIE 2007, pp. 497 - 502 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the real-time implementation of a multiloops quasi-linear control technique is proposed for a three-phase three-level boost-type AC/DC Vienna converter. Acquiring high stability and perfect rejection of disturbances, parametric uncertainties and initial conditions, the recently introduced quasi- linear theory is very suitable for power circuits, operating under diverse operating disturbances and parametric changes. The proposed controllers are first designed based on the general design methodology reported in literature. Their discrete versions are, then, derived for the sake of numerical implementation using a DSP. The predicted dynamics in closed loop are determined based on a previously established and experimentally validated dq small signal model. The proposed control scheme is finally implemented on a 1.5 kW laboratory prototype, supported by a DS1104 controller board of dSPACE. The obtained results attest the achievement of standards requirements in terms of AC currents total harmonic distortion (THD) and power factor (PF),are well as the perfect regulation and balancing of split DC bus voltages for a wide clan of operating conditions, including severe utility and load disturbances.

87    Kondekar Pravin N, "Analytical Design and Simulation Studies of Super-junction Power MOSFET ," ISIE 2007, pp. 503 - 508 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Using the super-junction theory we develop an analytical design methodology for high voltage Super-junction power MOSFET, which offers very low on resistance as compared with VDMOS power device due to higher doping density in the drift region. This method is used to analytically design various rating super-junction power MOSFET and using simulation tools, the validity of this method is established and then used to study the physical mechanisms underlying the device operation.

88    P. Lezana, J. Rodriguez, "Mixed Multicell Cascaded Multilevel Inverter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 509 - 514 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Multilevel converters are a very interesting alternative for medium and high power drives. Among these topologies the Multicell group present some advantages due to its modularity and scalability. This paper propose a new topology for Multilevel Multicell Inverters. This inverter is based on a new cell obtained from the the mixture of the two most popular multicell topologies, flying capacitor and cascaded multicell inverter. The new cell provide a high number of output levels, high modularity, low number of components and low losses. The results presented in this paper confirm that this new medium voltage inverter topology is able to reach high quality output voltages, allowing further advances in modulation techniques and other issues.

89    H. Patangia, D. Gregory, "A Novel Multilevel Strategy in SPWM Design ," ISIE 2007, pp. 515 - 520 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel multilevel strategy based on a signal slicing technique, and that employs phase-shifted carrier is presented for the design of SPWM inverters. The method relies on slicing the reference signal into various segments, carrier-modulates each segment independently, and multiplexes the carrier modulated slices in amplitudes. The resulting multilevel SPWM switching patterns provide a higher dynamic range than what has been reported in the literature. MatLab simulations have been carried out to compare the outcomes of the new method against other existing techniques. The simulations show that this technique provides a higher signal to noise ratio than what has been presented in the literature. The SPWM signal can be realized through programming a microcontroller, and amplitude-division multiplexing can be employed to transform the low-voltage signal to a higher voltage level.

90    L.C. Herrero, S. de Pablo, F. Martin, J.M. Ruiz, J.M. Gonzalez, A.B. Rey, "Comparative Analysis of the Techniques of Current Commutation in Matrix Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 521 - 526 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The devices of power used in matrix converters (M.C.) need some operation sequences to commute the current in a safe way. These operation sequences are what we denominate strategies of current commutation, being these more complex than in other converters. In this article a comparative analysis of the different strategies of current commutation will be carried out by means of simulation and they will be implemented in a experimental matrix converter to analyze its behaviour. As comparison criterion of the different strategies that have been used, the total harmonic distortion (THD), the efficiency of the converter, the maximum commutation frequency and the necessary hardware requirements for the implementation of the strategies.

91    H.Y. Kanaan, A. Hayek, K. Al-Haddad, "Small-Signal Averaged Model and Carrier-Based Linear Control of a Sheppard-Taylor PFC ," ISIE 2007, pp. 527 - 532 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the small-signal averaged model of a Sheppard-Taylor DC-DC converter, used in single-phase Power Factor Correction (PFC) applications, is derived. Compared to conventional buck, boost or buck-boost PFCs, this topology allows a better current tracking at the AC side, with a relatively reduced voltage at the DC side. Based on this model, a carrier- based Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) linear control system is developed in order to ensure a unity power factor at the rectifier AC-side and a regulated voltage at the rectifier DC-side. Both current and voltage regulators are Pi-type. The performance of the proposed control scheme is tested through simulations. The system performance is evaluated in terms of source current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), input power factor and DC-voltage regulation.

92    N. Vazquez, A. Velazquez, C. Hernandez, "AC Voltage Regulator Based on the AC-AC Buck-Boost Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 533 - 537 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The study and implementation of an ac voltage regulator is presented in this paper. Traditionally an ac voltage regulator is made with a transformer tap changer or with an ac-ac converter based on buck topologies, recently the developments in ac-ac converter makes feasible the implementation of voltage regulator with other topologies. In this paper is analyzed an ac voltage regulator based on the ac-ac buck-boost converter, the commutation trouble is solved with two inductors. The controller used permits to obtain a good dynamic response for large input voltage variations. The operation and brief analysis is included. Simulations and experimental results are presented.

93    N. Vazquez, L. Estrada, C. Hernandez, E. Rodriguez, "The Tapped-Inductor Boost Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 538 - 543 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In many emerging applications it is required a high boosting gain; in the literature has been proposed many topologies to make this possible, since the traditional dc-dc boost converter can not make the very high boosting function by itself. In this paper a different approach to obtain the high boosting gain is proposed: the tapped-inductor boost converter. This converter has few components and high efficiency, and also operates in a simple way. Analysis and experimental results are presented.

94    S. Busquets-Monge, S. Alepuz, J. Bordonau, J. Peracaula, "Voltage Balancing Control of Diode-Clamped Multilevel Converters with Passive Front-Ends ," ISIE 2007, pp. 544 - 549 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the previous literature, it has been reported that it is not possible to guarantee the balance of the dc-link capacitor voltages of three-phase diode-clamped multilevel dc-ac converters with passive front-ends for high modulation indices, especially for more than three levels. This paper proposes a novel closed-loop control approach capable of guaranteeing such balance for all operating conditions of the converters without the need for additional hardware. Three different phase duty-ratio perturbation schemes are proposed. They are compared through simulation for the case of a four-level three-phase diode-clamped dc-ac converter operated with a virtual-vector-based modulation. The most simple and effective perturbation scheme, only requiring the sensing of all dc-link capacitor voltages, is tested experimentally in the same four-level converter. The results demonstrate the feasibility of guaranteeing the dc-link capacitor voltage balance for all converter operating conditions.

95    In-Dong Kim, Seong-Hwan Paeng, Jin-Woo Ahn, Eui-Cheol Nho, Jong-Sun Ko, "New Bidirectional ZVS PWM Sepic/Zeta DC-DC Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 555 - 560 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Bidirectional DC-DC converters allow transfer of power between two dc sources, in either direction. Due to their ability to reverse the direction of flow of power, they are being increasingly used in many applications such as battery charger/dischargers, dc uninterruptible power supplies, electrical vehicle motor drives, aerospace power systems, telecom power supplies, etc. This paper proposes a new bidirectional Sepic/Zeta converter. It has low switching loss and low conduction loss due to auxiliary communicated circuit and synchronous rectifier operation, respectively. Because of positive and buck/boost-like DC voltage transfer function (M=D/1-D), the proposed converter is desirable for use in distributed power system. The proposed converter also has both transformer-less version and transformer one.

96    M. Pearsica, L. Miron, C. Strimbu, C.-G. Constantinescu, "Discharge Current Modulation to Obtain the Pulse Operation of a Power CO2 Laser, with Continuous Flow of the Gas ," ISIE 2007, pp. 561 - 565 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the first part of the article there're presented pulse excitation methods of CO2 lasers, which permit the growth of the number of their applications in material processing. In the second part of the article it is presented a pulse excitation system of CO2 lasers, with continuous flow of the gas, with electrical discharge in glass pipes, which allows the pulse operation of the laser and automatic control of its parameters during the material processing. By Spice simulation was tested in time and frequency domains the Half-Bridge converter, and it was analyzed its stability.

97    E. de Jodar, J. Villarejo, J. Suardiaz, F. Soto, "Effect of the Output Impedance of Active Clamp Topology in Multiphase Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 566 - 571 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Passive current sharing in multiphase converters, where resistive losses are not dominant, is a quite complex goal. In this paper an averaged model of an active clamp converter was obtained. It has been checked that these topologies present high output impedance. This property is used like a lossless passive equalization. Simulated results of the average model accuracy and current sharing are presented.

98    N.A. Rahim, J. Selvaraj, Krismadinata, "Hysteresis Current Control and Sensorless MPPT for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 572 - 577 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a control method for single-phase transformerless grid-connected inverter system for photovoltaic (PV) application. The system consists of a DC-DC Boost Converter and a full-bridge inverter. The DC-DC Boost Converter implements a Sensorless Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) algorithm with regulated DC bus voltage while the full-bridge inverter implements a Hysteresis Current Control as the control method. These control method provides robust current regulation, achieve unity power factor, low THD and optimize the PV energy extraction suitable for grid connected PV systems. Simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

99    M.G. Hosseini Aghdam, S.H. Fathi, G.B. Gharehpetian, "Elimination of Harmonics in a Multi-Level Inverter with Unequal DC Sources Using the Homotopy Algorithm ," ISIE 2007, pp. 578 - 583 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on elimination of harmonics in a multi-level voltage-source inverter with unequal DC sources. The main objective of harmonic elimination is to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) in the output voltage waveform. The basic concept of this reduction is to eliminate specific harmonics, which are generally the lowest orders, with an appropriate choice of switching angles. Homotopy algorithm is used to solve the transcendental equations for finding the switching angles. This algorithm can be used for any number of voltage levels without complex analytical calculations. Simulation results verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

100    Sang-Yun Lee, Hyung-Suk Kim, Jae-Wook Kwon, Choul-Ho Lee, Myoung-Soo Choi, Bang-Won Oh, "New Design of Integrated Power and Integrated Driver with LED Module (IP-IDLM) Driving System for LED Backlight in LCD ," ISIE 2007, pp. 584 - 587 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: New design of integrated power and integrated driver with LED module (IP-IDLM) driving system with microcontroller for RGB-LED backlight in LCD has been proposed. The DC-DC converters in the conventional driver have been integrated into the main set power and the constant current control circuits in the conventional driver have been merged into the LED modules composed of LED arrays on the substrate so that we have accomplished the driver board eliminations from the LED backlight. In the system aspect, the system power efficiency could be increased and it's capable of achieving a perfect linearity characteristic of driver so that a stable constant current source is entirely maintained.

101    A. Carrubba, M.C. Di Piazza, G. Tine, G. Vitale, "Design and Experimental Implementation Issues for Common Mode Compensation Devices in PWM Induction Motor Drives ," ISIE 2007, pp. 588 - 593 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a theoretical and experimental study focused on practical implementation issues for common mode disturbance compensation techniques, in PWM drives, is presented. In particular the detailed example of design and experimental set-up of a very effective compensation device, based on the idea of the active common-noise canceler, for a 380V-50 Hz PWM induction motor drive is discussed. The performance of the realized compensation device is then verified through experimental measurements of the main quantities involved in the common mode disturbance propagation phenomena also by a comparison with the effectiveness obtained by a conventional common mode choke, set-up on purpose. The presented results may be used as information and guidelines for improving and speeding up the development of new active compensation devices.

102    M. Hamouda, F. Fnaiech, Kamal Al-Haddad, "A DSP based real-time simulation of Dual-Bridge Matrix Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 594 - 599 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates the state-space modeling and real-time simulation of dual-bridge matrix converters (DBMC) based on a DS1104 digital signal processor. This single board controller of dSPACE uses the matlab-simulink software as a front-end for the implementation of graphic models in block- diagram format. First, the state-space model of the converter and the SVM control system are designed with simulink in the form of user-friendly block-diagram. Next, C-codes are generated from the block diagrams with the real-time workshop. After that the executable code is automatically downloaded to the target DSP board. Finally, real-time simulation results are presented and compared to those obtained using off-line computer simulations. Good agreement is observed between both simulation results which shows the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed realtime simulator.

103    J.A. Barrado, R. Grino, H. Valderrama, "Standalone Self-Excited Induction Generator with a Three-Phase Four-Wire Active Filter and Energy Storage System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 600 - 605 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a system, based on a self- excited induction generator with a shunt electronic converter, to feed isolated three-phase and single-phase linear or nonlinear loads. The electronic converter is composed by a three-phase four-wire voltage source inverter (VSI) and, connected to its dc side, two dc/dc converters. The VSI compensates the current harmonics, the reactive power and the load unbalances. The first of the dc/dc converters is a battery charger/discharger and the other converter dissipates the active power excess, through a chopper, so these dc/dc converters keep the active power balance of the complete system. The designed control architecture assures that, in steady state, the rms values of the voltages and the frequency remain at the their reference values. The simulated results show a good performance of the system under different loading conditions.

104    G.M. Buiatti, A.M.R. Amaral, A.J.M. Cardoso, "An Online Technique for Estimating the Parameters of Passive Components in Non-Isolated DC/DC Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 606 - 610 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel online technique used for estimating the parameters of passive components in non-isolated DC/DC converters is presented. The technique is implemented for the boost and buck-boost converters, operating both in continuous current mode (CCM) and discontinuous current mode (DCM). The technique is based on the sampling of the MOSFET gate signal, inductor current and load voltage, which is followed by the processing of the acquired data through different ways such as the least mean squares algorithm. The knowledge of these passive components parameters may be used in the fault diagnosis of such converters. Results obtained from simulations are presented, followed by experimental results in which the inductance, capacitance, load resistor and ESR of the capacitor are estimated, in order to validate the proposed technique.

105    A. Koochaki, S.H. Fathi, M. Divandari, "Single Phase Application of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation for Shunt Active Power Filters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 611 - 616 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The most important part of the active power filters is generating of gate signal for inverters. This paper presents Single Phase Application of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation for shunt active power filters. In conventional SVPWM, all of the phase's currents are controlled together, but in this method each of phase currents is controlled independently from the measured currents of other phases. In another word, this method prevents from influence of other phase's errors in the control of considered phase. In this method, the implementation of control logic will be simpler than the conventional SVPWM. For showing the performance of proposed method a typical system has been simulated by MATLAB/SIMULINK. At last, the results of proposed method are compared with the conventional SVPWM. The results show that proposed method have better performance in generating of the compensation current in active power filter.

106    J.I. Leon, R. Portillo, L.G. Franquelo, S. Vazquez, J.M. Carrasco, E. Dominguez, "New Space Vector Modulation Technique for Single-Phase Multilevel Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 617 - 622 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Single-phase multilevel converters are suitable for medium power applications as photovoltaic systems and switched reluctance machines. An overview of possible modulation methods including carrier-based pulse width modulation and space vector modulation techniques for multilevel single-phase converters is presented. A new space vector modulation for this type of converters is proposed. This space vector modulation method is very simple presenting low computational cost. Different solutions for the space vector modulation are presented achieving similar output results but imposing restrictions on the power converter topology. Optimization algorithms balancing the DC-link voltage or minimizing the commutation losses are presented. Experimental results using a 150 kVA five-level diode- clamped converter are shown to validate the proposed modulation and optimization methods.

107    J. Sabate, L. Garces, P. Szczesny, Pengcheng Zhu, Qian Liu, "Input voltage pumping control for a multi-level switching amplifier ," ISIE 2007, pp. 623 - 628 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper describes energy pumping among dc busses in a multilevel inverter with isolated power supplies driving a passive load, and an algorithm to eliminate it. In the current switching amplifier application, the output current waveforms are required to be of almost arbitrary shape. Modulation techniques are known to be well suited for conventional inverter operation, however when driving some output current waveforms, they can produce dc bus over voltages due to an undesired energy transfer between busses. The specific cases that cause the pumping are described and an algorithm is proposed that eliminates the effect without disturbing the correct operation of the inverter. The algorithms have been tested in a prototype to verify the expected performance.

108    T. Kawashima, A. Mishima, "Application of Magnetic Field-Circuit Coupling Efficiency Analysis for SiP Power Module ," ISIE 2007, pp. 629 - 632 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present an analysis method which couples magnetic field analysis and circuit analysis for simulating power modules. Parasitic impedance and MOSFET devices were modeled for SPICE simulation. We applied the simulation to a system in package (SiP) power module and showed that efficiency and voltage waveform could be calculated with high accuracy.

109    P. Garces, J. Calvente, R. Leyva, R. Giral, L. Martinez-Salamero, "Simulation-Oriented Continuous Model of Hysteretic Controlled DC-to-DC Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 633 - 637 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new circuital non-linear continuous model for hysteretic comparators is proposed. Using this model, SPICE simulations of hysteretic DC-to-DC switching converters can provide both time and frequency analysis. Faster transient simulations are another benefit of the non-linear continuous circuital model. The new continuous model has been validated by means of PSpice simulations of hysteretic controlled buck and boost converters. Time-transient results of an exact switched approach have been compared with the plots obtained using the new proposed model. Frequency simulations are compared with Bode plots obtained by means of a classical small-signal linear analysis.

110    Yonghua Cheng, J. Van Mierlo, P. Lataire, "Designing Control Principle and Modulation Method for Bi-directional and Dual-coupled Series Resonant Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 638 - 643 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Using two off-the-shelf IGBT converters, bi-directional series resonant converters are configured to achieve high efficiency for the application of super capacitor based energy storages as peak power unit. The proposed control principle and modulation method decouple the sampling and switching frequencies. So the size of resonant circuit is maximally reduced without increasing processing speed of the control system.

111    J. Molnar, J. Michalik, Z. Peroutka, "Single Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier: design, simulation and practical problems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 644 - 649 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives. This paper presents converter design and simulations. The proposed converter control is based on the mathematical model and due to possible interaction with railway signalling and required low switching frequency employs synchronous PWM. The simulation results are verified by experimental tests performed on designed laboratory prototype of power of 7 kVA.

112    J. Michalik, J. Molnar, Z. Peroutka, "New Control Algorithm for Traction Single-Phase Current-Source Active Rectifier ," ISIE 2007, pp. 650 - 655 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This research has been motivated by industrial demand for single phase current-source active rectifier (CSAR) dedicated for reconstruction of older types of dc machine locomotives operating on both ac catenary voltages of 25kV/50Hz and 15kV/16 2/3Hz. This contribution presents new control strategy of single-phase traction CSAR using controller of the phase shift angle between the trolley wire voltage and current. Regarding possible interaction with railway control signalling and due to the low switching frequency, the designed converter employs synchronous PWM. This paper describes in detail proposed converter control and presents simulation results of the laboratory prototype. The simulation results and theoretical conclusions are verified by experiments performed on designed low power laboratory prototype of traction CSAR with rated power of 7kVA.

113    Ni Chen, Jianping Xu, Mingzhi He, Guohua Zhou, "Analysis of Improved Digital Peak Voltage Control Buck Converter with Different DPWM Modulations ," ISIE 2007, pp. 656 - 660 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Improved digital peak voltage (IDPV) control algorithm of switching dc-dc converters with trailing-edge, leading-edge, leading-triangle and trailing-triangle pulse-width modulations are studied in the paper. The control laws of switching dc-dc converters with these different modulation methods are derived and compared with buck converter as an example. Small-signal analysis and comparison among different modulation methods has been performed to have a better understanding of IDPV control algorithm.

114    O. Krykunov, "Analysis of the Extended Forward Converter for Fuel Cell Applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 661 - 666 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The source voltage of high-power fuel cells shows strong load dependence at comparatively low voltage levels. In order to provide the voltage of 750 V on the DC-link for feeding electrical energy into the mains via a three-phase inverter a step- up converter with a large step ratio is required. The efficiency of this converter must be as high as possible and the cost must be as low as possible. To meet these requirements a new circuit of the DC/DC-converter is proposed. In this paper this circuit of the DC/DC-converter was compared with another circuits. This paper presents also a mathematical analysis of this DC/DC-converter and the simulation results to fit into a 5 kW electrical fuel cell system.

115    J.A. Sanchez, S. Vazquez, J.M. Carrasco, E. Galvan, E. Dominguez, M. Reyes, G. Escobar, "Digital Implementation Issues for a Three-Phase Power Converter Development Using a Repetitive Control Scheme ," ISIE 2007, pp. 667 - 672 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the digital implementation of the repetitive control scheme for the three-phase two-level power converter is investigated. The proposed controller has an outer control loop to regulate the output capacitor voltage and an inner control loop for the current tracking process, which is composed of a damping term plus a repetitive control scheme, with the aim to achieve unity power factor and low THD content at the input currents. The repetitive control scheme consists on a negative feedback array of a single delay line plus a feedforward path. The implementation in a digital signal processor of the repetitive term has some issues that are pointed out in this paper. An adaptation rule to the delay parameter of the repetitive controller is proposed in order to improve the system behavior. The experimental results have been carried out in a 30 kVA three- phase power converter prototype to illustrate the good performance of the digital implementation of the controller, including a comparative study of the system behavior under the repetitive controller with the theoretical and the modified delay parameter.

116    J.P. Rodrigues, I. Barbi, A.J. Perin, "Buck Converter with ZVS Three Level Boost Clamping ," ISIE 2007, pp. 673 - 678 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents the study of a three level DC-DC resonant buck converter with boost active clamping, soft switching (ZVS - Zero Voltage Switching) and constant frequency PWM (pulse width modulation). The main advantages of this topology are high efficiency and lower voltage stress on the switches when compared to buck converters with two level boost clamping.

117    F. Defay, A.M. Llor, M. Fadel, "An Active Power Filter Using a Sensorless Muticell Inverter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 679 - 684 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Unlike traditional inverters, multicell inverters have the following advantages: lower switching frequency, high number of output levels and less voltage constraints on the IGBT's. Significant performances are provided with this structure which is constituted with flying capacitors. This paper deals with a predictive and direct control applied to the multicell inverter. To perform the capabilities of multicell active filter, a voltage control method of flying capacitor, based on the use of a switching table, is added. Flying capacitor voltages are kept on a fixed interval and precise voltage sensors are not necessary. The association of predictive control and voltage balancing increases considerably the bandwidth of active filter.

118    A.G.H. Accioly, F. Bradaschia, M.C. Cavalcanti, F.A.S. Neves, V.N. Lima, "A New General Approach for Modulation Strategies in Matrix Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 685 - 690 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the generalized scalar pulse-width modulation technique used in inverters (indirect frequency conversion, AC-DC-AC) is adapted to the matrix converters. It is presented two different strategies to control the input currents: vector control and scalar control. The input current control defines which input voltages are employed to synthesize the output voltages of the matrix converter. Simulations results are used to compare the proposed strategy with the control strategy proposed by Huber and Borojevic.

119    E. Figueres, G. Garcera, J. Sandia, F.J. Gonzalez-Espin, J. Calvo, M. Vales, "Dynamic Analysis of Three-phase Photovoltaic Inverters with a High Order Grid Filter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 691 - 696 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the control loops stability of three-phase photovoltaic inverters for distributed power generation. The main issues regarding the design of the control stage are outlined, including a small signal model of the photovoltaic cells for control purposes and the influence of high order grid filters on the system stability. Experimental results carried out on a 100 kW inverter are presented to validate the analytical results. The experimental inverter generates a balanced set of currents with a distortion lower than 3%.

120    R.A. Salas, J. Pleite, C. Gonzalez, V. Valdivia, "Saturation Core Modeling Procedure for Magnetic Components using Finite Element Analysis ," ISIE 2007, pp. 697 - 700 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this article is the experimental verification of a procedure for modeling magnetic components using finite element analysis (FEA). In this procedure the core saturation effect is taken into account and is designed for use in a commercial circuit simulator. The verification was carried out for a core ferrite, which is used in power electronics. It was specifically applied to a ring-shape ferrite core. Two frequencies were used: 50 Hz (quasi-static) and 20 kHz (typical working frequency). The comparison between experimental and simulated results validates the procedure.

121    F. Bradaschia, A.G.H. Accioly, M.C. Cavalcanti, F.A.S. Neves, V.N. Lima, "Implementation of Modulation Strategies for Matrix Converters using a New General Approach ," ISIE 2007, pp. 701 - 706 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes how the generalized scalar pulse-width modulation technique used in inverters is adapted to the matrix converters. The technique uses the concept of the fictitious DC link and, in particular, three different modulation techniques for matrix converters are exposed by a different point of view. Simulation results show that the most known control strategies for matrix converters can be implemented through this concept Using this approach, the choice of the best technique based on the weighted total harmonic distortion can be made.

122    O.F. Bay, I. Atacak, "Realization of a Single Phase DSP Based Neuro-Fuzzy Controlled Uninterruptible Power Supply ," ISIE 2007, pp. 707 - 712 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this study, a neuro-fuzzy (NF) control algorithm is proposed for the application in control of a single phase, power factor corrected (PFC), uninterruptible power supply (UPS). To make a comparison, the designed UPS is also controlled using traditional proportional and integral (PI) controller. The average current control technique is used in the PFC stage of the UPS and the current mode control technique is used in the inverter stage of the UPS. Performances of these two controllers are compared through the computer simulation and practical studies. The results of the simulation and experimental studies based on TMS320F2812 digital signal processor show that the NF controlled UPS has better performance than the PI controlled UPS in input power factor correction and total harmonic distortion (THD) of output voltage under nonlinear loading conditions.

123    F. Gonzalez-Espin, E. Figueres, G. Garcera, J. Sandia, "Stability Analysis of Closed Loop Switching Power Amplifiers based on an Accurate Model of a Loudspeaker Installed in a Bass Reflex Enclosure ," ISIE 2007, pp. 713 - 718 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the stability of closed loop switching power amplifiers using an accurate model of a loudspeaker installed in a commonly used bass reflex enclosure instead of the purely resistive model that can be used with a Zobel network. The model takes into account the electrical-mechanical-acoustical parameters of the transducer as well as the voice-coil loudspeaker's non-linear behavior, avoiding stability problems when trying to compensate for the output filter stage, thus obtaining better THD figures. This model has been experimentally tested and then used to design a regulator for voltage-mode control method by means of MATLAB software. The regulator has been tested using a full-bridge power converter along with the proposed model of the transducer.

124    J. Zaragoza, J. Pou, S. Ceballos, E. Robles, C. Jaen, "Optimal Voltage-Balancing Compensator in the Modulation of a Neutral-Point-Clamped Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 719 - 724 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an optimal voltage-balancing compensator for a particular type of modulation technique applied to the neutral-point-clamped converter. This modulation technique is able to completely eliminate low- frequency voltage oscillations in the neutral point. However, its dynamic for balancing voltages on the dc-link capacitors is slow. The proposed compensator generates an optimal offset for the modulation signals that improves significantly the voltage balancing issue for any operation condition of the converter. Furthermore, this strategy does not increase switching frequencies of the devices. The algorithm is tested and verified by simulation and experiment.

125    P. Coddet, M.-C. Pera, D. Candusso, D. ffissel, "Study of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell safety procedures in case of emergency shutdown ," ISIE 2007, pp. 725 - 730 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fuel cell is an electrochemical device, which converts directly chemical energy into electricity and heat, by combining gaseous hydrogen with oxygen. In order to develop industrial and competitive products, reliability, availability, maintainability and safety have to be achieved. The buffer amount of reactants which is accumulated in the fuel cell represents potential energy and the electrical capacitive impedance as well. Furthermore, availability of a minimal power is often obtained by producing the power from several modules to have a sufficient level of redundancy. This work analyses the main problems leading to faulty operation and offers an electric and fluidic mixed solution to provide a continuous system operation.

126    D. Cortes, J. Alvarez, E.M. Navarro-Lopez, C. Castro, "A class of easy-to-implement sliding-mode controllers with constant switching frequency for power converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 731 - 735 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Generally, sliding-mode controllers have to be modified to achieve a constant switching frequency or at least to have an upper limit for it. A family of sliding-mode controllers easy to implement is proposed in this paper. If a controller has the form specified in this paper then it can be implemented using a pulse-width modulator assuring a constant switching frequency, without requiring the control to be modified. The control structure proposed is shown to be feasible by presenting a controller for the boost converter as an example. Simulations and experimental results show that the controller structure proposed has the usual high performance and robustness of sliding-mode controllers. In addition, it has the very convenient features of constant switching frequency and easy implementation.

127    M. Perez, J. Rodriguez, J. Pontt, S. Kouro, "Power Distribution in Hybrid Multi-cell Converter with Nearest Level Modulation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 736 - 741 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Hybrid multi-cell converters present a highly nonlinear power distribution at each cell. Moreover, the cells with smaller DC link voltage can regenerate power, even if the load is not active. This paper shows the active power distribution in terms of the modulation index, highlighting the regenerative operation. The active power is calculated based on the fundamental term of the switching pattern obtained by the nearest level or round modulation. The round modulation technique is described as a comparison algorithm to allow a mathematical analysis. This paper shows that low power cells present a regenerative operation which depends on the modulation technique and does not depend of the load type. The modulation index rates of regenerative operation are found, as example, for a three-cell hybrid multi- cell converter for two different asymmetries.

128    Jian Yang, "Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Nonlinear Ramp Feedforward Compensation for PWM Buck or Buck-Derived Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 742 - 746 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The feedforward PWM with nonlinear ramp in a buck or buck-derived dc-to-dc converter is analyzed. It is noted that the conversion ratio M(D) in line-to-output transfer function(audiosusceptibility) becomes negative and the amplitude is decreasing as line increasing. Although the amplitude is significantly reduced with this scheme as compared to one without feedforward compensation, it is not to zero as in the case of an ideal feedforward PWM buck or buck derived dc-to-dc converter. The dc and small signal model is developed and the maximum output voltage variation range in open loop is predicted. Experimental data were collected to verify the analysis and evaluation.

129    Guohua Zhou, Jianping Xu, Mingzhi He, Ni Chen, "Comparison Study of Buck Converter with Digital Peak Voltage and Digital Peak Current Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 747 - 752 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digital peak voltage (DPV) control and digital peak current (DPC) control of buck converter with leading-edge modulation are studied in this paper. The ac small signal transfer functions of control-to-output, input-to-output and output impedance are derived and the corresponding comparison studies are performed between DPV and DPC control buck converter with leading-edge modulation. Transient time-domain simulation is also performed to verify the analysis results.

130    Mingzhi He, Jianping Xu, Guohua Zhou, Ni Chen, "Investigation of Subharmonic Oscillation of Digital Control Switching DC-DC Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 753 - 758 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The subharmonic oscillation phenomenon of digital peak voltage (DPV) control buck converters with various modulation methods is investigated. Digital slope compensation (DSC) and digital reposition compensation (DRC) of duty ratio ac component are proposed to eliminate the subharmonic oscillation. DSC is similar to its corresponding analog slope compensation method, while DRC fully utilizes the flexibility of the digital controller to reposition the duty ratio. DRC is simpler than DSC, and more suitable to be applied in digital controller. It has been shown that DSC and DRC can efficiently eliminate the subharmonic oscillation phenomenon of DPV control buck converters. Simulation results are given to verify the analysis results.

131    Guoliang Zhou, Xinchun Shi, "Research on the Model and Control Strategy of One Multi-Module-Converter Based VSC-HVDC ," ISIE 2007, pp. 759 - 763 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a model and control strategy for one multi-module-converter based VSC-HVDC system. Each converter operates with a fairly low switching frequency, and thus it is applicable to select high-power low-switching-frequency and low-conduction-loss electronic devices such as IGCT or GTO in high-power applications. A mathematical model is developed for the overall multi-module-converter based VSC-HVDC system. A controller is also designed systematically for the HVDC system based on the developed system model. Performance of the overall HVDC system and effectiveness of the designed controller are evaluated based on digital time-domain simulations in the MATLAB software environment.

132    A. Simon-Muela, S. Petibon, C. Alonso, B. Estibals, L. Seguier, J.L. Chaptal, "Practical Implementation of a High-Frequency Current Sensing Technique for VRM ," ISIE 2007, pp. 764 - 769 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Inductor current tracking in high-frequency DC/DC converters is not effortless, especially when high current and low voltages loads are demanded. This paper proposes a simple technique to obtain a good resolution in the inductor current measurement obtaining an equivalent voltage image which can be used for a high-frequency PWM controller. This strategy of measurements is generic and it has been validated by simulations. Our experimental results are obtained with very low output voltages and several loads between 10mA to high currents covering the needs of portable and embedded VRM applications.

133    Dai Wenjin, Huang Taiyang, "Design of Single-phase Shunt Active Power Filter Based on ANN ," ISIE 2007, pp. 770 - 774 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a single-phase shunt active power filter (APF) is presented to compensate reactive power and eliminate harmonics in power system. Sensing load current, dc bus voltage, reference dc bus voltage and source voltage compute reference current of APF through modified adaptive artificial neural network (ANN). A modified hysteretic current controller is used to generate the firing pulses of the voltage source inverter which generate reactive and harmonic current to compensate the nonlinear loads. The proposed system is implemented using digital signal processor (DSP). Simulating and experimental results are presented to confirm the validity of the scheme.

134    J. Rocha, M. Santos, J.M.D. Costa, F. Lima, "High Voltage Tolerant Level Shifters and DCVSL in Standard Low Voltage CMOS Technologies ," ISIE 2007, pp. 775 - 780 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, high voltage (HV) tolerant level-shifters with combinational functionality are proposed based on differential cascode voltage switch logic (DCVSL). These level-shifters are tolerant to supply voltages higher than the process limit for individual CMOS transistors. The proposed HV DCVSL level shifters are particularly useful when it is mandatory to ensure a specific behavior during out of the normal mode periods (power up; power down; reset; etc.). These high voltage tolerant logic circuits were used in the power block of buck converter designed in a standard 3.3 V, 0.13 mum CMOS process, powered by an input voltage range from 2.7 V to 4.2 V.

135    S.R. Naidu, D.A. Femandes, "The 4-leg Voltage Source Converter and its Application to Dynamic Voltage Restoration ," ISIE 2007, pp. 781 - 786 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A PWM scheme for the 4-leg voltage source converter (VSC) has been described. The technique is useful for generating unbalanced, 3-phase voltages, including a zero sequence component. It is simple and can be easily implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP). The proposed technique has been applied to the open-loop control of a laboratory-scale dynamic voltage restorer (DVR). Experimental and simulation results are presented to validate the proposed technique.

136    L. Kamenova, Y. Avenas, N. Popova, C. Schaeffer, S. Tzanova, "Conception and test of flat heat pipe for 3D packaging cooling ," ISIE 2007, pp. 787 - 792 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the conception and the experimental investigation on flat heat pipe with sintered powder wick structure and very thin wails. The heat pipe is integrated in the substrate of a 3D packaging to enhance the heat transfer within the module. The design of the heat pipe is retained to satisfy to the dimensioning, the mechanical and the heat dissipation requirements. The material and the structure have been selected after performing mechanical simulations with ANSYS. 2D hydraulic model to optimize the HP dimensioning and predict the heat capacity of the heat pipe is also presented. The model is in a very good conformity with the experimental results, also described in this paper.

137    G. Sybille, Hoang Le-Huy, R. Gagnon, P. Brunelle, "Analysis and Implementation of an Interpolation Algorithm for Fixed Time-Step Digital Simulation of PWM Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 793 - 798 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a study on an interpolation algorithm capable of handling multiple switching during one time step in fixed time step simulation of pulse-width modulated (PWM) power converters. The proposed algorithm is analyzed and implemented in Simulink's SimPowerSystems simulation engine. Simulation results obtained with a test system consisting of a variable-speed wind-turbine-driven permanent-magnet synchronous generator are presented. The algorithm is evaluated by comparing the obtained results with those produced by a small time step simulation.

138    X. Perpina, A. Castellazzi, M. Piton, G. Lourdel, M. Mermet-Guyennet, J. Rebollo, "Temperature Distribution and Short Circuit Events in IGBT-Modules used in Traction Inverters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 799 - 804 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes the study of IGBT-modules combining both inhomogeneous temperature distribution and short circuit events under realistic operational conditions. For this purpose, an IGBT-module compact model experimentally assisted by thermal mappings reproduces a railway traction application scenario. The results provide precious information for a reliable application of these components. Concretely, it is evidenced how package parasitics can strongly influence the electro-thermal behavior of the analysed IGBT-modules.

139    D. Puyal, C. Bernal, J.M. Burdio, J. Acero, I. Millan, "Methods and procedures for accurate induction heating load measurement and characterization ," ISIE 2007, pp. 805 - 810 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Current research topics in domestic induction heating field, such as the analytical description or the grey- box modelling of the impedance behaviour of the inductor- pot coupled system, require experimental measurements to be obtained in a variety of situations covering wideband frequency operation and output power conditions due to its nonlinear nature. Frequency values up to the MHz range and current levels as high as several tenths of amperes can be needed to get the required information to describe the operation in real-working conditions. While small-signal impedance measurements are easily achieved up to 1 MHz and above with commercial LCR meters, no commercial equipment provides the complete solution for the power, frequency and load quality factor ranges required under large-signal operation so a custom- made measurement testbench must be designed. The testbench design comprises the development of a specific hardware for load excitation and the definition of the characterization procedures to obtain accurate impedance measurements which are described in this paper using a high performance digital oscilloscope and standard power electronics probes.

140    C. Buchner, E. Harmeyer, J. Miihlbacher, A. Wieczorek, H. Wobig, "Investigation and Optimization on Auxiliary System Operation of HELIAS Fusion Reactor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 811 - 814 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Investigations on operation of the power supply for the auxiliary system of the fusion power plant were made using the NEPLAN code. The new approach was to use an additional 80 MW, 1.2 GJ energy storage unit with the optimized magnetic confinement system (superconducting magnet system, multiconverter unit and STATCOM) as a SMES or modular flywheel storage unit (magnetodynamic storage MDS) to reduce network loadings in the power plant start-up phase during plasma heating.

141    A. Bellini, S. Bifaretti, "A quasi-resonant ZCS Boost DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic Applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 815 - 820 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Renewable energy generation systems, based on photovoltaic modules, currently represent the most suitable solution, for low power levels, to reduce the energy consumption produced by oil and gas. Moreover, they are becoming more and more attractive as the price per watt of the photovoltaic modules is decreasing. However, the conversion efficiency of commercial photovoltaic modules is still rather low so it is particularly important to be able to achieve, in every operating situation, the maximum possible energy. The paper focuses on a predictive current control for quasi-resonant Zero Current Switch (ZCS) DC-DC boost converters suitable for photovoltaic (PV) conversion systems based on transformerless multi-string topology.

142    H. Canacsinh, L.M. Redondo, J.F. Silva, "Isolated Autonomous Capacitive Power Supplies to Trigger Floating Semiconductors in a Marx Generator ," ISIE 2007, pp. 821 - 826 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reports the development of isolated autonomous capacitive power supplies to charge each drive circuit of the high voltage floating semiconductor stage in a solid-state Marx generator. The circuit takes advantage of an auxiliary capacitor, charged in series with the main energy storage capacitor in each Marx generator stage, to supply the optic-fibre isolated gate drive circuit of the solid state switches. Laplace domain circuit analysis is made to determine the values of these capacitors and to obtain the desired voltages, with low ripple, for the required load. A laboratory prototype with three stages, 3 kW peak power, of this all silicon Marx generator circuit, with optic- fibre isolated triggering signals and autonomous capacitor isolated charging power supplies was built using 1200 V IGBTs and diodes, operating with 1000 V d-c input voltage and 10 kHz frequency, giving 3 kV and 10 mus pulse with, approximately, 15 V isolated autonomous power supplies in each stage.

143    A.M.R. Amaral, A.J.M. Cardoso, "Using Newton-Raphson Method to Estimate the Condition of Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors ," ISIE 2007, pp. 827 - 832 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present an experimental off-line technique that can be used to estimate the condition of aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The aging of aluminum electrolytic capacitors is expressed by the increase of their equivalent series resistance (ESR) and the reduction of their capacitance. Thus, the proposed technique is based in the estimation of both ESR and capacitance values. To validate the theoretical equations some experimental and simulated results will be presented.

144    D.R. Northcott, S. Filizadeh, "Electromagnetic Transient Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles ," ISIE 2007, pp. 833 - 838 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a procedure for modeling emerging hybrid and electric vehicle drive-trains in a transient simulation program. The benefit of such models is that they enable detailed studies to be carried out on the performance of the drive-train through detailed modeling of drive motors, power converters, and energy storage subsystems. The models also account for external mechanical forces on the vehicle, allowing tests such as acceleration, hill climbing and standard drive cycles to be done. A transient simulation model of a dual drive, series hybrid electric vehicle is developed and presented. The paper also presents simulation results for this vehicle and assesses their significance.

145    Y.I. Krasnikov, "Improved Buck and Boost Converters for High-power Applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 839 - 843 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new snubber circuit for a diode recovery in boost and buck converters has been proposed. As distinct from the well-known snubber circuits, the new one restricts the reverse current amplitude, rather than the derivative di/dt. The value of the recovery current can be chosen in a relatively wide range by means of one circuit parameter. A new boost converter with a continuous output current has been proposed. It does not require an output capacitor with high current capability. Basic relationships are derived, advantages of the new solution are described and application areas are specified.

146    C. Ladisa, P. Zanchetta, M. Sumner, "Improved Voltage Harmonic Control for Shunt Active Power Filters Using Multiple Reference Frames ," ISIE 2007, pp. 844 - 849 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new control method for shunt active power filters based only on supply voltage detection is proposed in this paper. A suitable harmonic extraction structure is designed to calculate the active filter compensating current in the d-q reference frames rotating at different harmonic frequencies using line voltage measurements. Every harmonic frame is decoupled from the others so to avoid interactions among the different control loops and to make possible to study the whole system through the superposition principle. The effectiveness of this method is proved by computer simulation using Matlab/Simulink.

147    C. Gillot, H. Yahoui, G. Rojat, R. Scorretti, "R-L-C model of an Inverter DC bus for diagnosis purpose ," ISIE 2007, pp. 850 - 853 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the authors present the modelling of the impedance variation of an inverter DC bus. Modelling is done by application of the PEEC method (partial element equivalent circuit) with an additional method for computing the local charge density (analytical formulas) in order to give the local capacity. This method has been implemented so as to extract the behaviour of the local charge density, specifically for busbar structure. Results obtained in the case of an approached busbar equivalent geometry are shown. A quantification of the edges importance for the charge repartition is presented, and so its link with the HF local capacitor influence. Moreover simulations of the values of the global DC bus impedance versus frequency are compared to measures.

148    S. Malo, R. Grino, "Output Voltage Regulation of a High-Efficiency High Step-Up DC-DC Power Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 854 - 859 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Step-up dc-dc power converters are needed in many applications. Depending on the voltage conversion ratio, one or another structure should be chosen, usually leading to efficiency vs. conversion ratio trade-offs. Recently, a new class of switch- mode dc-dc power converters has been introduced into the literature. These new converters show high efficiency levels at high conversion ratios, making them attractive to applications where efficiency is a major concern. Due to the complexity of the structure, mathematical models of the system have not been developed up to now, making the closed-loop control of these devices a challenging task. In this paper, an output voltage regulation control scheme is proposed and tested in simulation. The system is decomposed in subsystems, whose models are identified within the different control stages.

149    M.I. Milanes-Montero, E. Romero-Cadaval, A.R. de Marcos, V.M. Minambres-Marcos, F. Barrero-Gonzalez, "Novel method for synchronization to disturbed three-phase and single-phase systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 860 - 865 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An autoadjustable synchronous reference frame for extracting the positive-sequence fundamental component of the voltage in the point of common coupling is proposed in this paper. It operates suitably under unbalanced and distorted input voltages, with no steady state error in amplitude, phase and frequency tracking. The dynamic response of the method in case of frequency or amplitude variations is good, achieving the steady state in only two cycles of the fundamental period. The method allows a simple adaptation for being used in single-phase systems too. Simulation and experimental results are presented to test the novel method.

150    Hsueh-Chih Yang, Lan-Rong Dung, "An Accurate Lithium-Ion Battery Gas Gauge Using Two-Phase STC Modeling ," ISIE 2007, pp. 866 - 871 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is a time-varying, nonlinear component. Its discharge characteristic is dependent on discharge current, loading change scheme, ambient temperature, and initial state-of-charge (SoC), and hence its remaining time can vary with the discharge operating conditions in a manner of nonlinear relationship. The non-linearity behavior makes the accurate gas-gauge of Li-ion battery very difficult. This paper presents an efficient scheme to simplify the estimation of battery service time with high-degree of accuracy. According to the typical discharge characteristic of Li-ion batteries, we applied a two-phase single-time-constant (STC) model for the gas-gauging strategy and parameterize the discharge operating conditions in terms of the first-phase gradient, the knee voltage, and the second-phase gradient, instead of using complex curve-fitting equations. As shown in the experimental results, the accuracy of predicted remaining time is less than 1% for constant current cases, and 10% for loading change cases.

151    Tae-Sung Kim, Gun-Woo Moon, Myung-Joong Youn, Sang-Kyoo Han, "A novel asymmetric current-fed energy-recovery circuit for a plasma display panel ," ISIE 2007, pp. 872 - 876 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel asymmetric current-fed energy-recovery circuit (ERC) for a plasma display panel (PDP) is proposed. Two ERCs composed of single switch and different resonant inductors, ERC-Y and ERC-X, are used for both sides of the PDP, and slow discharging and fast charging times can be employed. The ERC-Y discharging Cp to zero employs the slow discharging time, which reduces a current stress on ERC-Y compared with ERC-X. The ERC-X charging Cp to Vs employs the fast charging time, which ensures a stable light emission. Furthermore, inductor currents are built up before the PDP is charged and discharged. These built-up inductor currents help to fully charge and discharge the PDP, achieve the zero voltage switching (ZVS) of main switches, reduce an electromagnetic interference (EMI) noises, and compensate for a large gas-discharge current. Therefore, it features the ZVS, low EMI noises, low current stress, and high energy-recovery capability. The operation of the proposed circuit, design considerations, and experimental results are presented to show the validity of the proposed circuit.

152    H. Iman-Eini, S. Farhangi, J.-L. Schanen, J. Aime, "Design of Power Electronic Transformer based on Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 877 - 882 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One key component of the future automation in electrical network is the replacement of conventional distribution transformers by an all-solid-state (power- electronic) alternative. In this paper, the optimum design of a power electronic transformer (PET) based on state of the art cascaded H-bridge multilevel converter is investigated. In the design process, a new and simple control method for balancing the cascaded H-bridge DC buses has been introduced. The proposed PET is extremely modular and can be extended for different voltage and power levels. It performs typical functions and has advantages such as power factor correction, elimination of voltage sag and swell, and reduction of voltage flicker in load side. Also in comparison to conventional transformers, it has lower weight, lower volume and eliminates necessity for toxic dielectric coolants.

153    B. Singh, G. Kasal, A. Chandra, Kamal-Al-Haddad, "Battery Based Voltage and Frequency Controller for Parallel Operated Isolated Asynchronous Generators ," ISIE 2007, pp. 883 - 888 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with a battery energy storage system (BESS) based voltage and frequency (VF) controller for parallel operated isolated asynchronous generators (IAGs) driven by uncontrolled pico hydro turbines used in constant power applications. The individual AC capacitor banks are used to generate the rated voltage at no load while additional demand of reactive power for the load and generators is met by the controller. The proposed controller is having capability of harmonic elimination, load balancing and load leveling along with voltage and frequency control. The proposed controller is realized using an IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) based voltage source converter (VSC) and battery system at its DC link. Since the VSC allows bidirectional flow of active and reactive power; thus it regulates the voltage and frequency. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through the MATLAB based simulations using Simulink and PSB (power system block set) toolboxes and different aspects of the controller are studied for parallel operated isolated asynchronous generators.

154    B. Singh, S. Gairola, A. Chandra, Kamal Al-Haddad, "Zigzag Connected Autotransformer Based Controlled AC-DC Converter for Pulse Multiplication ," ISIE 2007, pp. 889 - 894 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the analysis and design of a non-isolated 36-pulse controlled AC-DC converter for medium power rating drives, field winding supply of large alternators, magnet power supplies, etc. It consists of pulse multiplication in non-isolated 12-pulse AC-DC converter to get 36-pulse converter characteristics without employing zero-sequence blocking transformer (ZSBT). The proposed converter employs a zigzag connected autotransformer, which results in near equal leakage reactance in series with each thyristor bridge. The volt-ampere rating of the autotransformer is small and the converter meets IEEE-519 standard power-quality requirements over wide range of firing angle.

155    J. Sosa, M. Castilla, L. Garcia de Vicuna, J. Matas, J. Miret, "Dynamics analysis for the series-parallel resonant converter operating with SSPSM ," ISIE 2007, pp. 895 - 900 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a dynamic study of the dc/dc series-parallel resonant converter (SPRC) operating with self-sustained phase shift modulation technique (SSPSM). The study includes the synthesis of a suitable averaged large-signal dynamic model and the design of a nonlinear feedback controller based in the input-output linearization approach. The proposed controller provides some outstanding features: ZVS operation for the whole load range, narrowed frequency variation range, fast transient response and robustness in relation to external parameter variations. Experimental and simulation results are presented to verify the proposed controller performance.

156    S. Aurtenechea, M.A. Rodriguez, E. Oyarbide, J.R. Torrealday, "Predictive Direct Power Control of MV Grid-connected Three-level NPC Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 901 - 906 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with an improvement of the predictive direct power control (P-DPC) for MV three-level NPC converters. Contrary to the previously developed P-DPC strategy, the proposed approach combines a symmetrical 3+3 voltage vectors' sequence for the steady-sate operation with a simple two voltage vectors' sequence for transient requirements. Simulations of the proposed hybrid algorithm are compared to a standard voltage oriented control (VOC) under 2.3 kV-2 MVA operation conditions. Both the P-DPC and the VOC strategies offer similar steady-state performances but the P-DPC is clearly better during transients. These results match with the expected behavior and reinforce the choice of P-DPC as an attractive candidate for the control of MV grid connected converters.

157    C. Olalla, R. Leyva, A. El Aroudi, I. Queinnec, "Quantitative Feedback Contribution to Design of Voltage Regulator Modules ," ISIE 2007, pp. 907 - 912 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents a new design method suitable for voltage regulator modules (VRM) requirements. The new method takes into account system uncertainty and it could be easily adapted to new requirements from the industry. The limitations of voltage and current modes to match the output impedance requirement are derived while the measurement of load current is found to be a valid approach to obtain the required voltage regulation characteristic. Simulation results prove the theoretical analysis and controller design.

158    I. Millan, D. Puyal, J.M. Burdio, J. Acero, S. Llorente, "Resonant Inverter Topology for All-Metal Domestic Induction Heating ," ISIE 2007, pp. 913 - 918 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays domestic induction cookers usually heat ferromagnetic pans. This technology is well known and it is successfully applied by many manufacturers. However, there are a number of non-ferromagnetic pans (made of aluminium, copper, copper-nickel, or stainless steel) that cannot be properly heated by this technology. In this paper, a modified half-bridge series resonant inverter topology that can heat ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic pans is presented. This inverter topology has two topological configurations with two operation modes: first-harmonic operation mode (FHOM) and third-harmonic operation mode (THOM). This paper presents these two operation modes and the design of the principal parts of the inverter. Finally, the experimental results obtained with a prototype of the resonant inverter are presented.

159    J.L. Russi, J.R. Pinheiro, H.L. Hey, M.L. da Silva Martins, "Coupled Filter Inductor Soft-Switching Techniques: A Generic Approach ," ISIE 2007, pp. 919 - 924 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: PWM inverters/rectifiers are required in widespread applications such as energy storage power plants, telecommunication systems and electric vehicle propulsion systems. Some of the stringent requirements of these applications can be achieved by high-frequency switching. On the other hand, the use of high switching frequency may degrade the overall system efficiency, what can be alleviated by the utilization of soft-switching techniques. In this paper, it is proposed a generic soft-switching diagram, which can generate topologies for turn-on snubbers, zero voltage transition (ZVT) and zero current and zero voltage transition (ZCZVT) inverters. This approach facilitates the understanding of these techniques by newcomers, as well senior engineers. Therefore, the distinctness of the merits and disadvantages of each soft-switching technique becomes much easier.

160    N. Abdelli, A.-M. Fouilliart, N. Mien, E. Senn, "High-Level Power Estimation of FPGA ," ISIE 2007, pp. 925 - 930 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the success of battery-based personal computing devices and wireless communication systems, low power has become a key issue in embedded system design. As a result, designers are now encouraged to consider the impact of their decisions not only on speed and area performances, but also on power consumption throughout the entire design process. This paper presents our contribution in terms of power estimation and exploration methodology based on high-level power modeling approach of re-configurable devices such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). In order to address the different abstraction levels and the various targets, a global methodology is proposed here to elaborate suitable models. With our high-level power model, the FPGA power estimation can be obtained at early stage of the design process. Experimental results indicate on a classical signal-processing algorithm; that the gap between measures and estimations is lower than 18%. From these models, several consumption optimizations can be deducted from the sensitivity metric.

161    F. Chimento, F. Nicosia, S. Musumeci, A. Raciti, M. Melito, G. Sorrcntino, "Simulation and Behavior Evaluation of PT-IGBT Connections in Parallel Strings ," ISIE 2007, pp. 931 - 936 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper deals with the experimental evaluation of the electrical and thermal behaviors of punch-through IGBT in parallel connections. The influences of the electrical parameters on the current sharing are evaluated and discussed. The thermal behavior of several ICBT devices in parallel connections in different experimental conditions are evaluated and discussed. Furthermore some issues on the negative feedback contribution coming from the heat sink looking for the reduction of the current imbalance are analyzed in loaded conditions.

162    R.R.N. Souza, D.F. Coutinho, R. Tonkoski, S.L.C. Silva, M. Tello, V.M. Canalli, G.A.D. Dias, J.C.M. Lima, "Nonlinear Loads Parameters Estimation and Modeling ," ISIE 2007, pp. 931 - 936 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the study and development of two estimation methods for the values of electrical components concerning the input rectifier present in most of the electronic equipments available in the market. Through these methods, it is possible to identify the values of the EMI filter parasitic inductance, the input filtering capacitance Ccc, and the equivalent load connected to the rectifier. This study will be performed from the analysis of the voltage and current waveforms obtained from an oscilloscope in the input of the equipment under measure. The resulting data will be processed through a mathematical analysis in the time domain. This process will permit the subsequent analysis, modeling and simulation of the complex electrical systems in time domain employing commercial simulators like PSIM, Matlab and ORCAD aiming essentially the study of the influence of these loads over the mains harmonic distortion and power quality.

163    C.H. da Silva, V.F. da Silva, L.E. Borges da Silva, G. Lambert-Torres, E.H. Takauti, "Optimizing the Series Active Filters Under Unbalanced Conditions Acting in the Neutral Current ," ISIE 2007, pp. 943 - 948 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the limitations of the series active power filter operating in unbalanced three-phase four-wire systems and proposes the insertion of series active impedance to neutral wire. The control of this active impedance uses a modified synchronous reference frame controller (MSRFC) in order to mitigate the flow of zero sequence harmonic components. The performance of the combined system, constituted of two series active filters, is simulated with and without the insertion of a series active filter to the neutral wire and the results arc presented. The simulation confirms the viability of proposition and the discussions show the importance of using this proposed structure when series active filters, based on three-phase synchronous reference frame controller (SRFC), is used as control strategy in unbalanced four-wire systems.

164    Inho Song, Moohyun Cho, "Quench Protection System for KSTAR Superconducting Coil ," ISIE 2007, pp. 949 - 952 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents two-stage high-power mechanical-thyristor switches developed as 40 kA DC circuit breakers for the superconducting coil quench protection system. An advanced switching system used in the quench protection should allow multi-shot mode of operation without maintenance and long lifetime with arcless DC current commutation. The system is designed to combine the advantages of the both mechanical and thyristor switches. The mechanical stage is to conduct DC current for normal superconducting coil operation and the thyristor stage is to provide fast arcless DC current interruption for quench protection. Compared with the all solid- state switches and vacuum interrupters with equal capabilities the proposed switch is much cheaper than the DC breakers and has lower power dissipation in switch on state. Also, it is much faster than the vacuum interrupters. The system is designed to break 40 kA DC current within 150 ms.

165    C.E.A. Silva, D.S. Oliveira, R.P.T. Bascope, "A DC-AC Converter with High Frequency Isolation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 953 - 958 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents the analysis, design, simulation and experimental development of a single-phase inverter with high frequency transformer isolation and for a wide input voltage range. The high frequency input current ripple is mitigated by the use of a small input LC filter, and the low frequency current component injected by the inverter is attenuated by the voltage loop controller. The proposed topology can be used in dc voltage- sourced applications such as renewable energy and battery systems.

166    A.L.P. Alcalde, F.M. D'Aquino, M.S. Ortmann, H.B. Mohr, S.A. Mussa, "FPGA-Based Control of a PFC Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 959 - 963 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This article presents the study and implementation of a single-phase pre-regulator rectifier with digital control using the FPGA technology. The control technique used aims to obtain power factor correction (PFC) based on average current mode control. The rectifier is a single-phase voltage doubler with a center tap at the voltage output. The FPGA used in the project is an ALTERAreg Cyclone II EP2C35F672C6, present on the kit DE2, which is a low-cost FPGA with low-consumption at a great speed. The output power of prototype implemented was around 500 W.

167    M.S. Padua, S.M. Deckmann, G.S. Sperandio, F.P. Marafao, D. Colon, "Comparative analysis of Synchronization Algorithms based on PLL, RDFT and Kalman Filter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 964 - 970 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses the main characteristics and presents a comparative analysis of three synchronization algorithms based respectively, on a phase-locked loop, a Kalman filter and a discrete Fourier transform. It will be described the single and three-phase models of the first two methods and the single-phase model of the third one. Details on how to modify the filtering properties or dynamic response of each algorithm will be discussed in terms of their design parameters. In order to compare the different algorithms, these parameters will be set for maximum filter capability. Then, the dynamic response, during input amplitude and frequency deviations will be observed, as well as during the initialization procedure. So, advantages and disadvantages of all considered algorithms will be discussed.

168    C. Batard, F. Poitiers, M. Machmoum, "An Original Method to Simulate Diodes Rectifiers Behaviour with Matlab-Simulink Taking into Account Overlap Phenomenon ," ISIE 2007, pp. 971 - 976 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a simple and original method in order to simulate the behaviour of AC to DC converters with Matlab-Simulink. This approach takes into account overlap phenomenon, continuous and discontinuous conduction mode. The AC to DC converter is presented as a block (voltage input and voltage output) which can be inserted in a complex structure. The simplicity and the low computing-time of this method makes it an interesting alternative to the Matlab's Power-Systems toolbox and hybrid simulation with PSIM and Matlab. Simulations results are presented and compared to experimental results.

169    A.W. Krieger, J.C. Salmon, "Phase Estimation of Harmonically Distorted Grid Voltage by Frequency Lock ," ISIE 2007, pp. 977 - 980 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A novel method of synchronization is proposed for the estimation of the phase of the fundamental component of harmonically distorted power line voltage. Whereas commonly used phase synchronization techniques depend on a multiplier to measure phase discrepancy, which results in frequency components causing ripple in the output phase estimation, the proposed method measures the phase error by directly subtracting the incoming signal from a one-cycle delayed copy of the signal. For a harmonically distorted signal, this produces a zero steady state error signal, and a ripple-free estimate of the line voltage phase. The principal feedback loop in the proposed method aims only at frequency tracking, whereas a sliding correlation is used to extract an estimate of the line voltage fundamental component, resulting in faster overall response, because the output estimate is not itself used in any feedback loop. Simulation results are presented to validate this proposed method.

170    C.M. Penalver, J. Marcos, A. Lago, J. Doval-Gandoy, A. Nogueiras, O. Lopez, F. Santiago, J.C. Lorenzo, "An Optimal New Shielded Twisted Pair Model to Improve the Electromagnetic Immunity in the Automotive Applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 977 - 980 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Shielding twisted pair with metallic tape is a widely used resource to reduce the electromagnetic emissions and increase noise immunity of the twisted pair to those emissions. But, in addition to decrease electromagnetic emissions, shield also affects electric and geometry characteristics of the pair. Estimation of twisted pair geometry is vital to compute as much as the shield affects the electric characteristics of the pair. The goal of this paper is to develop a model of shielded twisted pair which allows to compute the shield shape as a function of twisted properties of the pair and physical characteristics of the shield tape. The model calculated in this paper is a part of a large work research; with the results of that research we can calculate the most used electric characteristics of the pair according to the physical and geometrical characteristics of it. This research was applied in an important cable manufacturing company of the automotive sector.

171    J.L. Russi, J.R. Pinheiro, H.L. Hey, "Integrated Soft-Switching Structures for Multi-Pole Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 987 - 992 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology to develop integrated auxiliary soft-switching cells for converters with multiple poles. The integrated cells obtained are a result of a combination of two cells from the same soft-switching technique or even of cells from different techniques, originating hybrid cells. The resulting cells present fewer components, are lighter and present smaller volume than the conventional ones.

172    Jingang Han, Peng Yao, Liwei Zhou, Xinyuan Tan, Tianhao Tang, "Selective Harmonic Elimination for an Asymmetrical Multilevel Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 993 - 997 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel asymmetrical multilevel converter is proposed which is composed a 3-level leg and a 2-level leg. The principle of the converter is analyzed. The new schema requires fixed insulated supplies instead of capacitors. Selective harmonic elimination method is used to eliminate the specified harmonics in the output voltage. Then the switching angles are computed to eliminate the low order harmonics in theory. A 6-level laboratory test verifies the proposed method.

173    T. Ghennam, E.M. Berkouk, B. Francois, "Three-level Inverter Controlled by means of Vector Hysteresis Current Control. Application to Back to Back Structure ," ISIE 2007, pp. 998 - 1003 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The studied application is a back to back power electronic structure feeding a three-phase load. The line side converter is a two-level PWM rectifier controlled by a current hysteresis controller in the abc reference frame. It regulates the dc voltage and enables a unit power factor. The load side converter is a three-level voltage source inverter (VSI), which is controlled by means of a novel vector hysteresis current control (V.H.C.C). The proposed V.H.C.C, which is based on error square areas, controls the three-phase load AC currents. In addition, it regulates the neutral point voltage using the redundant inverter switching states. The three load current errors are gathered into a single space vector quantity. In this case, the magnitude of the error vector is limited within boundary areas of a square shape. The control scheme is based on the detection of areas and sectors, in which the vector tip of the current error can be located. Then it applies an appropriate voltage vector among the 27 voltage vectors. Simple look-up tables are required for the detection of areas and sectors, and also for the vector selection. The proposed V.H.C.C can be extended to further multilevel inverters.

174    Tianhao Tang, Jingang Han, Liwei Zhou, Peng Yao, Xinyuan Tan, "Novel Hybrid Cascade Asymmetrical Converter Based on Asymmetrical Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1004 - 1008 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel hybrid cascade asymmetrical multilevel converter is proposed. The novel converter is based on connection of multiple single-phase asymmetrical multilevel converter modules. The principle of the converter is analyzed. Subharmonic PWM method is employed in the topology. A two-module single-phase converter was constructed in the laboratory. Experimental results are presented to verify the proposed method.

175    G. Consentino, "How the Power MOSFET Inversion layer carriers' mobility and its thermal gradient affects the TC ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1009 - 1014 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper studies the mobility of the carriers in the inversion layer of the power MOSFET and how this affects the TC (thermal coefficient). All the scattering mechanisms that are involved in the inversion layer were considered to modeling the mobility. In particular, the effect of the transverse electrical field, phonons and the Coulomb scattering effects will be studied. Particular attention will be placed on the acoustic and optical phonon effects and on the carrier-carrier scattering, ionized impurity in the depletion region, oxide fixed charges and oxide- silicon interface charges effects. The paper also will treat the Lombardi unified model to explain the mobility in the inversion layer. New considerations on TC will be implemented and a real example will validate the model proposed.

176    M. Kazerani, "A High-Performance Controllable DC Load ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1015 - 1020 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electronically-controllable dc loads are used to test and evaluate dc power supplies, fuel cells and solar arrays and emulate variable dc load profiles in test-bench study of energy conversion systems in the labs. The desired characteristics of such loads include high accuracy, high speed of response to the electronic control signal, high fidelity, high power density and low cost. In this paper, a high-performance controllable dc load is introduced which features simple structure, scalability, fast response and low cost. The load can be used to test and evaluate single fuel cells, fuel cell stacks and solar arrays. The dc load can be programmed to operate in variable-resistance, variable-current or variable-power modes and emulate an arbitrary load profile. The performance of the proposed controllable dc load has been predicted analytically and verified through simulation.

177    R. Pregitzer, J.G. Pinto, L.F.C. Monteiro, J.L. Afonso, "Shunt Active Power Filter with Dynamic Output Current Limitation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1021 - 1026 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a shunt active filter with a controller able to dynamically limit the output current, which allows an effective protection of the inverter semiconductors without diminishing the active filter performance. The control strategy is based on the p-q theory expanded for three-phase four-wire systems and the power stage of the active filter is composed by a two-level four-leg inverter. Simulation results on PSCADreg/EMTDCtrade are presented to demonstrate the performance of the dynamic current limitation.

178    S.A. Gonzalez, M.I. Valla, C.F. Christiansen, "Analysis of a Cascade Asymmetric Topology for Multilevel Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1027 - 1032 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a complete analysis of a cascaded asymmetric topology for multilevel converters is presented. This topology allows to synthesize five voltage levels with a reduced number of switches and capacitors when compared to the generalized topology or the most common symmetric topologies. The converter behaves like an hybrid converter with the advantage of working with only one DC bus. It appears as a very good and simple alternative to build five level converters with minimum number of switches and only one flying capacitor per phase. The proposal is tested with Pspice simulations in a STATCOM application.

179    M. Carpaneto, M. Marchesoni, L. Vaccaro, "A New Cascaded Multilevel Converter Based on NPC Cells ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1033 - 1038 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new converter topology, which is based on the modular use of modified Neutral Point Clamped cells and suitable to supply high-power medium-voltage ac motors, is presented. The proposed structure allows a remarkable reduction of the dc-link voltage capacitors and/or of the dc-link voltage ripple, with respect to the more conventional topology, owing to the implementation of a new devised control strategy. The new structure uses only two additional controllable switch-diode couples for each basic NPC cell, with a small increment in cost and complexity of the converter system. No impact on both the load and line side is created, to the exclusion of the improvement of the load voltage waveform.

180    E. Mario, A. Jerome, "Motor drives fault diagnosis by the new non invasive Beirut diagnostic procedure ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1039 - 1044 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new method of obtaining diagnostic data from induction motors derived from only two of the three stator currents, the Beirut diagnostic procedure "BDP" is presented in this paper. The theoretical principles directly related to the application of this diagnostic technique are described, emphasizing the use of a severity factor in order to evaluate the extension of the fault. Besides the traditional one phase current spectrum analysis, values of the severity factor related to electrical signals like instantaneous powers, the current space vector modulus and finally related to the new Beirut diagnostic method are analyzed with respect to the power factor angle variation and the sum of the two current side-band angular displacement variation. By theoretical analysis, computer simulations, and laboratory experiments, it is shown that the new method, Beirut diagnostic procedure, enhance the reliability of diagnostics of induction motor drives.

181    Dan Liu, Changliang Xia, Maohua Zhang, Yingfa Wang, "Control of Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Set Based Immune Feedback PID Controller ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1045 - 1049 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Brushless DC motors (BLDCM) are reliable, easy control, and inexpensive. But, the brushless DC motor is a multi-variable and nonlinear system. Conventional PID controllers suffer from uncertain parameters and the nonlinear of the BLDCM. This paper presents an novel approach of immune feedback PID control for BLDCM based on fuzzy set. The method is inspired by biological immune feedback mechanism functioned by T-cells, including an active term, which controls response speed, and an inhibitive term, which controls stabilization effect, and we employ a fuzzy logic to implement the inhibitive term. The system includes current and velocity closed loops. The simulation illustrates that excellent flexibility and adaptability as well as high precision and good robustness are obtained by the proposed strategy.

182    M. Drif, A.J. MarquesCardoso, "Rotor Cage Fault Diagnostics in Three-Phase Induction Motors, by the Instantaneous Non-Active Power Signature Analysis ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1050 - 1055 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a new detection technique based on the instantaneous non-active power signature analysis is proposed for the diagnosis of rotor cage faults in operating three-phase induction motors. For that purpose, a mathematical model based on the winding function approach is used in order to simulate this type of fault and experimental tests are carried out on an induction motor with several faulty rotors. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the merits of this novel approach for the detection of cage induction motors broken rotor bars.

183    C. Grabner, "Idea, realization and characteristics of a novel permanent magnet motor topology with higher harmonic airgap waves in the BLDC mode ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1056 - 1061 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A straightforward industrial development process of customized variable speed drive systems is today preferably assisted by efficient numerical calculation tools. Hence, the interaction of different electronic circuit designs of power stacks controlled by modern algorithms with innovative motor topologies based on higher space harmonics can be investigated with respect to the complete drive system. Fortunately, different case studies on various drives can be carried in advance.

184    C. Grabner, "Quality Improvement of a Variable Speed Drive in V/f Mode - Numerical Evaluation of Crucial Influences ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1062 - 1067 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Undesired secondary effects occurring at inverter-fed squirrel cage induction motors are investigated by a transient two-dimensional finite element analysis with coupled electrical circuits. Calculated time-dependent numerical courses are compared to measured ones. A novel and deeper insight into the invoked harmonic spectrum of the electrical stator current and the mechanical torque at the rotating shaft is given.

185    R. de F. Campos, L.F.R. Pinto, J. de Oliveira, A. Nied, L.C. de Marques, A.H. de Souza, "Single-Phase Induction Motor Control Based on DTC Strategies ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1068 - 1073 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates two control strategies for application in single-phase induction motor drives. The objective is to implement a low-cost solution for low-power applications. The first method to be used is the direct torque and flux control (DTC). A switching table was derived based on the voltage vectors generated by the three-leg two-phase inverter topology. The second method uses SVPWM-DTC technique. The basic operating principle of SVPWM is described. Simulations were carried out and performance analysis is presented.

186    I. Sarasola, J. Poza, M.A. Rodriguez, G. Abad, "Predictive Direct Torque Control for Brushless Doubly Fed Machine with Reduced Torque Ripple at Constant Switching Frequency ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1074 - 1079 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a predictive direct torque control strategy with constant switching frequency of brushless doubly fed machine is presented. Firstly, the classical direct torque control strategy for brushless doubly fed machine has been developed, obtaining the voltage vector table. The vector voltage table has been developed analyzing the flux and torque derivates for each voltage vector as a function of control winding flux angle. In order to employ constant switching frequency, predictive direct torque control is applied. Reduced torque ripple strategy has been implemented to improve the behavior at constant switching frequency. Simulation results show effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.

187    B. Ayhan, Mo-Yuen Chow, H.J. Trussell, "A Fuzzy Membership Function Design Methodology Based on Histogram and ROC Curve Analyses for Broken Rotor Bar Detection ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1080 - 1085 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The innovation of this work is the introduction of a novel fuzzy membership function design methodology, which incorporates the issue of the trade-off between the hit and false alarm rates into the design process. The method is applied to two-class broken rotor bar detection problem in squirrel-cage induction motors. The methodology is called H-ROC since it uses a weighted cost function based on ROC (receiver operating characteristics) curve analysis and histogram analysis.

188    Jun-Hyuk Choi, Se-Hyun You, Jin Hur, Ha-Gyeong Sung, "The Design and Fabrication of BLDC Motor and Drive for 42V Automotive Applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1086 - 1091 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The present in vehicle 14 V DC power system is being pushed to the maximum limits to meet the high power loads. In the mean time, the 42 V power nctwork("powernet") in future automobiles enables a number of new features that require high power loads including electric power steering, engine cooling fan system, electric compressors etc. This paper presents a design and implementation of brushless DC (BLDC) motor and controller for engine Cooling fan system for 42 V automotive applications. Experimental results from a laboratory prototype are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed BLDC Motor and Drive.

189    Zhao Chao-hui, Yang Ning, Wang Xin-wei, "The Structure Optimization of IPM Synchronous Machine ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1092 - 1096 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The non-magnetism bush of IPM synchronous machine can efficiently reduce the leakage flux near shaft. However, it brings two defects which make the structure of the machine complex and the usable space of the PM reducing. This paper studies the non-magnetism bush of IPM synchronous machine, and then discusses the influence on machine performance when auxiliary pole was introduced, and it also presents the restriction condition of the magnet width in given condition and compares the air gap flux density and the per pole flux in two conditions which the shaft material is magnetism or non-magnetism, by neglecting the non-magnetism bush and auxiliary magnet when the magnet width reaches maximum. From that, we can draw conclusions as follows: (1) Not only does the introduction of the auxiliary pole lead to the removal of the non-magnetism bush but also the improvement of machine property; (2) Given constant figures of machine diameter and magnet thickness, the machine performance can also be improved when magnet width reaches maximum value while non-magnetism bush is removed.

190    Zhao Chao-hui, Guo Huanqiu, Wang Xin-wei, "The Study of Structure and Characteristic of a New Type HECPSG ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1097 - 1100 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new type of hybrid excitation claw-pole synchronous generators (HECPSG) was made to solve the power density lowness of the electric excitation claw-pole machine and the difficulty of magnetic field regulation of permanent magnet(PM) claw-pole machine. According to electrical machine principle, a emulated calculation was made on this new type machine in the way of magnet circuit and three dimension finite element method (FEM), the thesis also discussing its non-load and regulation characteristic and makes a comparison on the property among this new type electric machine and traditional claw-pole synchronous generator, permanent magnet claw-pole machine.

191    Jee-Hoon Jung, "Erosion Models of Rotor Bar and End Ring Faults in Progress to Diagnose Induction Motor Status ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1101 - 1106 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Erosion models of rotor bar and end ring segment in induction motors are presented for diagnosing induction machines containing an abnormal rotor bar and end ring faults in progress. The leakage inductance and resistance of the rotor bar and end ring segment are varied during the erosion process. Consequently, the variation causes the rotor asymmetry which induces abnormal harmonics in the stator current spectra. The leakage inductances of the erosion models are derived by the Ampere's law. The winding function method (WFM) is used to conveniently calculate the machine inductance, and the slot width effect (SWE) of rotor bars is concerned more practical motor model. By the erosion models, it is shown that the rotor bar and end ring faults in progress are detectable by the motor current signature analysis (MCSA). Simulated and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed erosion model with 3.7 kW, 3-phase, and squirrel cage induction motors.

192    R. Mujal-Rosas, O. Boix-Aragones, "Improvement of the Three-Phase Induction Motor with Spiral Sheet Rotor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1107 - 1112 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The improvements obtained on the torque with low currents using rotor with spiral sheets are analyzed on this paper. To have a complete study, several rotors and stators have been built to verify the electromagnetic variations on the three-phase asynchronous motors where they combine different constructive and mechanical characteristics of the related elements: changing inertias, constructive materials, and the geometrical shapes and disposition of the sheets. These different types of motors have been first tested in the laboratory, then, are simulated using computer aided tools (Matlab-Simulink). In particular four stators (1000, 1500, 1500-type A, and 3000 rpm) having the same constructive parameters, have been tested with the following rotors: solid rotor, solid rotor with diamagnetic rings, drag cup, and simple and double squirrel cage rotor. All these results have been compared to those obtained with the seven variants of spiral sheet rotor, presented on this paper.

193    H.R. Akbari, S. Sadeghi, "Calculation of Inductances of Induction Machines Under Axial Nonuniformity Conditions ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1113 - 1118 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A modified model for calculating the inductances of induction machines, considering axial nonuniformity is proposed. By means of the proposed model, inductances of a three-phase squirrel-cage induction machine under eccentricity and misalignment conditions are calculated. Effects of stator and rotor slots, rotor skewing and several rotor asymmetries on inductances in these conditions are investigated. Simulation results show that in the case of misalignment condition, motor is started faster than in the healthy condition.

194    G. Abad, M.A. Rodriguez, J. Poza, "Predictive Direct Power Control of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine with Reduced Power Ripple at Low Constant Switching Frequency ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1119 - 1124 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new predictive direct power control (DPC) technique is presented for the doubly fed induction machine (DFIM). Based on a model prediction, the control strategy is able to operate at considerably low constant switching frequencies. In addition, this control technique allows it to perform different power ripple minimization strategies, in order to improve the steady state and transient response behaviors. Consequently, different power ripple minimization methods will be presented. Then, these methods will be analyzed and compared by simulation, concluding that despite the fact that they achieve very similar results, the method that minimizes the power ripples by an approximation, is more suitable to be implemented in a real time application, since it presents very good results and is the less computationally expensive.

195    K. Yoshida, T. Yoshida, S. Manabe, T. Yorishige, "Control of New PM LSM Maglev Vehicle Based on Analysis of Pitching Torque and Propulsion Force ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1125 - 1130 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The one of the authors Dr. K. Yoshida has been proposed a new controlled-repulsive Maglev vehicle, which can levitate, propel and guide simultaneously from a standstill, independently of the vehicle speeds. A combined levitation-propulsion-guidance control experiment using LSM only in the PM LSM controlled-repulsive Maglev model vehicle has been succeeded. But the pitching motion could not be restrained sufficiently in the conventional control method. In this paper, a new control method which is based on the analysis of the pitching torque taking into account the mechanical load-angle is proposed. The validity of the new control method is verified by running control experiments.

196    D. Casadei, G. Serra, A. Tani, L. Zarri, "General Inverter Modulation Strategy for Multi-Phase Motor Drives ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1131 - 1137 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the problem of the modulation strategy of a multi-phase voltage source inverter for high performance motor drives is completely solved using the duty- cycle space vector approach, which combines the multiple space vector representation, useful in modeling and controlling multiphase machines, with traditional carrier-based pulse width modulation principle, suitable for multi-phase inverters. This approach leads to the definition of a general modulation strategy that fully exploits the input dc voltage and can be usefully utilized in multi-phase motor drives with improved torque density, as well as in multi-motor drives. The effectiveness of the proposed modulation strategy is verified by numerical simulations and some experimental results.

197    Xiao Xi, Zhang Meng, Li Yongdong, "A Novel Sensor-less Direct Torque Control for PMSM Based Extended Kalman Filter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1138 - 1142 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An Extended Kalman Filter is established in the paper to obtain the stator flux linkages and motor speed without the mechanical sensors for Direct Toque Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor drives. In this method, the stator flux linkages on the fixed a alpha - beta coordinate, rotor speed and position are chosen as states. The input and output of the Extended Kalman Filter arc stator voltages and currents. The stator flux linkages and rotor speed are estimated by the Extended Kalman Filter. Space Vector Modulation with constant switching frequency is applied to realize Direct Toque Control in order to reduce the torque ripples. The theoretic analyses are validated by both digital simulation and experimental test.

198    M. Guerreiro, D. Foito, A. Cordeiro, "A Microcontroller Sensorless Speed Control of a Direct Current Motor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1143 - 1146 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is described a sensorless direct current motor drive. The speed was controlled using sliding mode with a first- order differential equation based on the speed error. The result of the switching function was integrated with a current limitation using a logic equation. The current limitation assures the machine protection and the output of the logic block is the signal of the voltage to apply on the motor armature. Instead to measure the rotor speed it was analytically inferred an external torque and speed observer. The motor is fed by a classic insulated gate bipolar transistor converter module. All gating signals for power switches are determined at every sample instant by a single microcontroller, which collects information and analyze voltage and current data from the motor to perform the necessary speed and torque estimation.

199    G. Gatto, I. Marongiu, A. Serpi, A. Perfetto, "Predictive Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drive ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1147 - 1152 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A predictive digital control algorithm, suitable for synchronous reluctance motor drives, is presented in the paper. The proposed algorithm, which is a direct digital control one, is implemented in rotor coordinates. It is a recursive algorithm which allows the imposition of the reference values of d and q current components. The digital control system directly synthesizes an output vector which imposes the timing control of the inverter by means of on/off state of the switches, thus avoiding the implementation of the traditional PI controllers and PWM technique. Due to the time required for the execution of the algorithm, the vector control has to be imposed with a delay of one sampling time. This drawback can be overcome by using very fast processors like FPGAs or by introducing the observed quantities instead of the measured ones in the recursive algorithm. Both the delayed control and the latter solution are considered in the paper. A computer simulation study, using the Matlab Simulink tool, is conducted on the drive. The simulation results are compared also with those obtained by simulating the traditional drive. The simulation study and the results comparison show the good performance of the proposed control algorithm.

200    N. Maamri, J.P. Gaubert, J.C. Trigeassou, S. Moreau, "Speed Controller Using Time Constrained Output Feedback for Permanent Magnet DC Motor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1153 - 1158 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a synthesis method for stabilizing controllers with a time constraint in the case of LTI (linear time invariant) systems is presented. In this case the controller structure and dynamics are fixed. The time constraint is expressed using equality between the time moments of the closed loop system and those of a reference model. The linear matrix inequality (LMI) formalism is used in the resolution. This theoretical analyse is applied to control a permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC). A complete simulation and also experimental results confirm the validity of the proposal method.

201    H. Abu-Rub, H. Schmirgel, J. Holtz, "Maximum Torque Production in Rotor Field Oriented Control of an Induction Motor at Field Weakening ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1159 - 1164 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a highly dynamic rotor flux- oriented control system of an induction motor in the field weakening region. The control system guarantees maximum torque production taking into account voltage and current limits. The approach permits operation without using a speed sensor. The system is investigated by simulation in real time and experimentally using a fixed point microcontroller.

202    I. Elosegui, M. Martinez-Iturralde, A.G. Rico, J. Florez, J.M. Echeverrfa, L. Fontan, "Analytical design of synchronous permanent magnet motor/generators ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1165 - 1170 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main purpose of the work presented in this paper is to obtain a simple and reliable analytical method for the pre-design of surface permanent magnet synchronous generators. With this aim in mind, a design algorithm based on several methods from the bibliography has been developed and programmed. The results from this pre-design have been contrasted by Finite Element Method models and also by testing a built-in permanent magnet synchronous generator prototype. The rotor of this prototype has been designing to get and skewed rotor in order to check data between skewed and non skewed rotor position.

203    S.M. Castano, J. Maixc, "Torque Control Optimization of a Switched Reluctance Motor Drive for a 42V Automotive Application ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1171 - 1176 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the application of an optimized torque controller for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) based on look-up tables. The method is based in the correct adjustment of the converter turn-on and turn-off angles with the purpose of improving the average torque. The final objective is the correct computation of switching angles when the motor is operating in a wide speed range to 42 V for an automotive application. The design of a T.5 kW, 4000 rpm, 8/6 SRM from a CAD-model was established in a previously communication. While the controller and its validation was entirely developed using Matlab-Simulink in conjunction with finite-element software.

204    H. Hannoun, M. Hilairet, C. Marchand, "Gain-scheduling PI current controller for a Switched Reluctance Motor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1177 - 1182 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Switched reluctance motor drives are under consideration in various applications requiring high performance applications such as in servomotor drives, electric vehicle propulsion and jet engine starter-generators. Current or torque control constitutes the heart of control in such drive systems to obtain the desired high bandwidth in torque and speed responses. The nonlinear characteristics due to magnetic saturation complicate the issue. This paper presents a design methodology for a digital proportional-integral current regulator : a gain adaptation is used with respect to both position and current to insure better performance and stability. In addition, a back ElectroMotive Force (EMF) compensation is included in order to eliminate its effect on current regulation. A comparative study of the classical PI current controller with the proposed gain scheduling PI current controller incorporating the induced EMF compensation is made.

205    G. Aguirre, F. Uriondo, J.R. Hernandez, "Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian Analysis of the Nonlinear Characteristic of a Three-Phase Alternator ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1183 - 1188 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We have applied the methods of the Bayesian probability theory as an alternative to the Potier's triangle construction to rigorously analyze the nonlinear characteristics of a saturated alternator. This analysis comprises the choice of the prior probabilities, the setting up of the models, the calculation of multidimensional integrals with MCMC sampling methods as implemented in the winBUGS software and the discussion of the results. Our objectives have been to clearly illustrate the main advantages of the method: first, its ability to take into account all the cogent information previously available about a given problem; second, the parameter estimation feature and, third, the possibility of performing a true model comparison.

206    Li Weil, Zhang Xiaochen, Chen Wenbiao, Cao Junci, "Numerical Analysis of Thermal Behavior of Canned Motor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1189 - 1194 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The electromagnetic fields of a canned motor was analyzed by using the improved finite element method, and the eddy loss in motor was obtained. The correlated thermal conductivity and the coefficient of heat transfer were also determined, based on which the numerical calculation model of temperature field of the canned motor was established. Taking the eddy loss from electromagnetic field calculation as the heat source of temperature field, the three-dimensional temperature fields of canned motors' stators were calculated. The calculated results show good agreement with the experiential data, which indicated that this method has good accuracy and the reliability for dealing with canned motor thermal behavior. In addition, the influence of stator can thickness and material on motor thermal behavior was also studied, and some beneficial conclusions could be obtained.

207    P. Alkorta, O. Barambones, A.J. Garrido, I. Garrido, "SVPWM Variable Structure Control of Induction Motor Drives ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1195 - 1200 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new proposal of speed vector control of induction motors based on robust adaptive VSC (variable structure control) law and its experimental validation. The presented control scheme incorporates the SVPWM (space vector pulse width modulation) instead of the traditional current hysteresis comparator. The SVPWM improves the quality of the stator currents, reducing the harmonics, while maintains the main characteristics that is usual in this kind of algorithm, like the fast response and good rejection to uncertainties and measurement noises. This regulator is also compared with the PI (proportional integral) controller designed in the frequency domain, in order to prove the good performance of the proposed controller. The two controllers have been tested using various simulation and real experiments, taking into account the parameter uncertainties and measurement noise in the loop signal, in the rotor speed and in the stator current. This work shows that the VSC regulator is more efficient than the traditional PI controller in both adverse conditions and suitable conditions. Finally, some practical recommendations for real experiment implementations are also given.

208    J. Pleite, V. Valdivia, P. Zumel, C. Gonzalez, "Transformer and Series Inductance Integration for Harmonic Filtering in PWM Inverters Based in a Simple Design Procedure ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1201 - 1206 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: PWM inverters are widely used in different power electronics applications. PWM waveforms have a harmonic content which should be filtered, typically based on LC topologies. If a transformer is required, the leakage inductance can be used as a series inductance for the LC filter. This work proposes an easy procedure for the integration of the series inductance for harmonic filtering inside the transformer, while the value of the leakage inductance can be determined by design.

209    P. Tomei, C.M. Verrelli, M. Montanari, A. Tilli, "Adaptive Learning Control for Induction Motor Servo Drives ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1207 - 1212 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The output feedback tracking control problem for induction motor servo drives with mechanical uncertainties is addressed. Under the assumption that the reference profile for the rotor angle is periodic with known period, an adaptive learning control is designed, which "learns" the non-structured unknown periodic disturbance signal due to mechanical uncertainties by identifying the Fourier coefficients of any truncated approximation, while guaranteing L2 and Linfin transient performances. It is shown that, for any motor initial condition belonging to an arbitrary given compact set: i) the guaranteed output tracking precision improves by increasing the number of terms in the truncated Fourier series; ii) when the unknown periodic disturbance can be represented by a finite Fourier series, it is exponentially reconstructed by the learning algorithm and exponential output tracking is achieved. Simulation results for a digital implementation of the proposed controller are provided.

210    S. Hassaine, S. Moreau, C. Ogab, B. Mazari, "Robust Speed Control of PMSM using Generalized Predictive and Direct Torque Control Techniques ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1213 - 1218 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces a generalized predictive controller (GPC) for the speed control of a PMSM. The performance of the proposed controller is evaluated in simulation and compared with a IP controller. The stator flux linkage and electromagnetic torque are controlled by (DTC) strategy. For the speed regulation, the generalized predictive control strategy is used. Simulation results indicate that the proposed (GPDTC) is reliable and effective for the speed control of the PMSM over a wide range of operations of the PMSM drive.

211    J.L. Villa, A. Llombart, J.F. Sanz, J. Sallan, "Practical Development of a 5 kW ICPT System SS Compensated with a Large Air gap ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1219 - 1223 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A 5 kW ICPT system with a large air gap of 20 cm has been developed and built for a battery charger of electric vehicles. The practical sizing, the best compensation topology and the operational frequency have been studied in order to get the maximum efficiency of the system. The study has been focused in showing the process of the prototype's implementation, validating the theoretical results and analyzing the influence of the frequency deviation with respect to the resonant frequency and the variation of the distance between the two coils in the behaviour of the system.

212    L. Capocchi, D. Federici, H. Henao, G.A. Capolino, "Simulation of AC Electrical Machines Behaviour Using Discrete Event System Simulator ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1224 - 1229 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the adaptation of AC electrical machine models for discrete event system simulator. The formalism chosen is DEVS (Discrete Event system Specification) which has been adapted recently for hybrid system simulation. The software PowerDEVS is close to MATLAB/Simulink(C) but without any toolbox adapted to power systems. As always, the model which is basically based on system of nonlinear differential equations has to be integrated to compute the output variables corresponding to any deterministic or stochastic inputs. In this way, the integrator atomic model has been optimized to perform many simulations with realistic CPU time. Results obtained with PowerDEVS and optimized graphical model have been validated by the same simulations using MATLAB/Simulink(C) as found in the classical literature.

213    M. Divandari, A. Koochaki, A. Maghsoodloo, H. Rastegar, J. Noparast, "High Performance SRM Drive with Hybrid Observer and Fuzzy Logic Torque Ripple Minimization ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1230 - 1235 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a high performance switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive based on hybrid observer (HO). The HO estimates the rotor position and speed for wide speed range. In addition, a fuzzy logic current compensator (PLCC) for reducing torque ripple has been presented. In the regions that torque reduces, the FLCC, inject additional current for each phase currents. This drive has been simulated with MATLAB/SIMULINK for nonlinear model of SRM. Simulation results show that proposed drive will estimate the rotor position and speed with high precision for all speeds (near zero speeds up to rated speed). Also, FLCC minimize the torque ripple and reduce speed estimation error, too. This drive has the advantages of robustness, high reliability and without extra hardware, drive performance has been improved.

214    T. Sawata, P. Sangha, M. Benarous, C. Maxwell, "Thermal Modeling of Brushless DC Motor and Brake Solenoid in Electro-Mechanical Actuators for the More Electric Aircraft Engine ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1236 - 1241 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the thermal modeling of a brushless dc motor and brake solenoid for electro-mechanical actuators developed for a prototype more electric aircraft engine. Lumped-parameter thermal circuits were modeled using a commercial package for the motor. An in-house tool was used to model the transient behavior of the solenoid, which was solved using the SimPowerSystems toolbox of Simulinkreg. The models were verified with experiments using constant dc current. Temperature rise and fall look-up tables were generated from the analysis and were used for dynamic simulation of the actuator system. A dynamic electro-mechanical model of the actuator system was implemented which calculates current waveforms for given operating conditions. Dynamic coil temperatures were calculated from the current waveforms and the look-up tables. This combined method provides a useful modeling tool to simulate the thermal and electro-mechanical characteristics of the actuator.

215    T. Aho, J. Nerg, J. Pyrhonen, "Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Solid Rotor End Effects ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1242 - 1247 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The effect of the rotor axial length on the medium- speed solid-rotor induction motor performance characteristics is studied. The measured electromagnetic torque of the solid-rotor induction motor is compared to the results obtained from the finite element calculations. According to laboratory measurements the effect of the solid iron rotor "end ring" length on the electromagnetic torque can be as high as 8 per cent in a case of 180 kW, 10200 rpm machine. Thus, three-dimensionality of a solid-rotor should be taken into account in two-dimensional finite element calculations. In this paper it is shown that the three- dimensionality can be taken into account with tolerable accuracy utilizing a corrective end-factor.

216    Cao Junci, Li Weili, Cheng Shukang, Zhang Xiaochen, "Material Characteristic Analysis and Different Load Performances Calculation of IMCCR ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1248 - 1251 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new type of induction motor with compound cage rotor (IMCCR), its bars composed of cast-aluminum and alloy is proposed. The kinetic equations and state equations of the motor are established, and the starting process of the induction motor is simulated and analyzed. Meanwhile the method employed to solve the two dimensional (2D) sinusoidal time-varying field is given. Taking the stator terminal voltage and the power equation as the constraint conditions, by iterating the stator currents and rotor slip respectively, the performances of the motor can be obtained. The starting process of the motor is simulated by state equations, and the operating performance is obtained by using finite element method. The performances are calculated for different rotor slot shapes and different alloys respectively. The better performances of the IMCCR are verified by comparing the induction motor with compound cage bar with ordinary induction motors.

217    C. Bruzzese, O. Honorati, E. Santini, "Harmonic Current Sideband-Based Novel Indicators of Broken Bars for On-line Evaluation of Industrial and Railway Cage Motor Faults ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1252 - 1257 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the authors present some original and effective fault indicators for broken bars detection in power squirrel cage induction motors. Motor Phase Current Signature Analysis (MPCSA) can be performed by evaluating the typical ratios I(7-2s)f/I5f and l(5+2s)f/I7f, I(13-2s)f/I11f and I(11+2s)f/I13f, etc., which appear in the phase current spectrum of faulted motors fed by non-sinusoidal low-switching-frequency voltage sources. Main advantages of the new indicators are: a) accentuate insensitivity to disturbs like load torque, drive inertia, and frequency variations, b) independence with respect to machine parameters and c) linear dependence on fault gravity. They can be directly applied on motors fed by GTO/Thyristor converters. Railway traction motor diagnostics is a possible target. The mathematical formulation has been based on the Multi- Phase Symmetrical Components Theory; parameter identification was obtained by 2D-3D FEM analyses; experimental work was performed by using a motor with an appositely prepared cage.

218    Jie Xiu, Chang-Liang Xia, "Modeling of Switched Reluctance Motor Based on Pi-sigma Neural Network ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1258 - 1263 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Flux linkage of switch reluctance motor is in nonlinear function of both rotor position and phase current. Establishing this nonlinear mapping is the base to compute the mathematical equations of switch reluctance motor accurately. In this paper, the pi-sigma neural network is employed to develop the nonlinear model of switch reluctance motor. By taking advantage of the benefit of neural network and Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy logic inference, the pi-sigma neural networks has a simple structure, less training epoch, fast computational speed and a property of robustness. Compared with the training data and generalization test data, the output data of the developed model are in good agreement with those data. The simulated current wave is also in good agreement with the measured current wave. This proves that the model developed in this paper has high accuracy, strong generalization ability, fast computational speed and characteristic of robustness.

219    C. Bruzzese, O. Honorati, E. Santini, "Evaluation of Classic and Innovative Sideband-Based Broken Bar Indicators by Using an Experimental Cage and a Transformed (n, m) Complex Model ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1264 - 1269 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this work the results of a measuring and simulation campaign performed on an experimental induction motor with artificial broken bars are presented, aiming to extract spectral current components useful for fault detection. With non- sinusoidal feeding a lot of frequencies other than (1-2s)f (lower- sideband, LSB) and (1+2s)f (upper-sideband, USB) arise, in proximity of low-order current harmonics, that can be good fault indicators. Current signature analysis-based techniques (CSABT) can take advantage by these harmonic current sidebands (HCSBs) since they are less dependent on load, frequency, drive inertia and motor parameters, so producing a better fault estimation. The measures were matched with simulations carried out by using a topologically complete mathematical complex model. Machine parameters were obtained by 2D and 3D FEA. A comparison between LSB/USB-based indicators (LUSBBIs) and HCSB-based indicators (HCSBBIs) suggests to use the latter whenever a broken bar diagnosis must be attempted for inverter-fed motors.

220    W. Liu, E. Schaeffer, D. Averty, L. Loron, "A new Approach for Form Wound Machine Goundwall Insulation Diagnosis by Means of High Frequency Model Parameter Monitoring ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1270 - 1275 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper investigates a new approach for stator winding insulation diagnosis. The guiding principle consists in modelling the input-output behavior of the groundwall insulation system in a high-frequency (HF) domain, ranging from several kHz to hundreds of MHz. The first motivation of this work is that this frequency area has been seldom used by conventional insulation diagnostic techniques such as partial discharge monitoring or time domain measurements. Another originality consists in modelling the groundwall insulation system with a diagnostic dedicated modelling approach, i.e. searching for the best tradeoff between simplicity for system identifiability and complexity for diagnosis abilities. More specifically, we try to distinguish between winding contamination (moisture, coal or metallic dust) and insulation material ageing because the maintenance procedures and their induced costs are very different for high voltage (HV)) machines ranging from a few to several kilovolts or more. At last, the theoretical and industrial constraints impose to use very efficient identification algorithms. Experiments have been carried out in order to appreciate the feasibility of this approach. A high voltage MOSFET pulse generator with ultra fast rise time has been specially designed. It allows to apply a high energy input excitation covering the wide frequency range required for the ground-wall insulation system identification. In order to isolate numerous phenomena which could be mixed together in an entire winding, the experiments first deal with stator bars and coils taken from high voltage induction machines. The first results are promising.

221    F. Chimento, V. Leucata, S. Musumeci, A. Raciti, C. Santonocito, M. Pasquali, "Analysis of Electric Machines for Small Hybrid Electric Traction ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1276 - 1281 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main aim of this work is the study and comparative analysis of electric motors for small vehicles. The utilization of these motors is devoted to the application in hybrid vehicles and, in particular, for the series connected configuration. Three feasible solutions of permanent magnet machines are proposed and discussed. In particular, the machines are permanent magnet motors with radial flux (two) and axial flux (one) structures. A preliminary design of the electrical machines is carried out by means of a traditional approach. Hence, the finite element method has been applied through the utilization of a commercial software that allowed to evaluate the values of both the electrical and electromagnetic fields, and to carry out a refined design of the machines. A trade off conclusion has finally been done by taking into account the advantages and drawbacks of the proposed propellers into the investigated configuration.

222    A. Fleury, F. dos Santos e Silva, J.L. Domingos, D.A. de Andrade, "A Switched Reluctance Generator Behavior under Different Conditions ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1282 - 1287 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The switched reluctance generator - SRG and its converters are the subjects of this article. It deals with this power machine grid connected through a rectified DC link. Mathematical and computing models used in simulations are presented. The power converter topologies implemented work well and a proposed alternative is cheaper and more efficient than the conventional half-bridge structure. Furthermore, this alternative converter allows supplying the load from the grid even when the SRG is not running. Simulation results and tests results are presented. It is shown that the SRG works as expected and it is stable under different constant speeds.

223    J. San Martin, J. Pontt, J. Rodriguez, J. Dixon, "New Methodology for Analysis and Diagnosis of Sympathetic Interaction of Inrush Currents in Power Transformers for Detecting Abnormal Operating Conditions ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1288 - 1293 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for fast detection and identification of abnormal conditions in electrical systems. Modeling and simulation of most common operations of the system are simulated to create a database containing several patterns of performance under different abnormal operation conditions. The methodology has been tested to identify abnormal operating condition caused by sympathetic interaction of inrush currents in power transformers. Experimental validation of this method was allowing good current pattern identification and a good performance of the methodology was reached.

224    C. Gonzalez, J. Pleite, V. Valdivia, J. Sanz, "An overview of the On Line Application of Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1294 - 1299 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of on line application of frequency response analysis technique, this mean, without needing to interrupt the power supply. The electric utility industry is in the age of transition from periodic maintenance to condition based maintenance on essential substation power transformers in an effort to lower maintenance costs and maximize the use of existing equipment. The development of on-line diagnostics is in the critical path to achieve the condition based maintenance goal for power transformers. However, it is not clear how to deal with this project and multiple proceedings are possible. According to FRA, there is not a well establish procedure to develop the maintenance technique. This paper tries to show different methods and future trends to carry out the FRA measurements without disconnecting the transformer.

225    Murat Barut, Seta Bogosyan, "Sensorless Sliding Mode Position Control of Induction Motors Using Braided Extended Kalman Filters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2268 - 2273 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This study is aimed at designing a sensorless sliding mode position control system for the rotor flux oriented Direct Vector Control (DVC) strategy of induction motors (IMs). For this purpose, a novel sliding mode controller (SMC) with reduced-chattering is designed for the control of the flux and angular position of the motor. All the states required for DVC in addition to the step-shaped load torque, stator resistance and rotor resistance are estimated using Braided EKF based observers. The performance of the new SMC is compared against a previously developed chattering-free SMC scheme. The simulation results demonstrate an improved robustness in the system response against parameter and load variations. It has also been demonstrated that the new Braided EKF technique used in the proposed sliding mode position control system also increases estimation accuracy of estimations when compared with chattering-free SMC under challenging variations of 100 % in the load and stator & rotor resistance.

226    S. Georges, M. Rita, P.-D. Maria, D. De Bernard, "Mixed sensitivity H control of doubly fed induction doubly fed induction motor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1300 - 1304 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with a Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) of which both stator and rotor are supplied by two voltage source inverters. The study consists in elaborating a robust vector control of the machine using the mixed sensitivity H, approach. The mixed sensitivity H theory is presented in brief, and then the robust control of the DFIM is done. Simulation results prove that the implementation of the H, controllers in the DFIM leads to robustness in stability and satisfying dynamic performance for stator and rotor currents, fluxes, torque and speed even when the electrical and mechanical parameters vary.

227    C. Gerada, K. Bradley, C. Whitley, G. Towers, "Integrated Machine design for Electro Mechanical Actuation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1305 - 1310 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes work on an integrated electro mechanical actuator intended as a technology demonstrator to satisfy future aircraft requirements for a typical mid spoiler actuation system for a large civil aircraft. The design and analysis of a directly coupled motor to a roller screw without any intermediate gear box will be detailed in this paper. The main goals of the design are a high level of actuator integration in order to minimize weight and volume, fault tolerance and high reliability.

228    E. Serna, M. Pacas, "Limitations on Detecting Rotor Asymmetries from the Measured Currents in Closed Loop Operation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1311 - 1316 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: New techniques for the detection of faults in closed- loop drives have been recently developed that need to monitor both motor voltages and currents. This paper investigates the diagnosis of rotor asymmetries in field oriented controlled induction machines based on the measured currents and speed. First, an analysis to elucidate how some characteristic features of the control affect the fault propagation is made. In particular, the influence of the outer and the inner control loops, the EMF and cross coupling terms, the estimated angle of orientation and the resolution of the measured rotor angular position are investigated. Then, different scenarios are designed by means of simulations and experiments, and the limitations of using merely currents for the diagnosis are established. Second, an indicator calculated online from the torque producing current and the orientation angle is used to corroborate the conclusions derived from the previous analysis.

229    K. Draxler, R. Styblikova, "Influence of Instrument Transformers on Quality of Electrical Power and Energy Measurement ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1317 - 1321 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a relation for resulting error by measurement of electric power or energy at high voltage networks using instrument transformers. A dependence of instrument transformer errors on their parameters, measured current or voltage and burden is theoretically derived. Theoretical results are completed with results of measurement on transformers for 22 kV network.

230    Won-Gon Kim, Sang-Jun Cho, Ji-won Kim, Hyungshic-Oh, Jang-Mok Kim, "Control of Transverse Flux Linear Motor to the linear and curve section by using low-cost position sensors ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1322 - 1327 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the mathematical model of 2-phase permanent magnet-type transverse flux linear motor (2-phase PM-type TFLM) is acquired by including the static electromagnetic analysis of the motor and the several experimental data of the steady state. In addition, the new position detection algorithm of 2-phase PM-type TFLM is developed, and applied to linear and curve section by using low- cost position sensor not only in the linear but also curve section. Then the usefulness of the proposed algorithm is verified through the computer simulation and the several experimentations.

231    K. Bouallaga, M. Poloujadoff, F.X. Bernard, R. Goyet, "Research of a strategy for battery charging with an asynchronous generator at variable speed ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1328 - 1333 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the generator operation of an induction machine connected to a battery through a rectifier-inverter circuit is presented. The range of permissible frequencies and slip frequencies are derived from the classical equivalent circuit. Optimum operations are then defined in the plane (frequency, slip frequency), in view of establishing efficient control strategies.

232    P. Gamboa, S. Ferreira Pinto, J. Fernando Silva, E. Margato, "Predictive Optimal Control of Unity-Power-Factor Matrix Converters used in Field Oriented Controlled Induction Motor Drives ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1334 - 1339 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents predictive optimal control applied to field oriented controlled induction machine drives employing a matrix converter with input current control and near unity input power factor. The method uses a discrete-time model of the converter system to predict the future values of the output and input currents for all the 27 possible output voltage vectors generated by the matrix converter. The optimal controller minimizes output current (allowing the establishment of field oriented control) and input current errors using a cost functional with adequate weights. The performance of the proposed predictive control is validated by numerical simulations, which are also compared to Venturini modulation.

233    A. Saleh, A. Shaltout, M. Pacas, "Fault Tolerant Field Oriented Control of Induction Motor for Loss of One Inverter Phase with Re-starting Capability ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1340 - 1345 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a novel strategy for restarting the three phase induction motor in a voltage fed field oriented drive operating in the single phase mode after the loss of one of the inverter phases. The proposed method makes use of the readily presented switches for isolating the machine phase corresponding to the faulty inverter leg in the fault tolerant induction motor drive. With the aid of the two healthy inverter phases, three phases of the machine and sequential switching of two switches, block currents are fed into the machine to produce net average positive torque capable of restarting the machine. After the machine reaches a suitable speed the control structure is changed to the single phase field orientated mode of operation. The strategy is verified by computer simulation on a 10 kW induction machine.

234    H. Bouridah, F. Mansour, R. Mahamdi, P. Temple-boyer, "Effect of Nitrogen on Boron doped Polysilicon Thin Films Properties ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1346 - 1349 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we discuss the influence of the chemical interaction between boron and nitrogen introduced in polysilicon thin layers by using two different doping modes, on electrical and structural properties of boron and nitrogen codoped polysilicon thin films. The in-situ nitrogen doped silicon samples are obtained by LPCVD at low temperature (465degC) by a mixture of disilane (Si2H6) and ammonia (NH3). This stage of deposit is followed by boron ionic implantation. The B-N pairs are identified by FTIR spectroscopy analysis. Results show an increase on the peak surface when the nitrogen concentration increases. The electrical and structural investigations show that, after thermal annealing, both resistivity and crystallinity of films strongly depend on nitrogen doping level. It has been observed that higher nitrogen doping tends to increase resistivity and decrease crystallinity of thin films. These results can be explained by a reduction of the boron density electrically active and thus, an inhibition of the crystalline growth caused by the B-N complex formation

235    N. Ogawa, Y. Iida, T. Yagi, "Fusion between Fluidic Actuator and Optics ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1350 - 1355 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is very useful to control fluid actuator by means of various inputs to apply for wide applications. Especially if we can control the actuator by optical method, wide application of that is considered in optical micro-machine. Fluidic device controlled by light have investigated, however these are dealt in micro- or nano- world. This investigation pioneers control method of normal size fluidic actuator by means of radiation pressure of light as inputs.

236    J.P. Carmo, P.M. Mendes, J. Afonso, C. Couto, J.H. Correia, "A 2.4-GHz wireless sensor network for smart electronic shirts integration ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1356 - 1359 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A typical sensing module is composed of sensors, interface electronics, a radio-frequency (RF) CMOS transceiver and an associated antenna. A 2.4-GHz RF transceiver chip was fabricated in a UMC 0.18 mum CMOS process. The receiver has a sensibility of -60 dBm and consumes 6.3 mW from a 1.8 V supply. The transmitter delivers an output power of 0 dBm with a power consumption of 11.2 mW. Innovative topics concerning efficient power management was taken into account during the design of the transceiver. A solution of individual sensing modules allows a plug-and-play solution. The target application is the integration of a wireless sensor network in smart electronic shirts, for monitoring the cardio-respiratory function and posture.

237    Li Huijun, Song Aiguo, Zhang Hao, "Development of a force-assistant tele-rehabilitation system for the stroke ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1360 - 1364 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The goal of this study was to design a prototype of tele-rehabilitation system with force assistance that can be administered in both clinic and home therapy environments. A rehabilitation robotic device with its controller is designed to stretch and mobilize the impaired upper-limb safely and the interaction force and trajectory are sent to the server. The therapist in the hospital can control/monitoring the procedure and assess the effect of treatment remotely. Force-assistant tuning PID control scheme is introduced to adapt to different patient's status. VR-based training interface is developed to inspire the subject's motivation. Result shows that the robotic arm can track the predictive trajectory on the whole although there are interaction forces between the upper-limb and the rehabilitation system. Compared with the traditional hospital-based therapy, this system is more cost-efficient and more convenient for both the stroke patients and the clinicians. Further work in this area would involve experimentation with real patients to determine the efficacy of this system in a therapy.

238    Qu Ri, Bao Yanru, "Study of Event Recognition Method of Ticket Gate in Urban Mass Transit ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1365 - 1370 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Since sequences of events can be used to describe a motion process, a method based on event recognition is presented. Infrared sensors are used to detect actions, events and activities of motion units for a transit of passengers. A motion unit refers to the person(s) or (and) object(s) that is (are) continuous in space and has (have) the same size as one person. When motion units pass through the walkway of the ticket gate, an action sequence is obtained. According to the predefined activities and events, the action sequence is converted into an event one. The number of the motion units is the number of the transit event pairs in the event sequence. And each of motion units is taken as one passenger in the transit. The recognition method is tested by using the simulation software called GS and the ticket gate developed in this paper. The test results prove that the recognition method is effective.

239    C. Jackson, H. Vermaak, G. Jordaan, "Force Sensing for Dynamic Gripping, Using a Piezoelectric Sensor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1371 - 1376 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There is a quest in the field of robotics for an automated dynamic gripper with characteristics as close as possible to that of the human hand. In this paper an automated robot gripper is described that achieves preset levels of gripping force for a certain task. It utilises dynamic gripping through the use of piezoelectric sensors. Analysis of the output pulse from the piezoelectric film indicates the velocity of gripping, deceleration and the total force the gripper is inducing on the gripped object. Piezoelectric film is chosen for its superior sensitivity and structural simplicity over the typical metal-foil strain gauges. The paper shows that, compared to three dimensional analysis, object handling using dynamic fingertip force sensing is a cheaper and more accurate solution.

240    L. Cvitas, Z. Hocenski, "Automated Measurement System for Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometer Manufacturing Industry ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1377 - 1380 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the automated measurement system implemented in the manufacturing of platinum resistance thermometers that gives the possibility to measure, save and analyzes the quality of the main thermometer parameters. The main topic of this work is quick but accurate method to measure as many as possible count of measuring inserts in the certain time interval, the identification and storing the results in the production data base and analyzing the data of the large number of measured PRT-s. Some dependence can be determined by using the proper queries over the very production data base; e.g. alpha parameter versus insert length and others.

241    S.G. Akojwar, R.M. Patrikar, "Neural Networks based Real Time Classifier for Wireless Sensor Networks and Framework for VLSI Implementation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1381 - 1386 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Wireless sensor network is highly data driven network. Communication between the nodes consumes higher quantum of battery power. Battery is the prime source for wireless sensor node to function. Hence every aspects of sensor node are designed with energy constraints. The paper discusses classification technique, which can reduce the energy need for communication. Neural Networks in particular the combination of ART1 and Fuzzy ART model are efficiently used for developing Real time Classifier. Wireless sensor networks demand for the real time classification of sensor data. In this paper clustering and classification techniques using ART1 and Fuzzy ART is discussed. ART1 and Fuzzy ART have very good architectural strategy, which makes it simple for VLSI implementation. The VLSI implementation of the proposed classifier can be a part of embedded microsensor.

242    R.B. Sadeghian, M. Kahrizi, "A Low Pressure Gas Ionization Sensor Using Freestanding Gold Nanowires ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1387 - 1390 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Freestanding gold nanowires (AuNWs) were grown by electrochemically filling the nanoscale pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, and removing the membrane selectively. The array of vertically-aligned AuNWs was used at one of the electrodes of a capacitor-like gas ionizing cell, while the counter electrode was a polished silicon wafer coated with aluminum. The field enhancement property of high aspect-ratio AuNWs was employed to reduce the gaseous breakdown voltage (Vb) at room temperature. The device was operated in low-pressure gas to study the effect of AuNWs on pre-breakdown current, and tested in sub-torr argon, where it demonstrated considerable reduction in the breakdown voltage compared to uniform field conditions. The effect of nanowire polarity on Vb and the pre-breakdown discharge current was also studied.

243    A. Boura, M. Husak, "Digitally Tunable Section for an Analog Current-Mode Predistortion ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1391 - 1394 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper describes a circuit system which is able to process an analog current mode signals. It is intended to use it as a preamplifier and corrector of the transfer characteristic of some kind of sensor. The circuit is based on the sub-threshold CMOS multiplying cells. Those cells are interconnected by the current mirrors to form a circuit with desired transfer characteristic. There are two ways how to use this circuit. It can be used for direct linearization (pre-distortion) of the signal from the sensor or it can be encircled by a negative feedback in order to realize the inverse function. The circuit is dedicated for slow signals and for extremely low power applications. The transfer characteristic is tunable aid four ten-bit digital to analog converters. The program CADENCE and the CMOS 180 nm technology were used for simulations.

244    G. de Graaf, W. van der Vlist, R.F. Wolffenbuttel, "Design and Fabrication of an Infrared Microspectrometer using Attenuated Total Reflection ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1395 - 1399 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a concept for a fully integrated spectrometer system based on Attenuated Total Reflection. Operation is in the mid-infrared spectral range (lambda = 1.8 mum-5 mum). The approach allows micromachined integration of all critical components of the system: a thermal IR source, optical filtering, the ATR element, a detector array and a signal processing chip. Two bulk-micromachined silicon dies are used. The wideband light source and detector array for analysing the spectrum are fabricated in the bottom die. Polysilicon heaters on thin oxide- nitride bridges are used as the IR emitter and polysilicon thermocouples on thin membranes as IR detectors. The interaction between the sample and the evanescent field of the internally reflected IR beam takes place at the top die, which contains the bulk silicon ATR element Other optical components, required for defining the path of the IR light beam, like gratings, mirrors, transmission filters, Fresnel lenses and slits, can be fabricated on the top die also.

245    A. Golfarelli, M. Battigaglia, R. Codeluppi, M. Tartagni, "Novel Technique for Real Time Individual Object Sorting ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1400 - 1405 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The content of the present paper aims at seeking faster speed and lower cost methods for characterizing granular objects in general, and cereal grains in particular. The approach is based on simultaneous cross-combined optical and impedimetric sensing techniques in the MHz range, applied to flowing streams so as to determine real-time 3D morphological characterization of single objects. The main advantages of the proposed approach rely on the high discriminatory capacity of the object classes and on the high degree of parallelism, capable of processing large amounts of material on production lines. The use of integrated electronic systems also allows high operative speed, easy calibration and flexibility to the required classification features.

246    B. Elias, P. Mahonen, "Pedestrian Recognition Based on 3D Image Data ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1406 - 1411 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a pedestrian classification system using 3D imaging information. The system consists of a photonic mixer device sensor (PMD), infrared lightsources and image processing algorithms. We present an example of an active safety system to protect pedestrians, describe a pedestrian classification using 3D image image processing, and give suggestions for further optimization of the software. The focus of this work is the description of main features which are required in order to accomplish a reliable classification. The task of the classification algorithms is to classify sensor objects either into the category pedestrians or the category non-pedestrians. After taking a closer look at image processing and measurement results we draw the conclusion that a multisensor approach is an inevitable requirement in order to fulfil the strict requirements of an exemplary active safety system given in this paper. Finally, the paper explains improvements of the classification on the basis of feature level fusion using 2D and 3D sensor systems.

247    M. Alassir, J. Denoulet, O. Romain, P. Garda, "Modeling I2C Communication Between SoCs with SystemC-AMS ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1412 - 1417 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we show how to mode the I2C bus communications between the nodes of an embedded system. For this purpose, we use the SystemC-AMS model of an I2C bus controller IP based on the PFC8584. Then we show how this IP can be included into two kinds of embedded systems nodes: on the one hand a 8051 micro-controller node, on the other hand a MIPS based SOC node. Finally the simulation results show the successful operation of the multi-master I2C bus communications between these two nodes in SystemC-AMS. Moreover the SystemC-AMS simulation introduces a small 10% overhead over the digital SystemC simulation for the two nodes multi-master I2C communication.

248    S. Heinz, A. Lange, K. Erler, G. Ebest, W. Miesch, J. Dietrich, J. Knopke, W. Pfau, "High-Voltage Amplifier Design for MEMS based Switching Arrays in Wavelength-Division Multiplexing Networks ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1412 - 1417 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper describes the design requirements of integrated high-voltage amplifiers for large MEMS based arrays which consist of electrostatically driven actuators. Such actuators are applied in optical switching arrays for cross connects in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks. Besides a new calculation approach for the efficiency of amplifier operation modes a new concept of level-shifter circuitry for switching output stages of high-voltage amplifiers is presented and compared with conventionally level-shifter circuits.

249    G. Domenech-Asensi, R. Ruiz-Merino, J.-A. Diaz Madrid, H. Neubauer, "Evaluation of VHDL-AMS models of a high performance ADC ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1424 - 1429 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High performance analog to digital converters are a key element for the development of high resolution image sensors. Engineers are continuously developing faster, more resolution, and less power dissipation converters suitable to be used in high resolution television cameras or portable image processing devices. Design of such circuits is a challenging task which requires a combination of the most advanced digital techniques and the analog expertise knowledge. However, in such circuits the analog part represents only a small portion of the total die, but it is a bottleneck which dominates the total design time. To reduce the simulation time it becomes necessary the use of high level models with a good trade off between accuracy and simulation speed. In this paper performance of two different VHDL-AMS high level models of a pipeline ADC are compared. Both approaches are evaluated versus a SPICE model of the real pipeline ADC.

250    A. Lange, S. Heinz, K. Erler, G. Ebest, R. Lerner, U. Eckoldt, K. Schottmann, "Modeling the Leakage Current of Dielectric Isolation Structures in a High-Voltage Semiconductor Technology ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1430 - 1434 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: System-in-package integration becomes more and more important in the growing market of micromechanical sensors and actuators. The most important group of actuators are those based on the electrostatic working principle. Because of the high voltages used to drive these actuators, new methods of isolation need to be introduced. In this paper we will characterize and model the electrical behavior of such an isolation technology. A simple device model to regard parasitic effects of this isolation during the process of circuit design will be introduced.

251    R.N. Dean, G.T. Flowers, A.S. Hodel, G. Roth, S. Castro, R. Zhou, A. Moreira, A. Ahmed, "On the Degradation of MEMS Gyroscope Performance in the Presence of High Power Acoustic Noise ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1430 - 1434 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Due to their reduced size, cost, and power requirements relative to traditional gyroscopes, MEMS gyroscopic sensors are finding increasing use in many applications. It is well known that unshielded MEMS gyroscopes can be vulnerable to both mechanical shock and high frequency vibrations. The results of this investigation indicate that MEMS gyroscopes are also susceptible to high power, high frequency content acoustic noise. Acoustic energy frequency components that are close to the resonating frequency of the proof mass in the MEMS gyroscope can produce undesirable motion of the proof mass, resulting in corruption in the angular rate measurement. If the acoustic signals possess enough power in the vicinity of the sensor resonating frequency, the resulting degradation in sensor performance can be severe enough to render the angular rate measurements useless.

252    A.V. Fernandes, C. Pinheiro, J.G. Rocha, G. Minas, "Smart-Optical Detector Array in CMOS for Absorbance Measurement of Physiological Fluids ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1441 - 1446 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a smart-optical detector array for application in microchip size analytical laboratories for physiological fluids measurement by absorbance. For this purpose, an array of optical detectors with analog-to-digital conversion is designed and fabricated in a standard CMOS process. Its application is in the low-cost measurement of physiological fluids by optical absorption, e.g., a microplate cuvette array containing the physiological fluids in analysis is placed on top of the optical detector array that quantify the light absorbed by those fluids. The on-chip analog-to-digital conversion is performed using a one-bit first-order sigma-delta converter for each optical detector. The output signal of the device is a bit stream containing information about the absorbed light, which allows simple computer interfacing. This scheme of having simultaneous measurement of the light absorbed by the fluids avoids the errors that can be introduced due to the light fluctuations and performs on-chip calibration during each measurement allowing a non-calibrated light source.

253    I. Urriza, L.A. Barragan, J.I. Artigas, J. Acero, D. Navarro, J.M. Burdio, "Using Mixed-Signal Simulation to Design a Digital Power Measurement System for Induction Heating Home Appliances ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1447 - 1451 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Mixed-simulation tools arise as efficient tools in the design flow of power converter controllers. Nowadays power converters are controlled by digital circuits modeled using hardware description languages. These models are validated by simulation and mixed signal simulators provide a way to simulate the system as a whole. In this work we present the use of these tools in the design and validation of a power measurement system.

254    Yi-Cheng Huang, Chi-Fan Chen, "Development of an Innovative Pre-stressed PZT Actuator by FEA and Experiment Verification ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1452 - 1457 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel redesign of the prestress mechanism of the stack-type piezoelectric ceramic actuator is provided. Belleville (disc) springs which have a specific height-to-thickness ratio are constructed to generate a constant pre-stress force to the PZT and operated in a special condition. The prestress mechanism is not only used to against the tensile stress but also used to improve the output performance of the actuator. The simulation of the structural behavior is constructed and analyzed in ATILA program by modifying the related parameters of the piezoelectric and the elastic materials, the modal and harmonic analysis are both established in the FEA model. The feasibility of the pre-stress experiment is determined by the simulation result subsequently in this paper. The comparison of the output force and the natural frequency of the pretress mechanism between the different settings of the actuator designed in this study and the commercial products reveal that the linearity of the output force can be maintain and the new prestress mechanism exhibits an extremely low natural frequency which approach to zero as height-to-thickness ratio of the Belleville springs equal to radic2 . It means our new mechanical concept of the actuator can effectively promote the output efficiency which preserves the output force linearity of the piezoelectric ceramic; the excitation of the PZT or external vibration cannot establish the resonant frequency condition due to the improved design of the prestress mechanism.

255    A. Jimenez, A. Hernandez, J. Urena, J.J. Garcia, J.M. Villadangos, M. Mazo, C. De Marziani, M.C. Perez, "Piezopolymeric Transducer for Ultrasonic Sensorial Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1452 - 1457 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a prototype of an ultrasonic transducer based on electromechanical film (EMFi). This electromechanical film provides a wide bandwidth response, useful for robotic applications. Furthermore, its sensitivity is constant enough to allow echo-pulse measurement in the desired frequency range. The emission patterns are obtained for different configurations, verifying the correspondence between experimental data and theoretical piston-like model. Results suggest that the polymer can be suitably used as a broadband ultrasonic transducer, in order to improve performances in ultrasonic sensorial systems, where the emission encoding with binary sequences, and the used modulation schemes, require considerably large bandwidth.

256    L. Mol, R.F. Wolffenbuttel, E. Cretu, L.A. Rocha, "Full-Gap Positioning of Parallel-Plate Electrostatic MEMS Using On-off Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1464 - 1468 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Electrostatic parallel-plate actuators are classically limited to displacements up to 1/3 of the gap due to the pull-in effect [1],[2|. A closed-loop feedback based method presented in [3] is recently introduced to overcome this limitation. Optimized structures are designed to minimize residual position ripple while maintaining bandwidth, effectively reducing the required device size of positioning electrostatic actuators by a factor three.

257    A.J. Lopez-Martin, A. Carlosena, "Versatile Automotive Sensor Interface ASIC ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1469 - 1472 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We present a fully integrated CMOS sensor interface. The architecture is highly programmable, allowing a wide range of potential automotive and industrial applications. The interface circuit has been fabricated in a high-voltage CMOS process including on-chip voltage regulation to minimize the number of external components required and thus to reduce cost. The silicon area of the interface is 6.9 mm2 (including pads). As an application example, the circuit has been employed for contact- less angle measurement, leading to maximum errors after calibration of plusmn0.5deg in an angular range exceeding 100deg.

258    J.M. Villadangos, J. Urena, M. Mazo, A. Hernandez, C. De Marziani, A. Jimenez, F. Alvarez, "Improvement of Cover Area in Ultrasonic Local Positioning System Using Cylindrical PVDF Transducer ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1473 - 1477 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work describes the design of a reflector for a PVDF-based ultrasonic transducer (Piezofilm transducer) to carry out a ultrasonic beacon system, where the covered area be improved and a 3D indoor positioning be guaranteed. The proposed Local Positioning System (LPS) for Mobile Robots (MR) uses simultaneous emissions from ultrasonic beacons. In order to solve the problem of simultaneous emissions from ultrasonic beacons, the well-known technique Direct Sequence Code Multiple Division Access (DS-CDMA) is used. This technique encodes the ultrasonic signal with a 127-bit Gold code for every beacon. It implies the emitted signal by every beacon to have a wide bandwidth. PVDF-based transducers suitably guarantee this requirement. Their cylindrical or semi-cylindrical shape makes the emission pattern not suitable when using them as ultrasonic beacons, often located in the ceiling of an indoor room. To adapt the emission pattern and to increase the covered area in the ground, the design process of a conical reflector is described.

259    L. Li, S. Aoyagi, Y. Arai, N. Tagawa, "Development of composite multi-layered PZT thin films for microactuator ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1478 - 1481 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: It is necessary to develop high performance microactuator in order to achieve it operating at very low applied voltage. This paper describes the development of composite multi-layered PZT thin films for microactuator. The piezoelectric properties for 8 kinds of composite multi-layered PZT thin films are fabricated and studied. The ferroelectric polarization - electric (P-E) hysteresis loops of the films is also measured and discussed. According to the results of P-E hysteriesis loops, for these different composite films, most optimum composite form - sol-gel + sputter composite double-layered PZT thin films, which combined with conventional RF sputtering and sol-gel processing methods, exhibit excellent remnant polarization and coercive fields of 14.87 uC/cm2 and 32.359 KV/cm in 5 V and 25.46 uC/cm2 and 41.94 KV/cm in 7 V, respectively. The crystalline structure and growth behavior of films have been studied by X-ray diffraction. The sol-gel + sputter composite double-layered PZT thin films lead to the highly (111) oriented PZT thin films. Moreover the applications of the composite double-layered PZT thin films, the diaphragm micro actuator for ultrasonic sensor is developed.

260    S. Biehl, D. Mayer, "Dynamic Characterisation of Piezo resistive Sensor Systems for Adaptronic Devices ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1482 - 1484 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the static and dynamic characterisation of novel piezo resistive diamond like carbon layers which can be fabricated with high hardness and wear resistance. The advantage of these films, deposited in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process (PECVD), is the possibility to integrate them in a stiff environment for the detection of load. This is due to the fact, that they do not need any deformation like stain gauges. This property makes them interesting for adaptronic applications.

261    L. Gil, E. Garcia-Breijo, J.M. Barat, R. Martinez-Manez, J. Soto, F. Baena, J. Ibanez, E. Llobet, "Analysis of Fish Freshness by Using Metallic Potentiometric Electrodes ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1482 - 1484 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We report herein the development of a simple electronic system that uses simple potentiometric electrodes applied to the analysis fish freshness. The array of sensors is built by using metallic electrodes as plain sharp wires or in a thick-film configuration. Experiments on real fish led to the conclusion that gold and silver electrodes are suitable for the development of qualitative systems able to classify fish in relation to its freshness. Equipment based on a microprocessors programmed with fuzzy logic can be developed for in situ monitorization of fish quality.

262    P. Vale, T. Rua, P.M. Mendes, "Implantable Wireless Microsystem for Physiological Functions Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1491 - 1495 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work present a new solution for wireless control of functional electrical implantable systems. A microsystem, with integrated antenna, is proposed to replace the cables implanted during standard surgical procedure. The integrated antenna allows the transmission of energy from an external controller to the internal actuator, avoiding therefore long transmission cables within the body, quite susceptible to failures. The main target under analysis is a solution for controlling the inferior urinary system. The use of such device in restoring the urinary function of injured persons, employing sacral anterior root stimulation (S2-S5), is known to be extremely effective in increasing bladder volume, promoting full emptying of the bladder, reducing enormously the bladder infections and improving greatly the patient's quality of life. The feasibility of implanting the proposed microsystem directly next to the base of the spine, is examined. Experimental data is obtained to characterize: tissue attenuation for different carrier frequencies, misalignment between the external and internal antenna and distance between them. It was verified the possibility to use a frequency of 13.5 MHz for a tissue thickness of 4 cm.

263    K. Arshak, E. Jafer, "A Wireless Sensor Network System for Pressure and Temperature Signals Monitoring ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1496 - 1501 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this work, a design of wireless system for multi- sensors monitoring has been presented. The main purpose of this research is to develop an efficient telemetry system for measuring water pressure and temperature signals. The system reads data from two types of sensors, resistive and capacitive. Anderson circuit configuration has been used for the resistive sensor, since it offers linear like behavior. The capacitive interface is based on capacitance-frequency-voltage conversion that uses phase lock loop (PLL) to convert the frequency to voltage. A developed pressure sensors based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was used to evaluate the performance of the capacitive interface. Two mechanisms have been adopted to reduce the overall power consumption. These are power scheduling and wakeup circuit for the capacitive interface. The first one is implemented fully by the micro-controller unit (MCU) in order to switch on/off all the system units. A wakeup circuit has been designed to interrupt the MCU when it is in the sleep mode and the capacitive samples are changing significantly. A platform for wireless sensor network (WSN) has been developed so that the receiver side can communicate with more than one sensor node.

264    J.L. Fernandez, M.J. Souto, D.P. Losada, R. Sanz, E. Paz, "Communication framework for sensor-actuator data in mobile robots ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1502 - 1507 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we present a CAN based communication system to connect sensors and actuators in a mobile robot platform and integrate them in a specific navigation architecture. The goal of this work is to provide a simple, flexible and open system that allows connecting different hardware components in a mobile robot. Sensor and actuator modules can be connected or disconnected to a computer while the system is working in a similar way that USB devices work. The system has been tested in our mobile robot Rato to replace the old sensor system and has proven to integrate a ring of sonar sensors and a set of tactile sensors in our navigation architecture.

265    M. Okano, M.K. Kurosawa, "Study on Modeling of Surface Acoustic Wave Motor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1508 - 1513 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An equivalent modeling of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) motor is proposed. The equivalent model has an advantage to simulate the motor operating conditions such as speed and output force that is required for design of a servo system. From an investigation for measurements of the motor operation in detail the modeling was carried out. The output force of the motor was measured precisely including a dead zone i.e. no response area at lower driving voltage. The output force and damping coefficient dependences on the driving voltage were introduced into the model with a first lag term due to a slider mass. The motor response at falling down to stop was also introduced. Then the motor model was built fully taking care of the nonlinear characteristics. Simulation results using the motor model concurred well with the measurement results; the model represented the mechanical property of the motor including the nonlinearity.

266    C.M.J. Serodio, P. M. M. A. Silva, J.L. Monteiro, "A Java Virtual Machine for Smart Sensors and Actuators ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1514 - 1519 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Java technology enables systems built with different computing platforms to act as a homogeneous entity, where all components are compatible with each other, not only at the executable code level but also in the way that they communicate, store and deal with data. Besides the utilization in the higher levels of SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems, Java can also be utilized in devices found on the field level, where sensors and actuators are. However, those systems are known to have low resources in what concerns to memory amount and processing power, when compared with the traditional platforms capable of running Java. A Java virtual machine to run in low resources systems, based on 8-bit microcontrollers, was implemented. This virtual machine is specialized for data acquisition and actuation tasks, so it can be utilized in sensor and actuator systems. The developed prototype can run Java code previously installed on its internal memory or can dynamically download it from the network. For downloading the Java code and to communicate with other systems, the developed prototype was built with support for CAN (controller area network) communications.

267    T. Khalid, Z. Mourad, C. Jean-Bernard, B. Mohammed, "Bayesian Bootstrap Filter for integrated GPS and Dead Reckoning Positioning ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1520 - 1524 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Localization of vehicles in road environments is an important task in the field of developing driver assistance systems. The localization performance of a navigation system can be improved by coupling different types of sensors. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of Global Positioning System (GPS) and dead reckoning (DR) technology is put forward. The measurement results from DR and GPS sensors are fused by using Bayesian bootstrap filtering (BBF). Bootstrap filter is a filtering method based on Bayesian state estimation and Monte Carlo method, which has the great advantage of being able to handle any functional non-linearity and system and/or measurement noise of any distribution. Experimental result demonstrates that the bootstrap filter gives better positions estimate than the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF).

268    L.M. Goncalves, J.G. Rocha, S. Lanceros-Mendez, "Flexible X-Ray Detector Based on the Seebeck Effect ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1525 - 1529 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Basically, there are two main methods to detect the energy and intensity of an X-ray beam, known as the direct method and the indirect method. In the direct method, the X-rays are absorbed by a pn junction or a photoconductive layer and directly converted into an electric signal. In the indirect method, a scintillator absorbs the X-rays, and converts them into visible or near-visible light. The visible light is then converted to an electrical signal by means of a photodetector. In this article, a theoretical and experimental basis for a new X-ray detector based in the conversion of X-rays into thermal energy is presented. The detector follows the indirect method approach, once the thermal energy is converted into an electrical signal by the Seebeck effect. The detector does not need high operating voltages as the ones needed by the detectors based on the direct method, and it shows higher efficiency in the energy conversion than the X-ray detectors based in the indirect method. Moreover, this technique allows the fabrication of X-ray detectors on flexible substrates, not possible with the other methods. Finally, when disposed into a matrix arrangement will allow the construction of image sensors for digital radiography, reducing the discomfort caused by the rigid flat panel sensors in intraoral radiology, for example.

269    C. Machado, J.A. Mendes, "Sensors, Actuators and Communicators When Building a Ubiquitous Computing System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1530 - 1535 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Ubiquitous computing systems are characterized by a collection of devices working together autonomically. Due to the fact that these systems are composed by a high number of devices, several problems arise. These problems range from management, compatibility to economic costs. In this paper some essential characteristics of sensors and actuators are proposed in order to allow them to be included in a ubiquitous computing system. It is also presented a way to build ubiquitous systems by integration of several independent systems, creating one system with new features that could not be found in the original ubiquitous systems.

270    K. Arshak, G. Hickey, E. Forde, J. Harris, "Development of a room temperature thin film In2O3, ZnO and SnO2 ozone sensor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1536 - 1541 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Thin films of Indium-zinc-tin oxide have been prepared by Vacuum Thermal Evaporation (VTE). The sensing characteristics of these films to environmentally relevant ozone concentrations were studied at room temperature. The effects of film thickness, deposition rate and annealing were investigated. The resistance of the thin film was found to be inversely proportional to the deposition rate. The highest sensitivity of the ozone sensors was found at a deposition rate of 1.2 nm/s - 1.4 nm/s. In addition the O3 sensors were found to perform best with a 40 nm thick sensing layer. ln2O3, ZnO and SnO2 were deposited on alumina substrates containing interdigitated electrodes by means of VTE. These results have shown that In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 thin films prepared by VTE method are promising for room temperature ozone sensing.

271    J.I. Garate, J.M. de Diego, J.M. Kagi, "Ultra Low Input Current Consumption Power Supplies under No-Load Condition for Discontinuous Transmission Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1542 - 1547 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The present paper focuses on power supplies for communication system devices with discontinuous transmission. The paper studies and analyzes power supplies with high efficiency and low quiescent current consumption under no- load conditions. Linear and switched power supplies with and without isolation are being considered and the trade-offs of different topologies are presented. Finally it recommends solutions for wireless communication applications. To check the conclusions of the study, a practical implementation of an isolated switched power supply for wireless devices is presented, with one of the lowest quiescent current consumptions in the market The practical design reaches the technology limits of the isolated power supplies under no-load conditions. The design has been implemented on a commercial wireless device. This device has three communication modules; EGSM, WiFitrade and ZigBeetrade, and it is intended for the remote control of electromechanical actuators and electronic sensors in harsh environment applications.

272    A. Hernandez, J.P. Derutin, F.J. Alvarez, A. Jimenez, "Ultrasonic Sensory System for Mobile Robots and Autonomous Vehicles ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1548 - 1553 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents the proposal of a novel ultrasonic sensory system intended to be installed on mobile robots and autonomous vehicles. The system is capable to detect obstacles at distances up to 3 meters providing also information about their angular position, and all this information is computed rapidly enough as to be useful for the moving vehicle. The system proposal comprises the selection of suitable transducers, the design of appropriate driving modules, the planning of an adequate geometrical distribution of the transducers, the proposal of new encoding and modulation schemes, the development of signal processing algorithms, and finally, the hardware implementation of the detection modules.

273    N. Topaloglu, P.M. Nieva, M. Yavuz, J.P. Huissoon, "A Novel Method for Estimating the Thermal Conductance of Uncooled Microbolometer Pixels ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1554 - 1558 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We propose a novel thermal model for uncooled microbolometer pixels. The model simplifies a three-dimensional (3D) microbolometer structure to a slab composed of two regions, and solves the corresponding heat equation by applying an orthogonal-expansion method. The results are compared to finite element simulations and conventional thermal conductance calculation methods for different geometries. The maximum discrepancy calculated between the proposed model and the finite element model was calculated as 4%, whereas the maximum discrepancy between the conventional methods and the finite element model is 41%.

274    C. De Marziani, J. Urefia, A. Hernandez, M. Mazo, J.J. Garcia, A. Jimenez, J.M. Villadangos, M.C. Perez, "Implementation of Acoustic Sensor Network for Relative Positioning System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1554 - 1558 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents the development and implementation of an acoustic sensor network mainly proposed for relative positioning of mobile robots and autonomous modules. The system consists of several objects to be located, each one of them with an acoustic sensor node. Every node has the required technology in order to compute its position, by using only acoustic emissions as ranging mechanism; this reduces the complexity in the hardware to be implemented. Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) techniques are used to allow simultaneous emission from several objects, so spatial relations among objects can be measured in a shorter time. Using the data collected by the proposed ranging mechanism, a relative positioning algorithm is computed with the aim of obtaining the positions among objects.

275    A. Lorenzo, M. Lage, J. Bullon, J. Rivas, A. Fondado, A. Torres, J. Farina, J.J. Rodriguez-Andina, "Measurement of Electrical Parameters in High-Current Arc Furnaces ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1554 - 1558 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The correct measurement of electrical parameters is a fundamental requirement for the accomplishment of suitable regulatory and protective actions in electric arc furnaces. The Spanish ferroalloy company Ferroatlantica has devoted many efforts during the last years to the development and improvement of an efficient silicon production technology, based on the so-called ELSA electrodes. Previous works concentrate on the electrical characterization of ELSA electrodes for on-line monitoring purposes. In this paper, a system to measure the high currents flowing through the bus-bars of the electrodes is presented and the issues related to data acquisition from the current probes and to the calculation of significant electrical parameters of the furnace are discussed.

276    S. Hata, T. Tanaka, T. Iga, T. Nakamura, "Automatic Image Processing Filter Creation System Using NN ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1569 - 1573 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The visual inspection system is used in various production systems. The visual inspection system judges the quality of products. But, there are some defects which are not detected with enough reliability on conventional systems. Therefore, the automatic generation system of best image processing filters which extract the proper characteristics of images for that kind of defects is proposed to improve recognition rate. This system is designed to generate the filters to detect the defects with vague edge precisely using neural network. Experiments shows the generated filters get better recognition rate.

277    M. du Plessis, "Integrated Nanoporous Silicon Nano-explosive Devices ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1574 - 1579 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The explosive properties of porous-silicon, impregnated with an oxidant, were researched. A porous layer structural model is proposed to model the pore and crystallite dimensions as a result of the electrochemical etching of porous silicon layers. A gravimetric experimental technique is described whereby the pore dimensions and specific surface area of porous regions can be determined, resulting in a new relationship between pore size and specific surface area. The properties of different oxidants were investigated. The filling of the pores by the oxidant is a strong function of pore size and the type of oxidant used. The experimentally observed nano-explosive Figure of Merit (FOM) is a function of the effective surface area in the porous region covered by the oxidant. It was found that there is an optimum pore size for the most energetic explosion. Future applications for this new technology are proposed.

278    Jinshuo Liu, Dengyi Zhang, Yu Yao, Shubo Liu, F. Hagen, "Automated Feature Selection for Pathogen Yeast Cryptococcus Neoformans ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1580 - 1583 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Due to large storage of images, it is highly requested to analyze images in a fast and efficient way. Data mining and pattern recognition methods have been widely used to understand the image knowledge deeply inside. Feature selection and extraction is the preprocessing step of data mining. Our approach to mine from Images, deals mainly with identification and extraction of unique features for analysing the pathogen conditions of yeast Cryptococcus Neoformans. Our automated model can determine which features can be used to identify variance pathogen condition. Different methods for extraction have been tried. Features extracted and techniques used are evaluated using the new test set images. Experimental results show that the features extracted by our automated data driven model are sufficient to identify the patterns from the images.

279    J. Redi, P. Gastaldo, G. Parodi, R. Zunino, "Co-occurrence Matrixes for the Quality Assessment of Coded Images ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1584 - 1589 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nonlinear issues complicate the modeling of the user-perceived quality of compressed images, especially when setting up feature-based objective methods. The research described in this paper indicates that the co-occurrence matrix and its features can be effective descriptors, embedding relevant information with respect to the perceptual phenomenon of visual quality. The paper first proposes a statistical approach to correlating objective quantities with subjective empirical evidence, then applies such a protocol to features associated with co-occurrence matrixes. Models from computational intelligence eventually support the actual quality-prediction task. Experimental results on real benchmarks confirm the general validity of the approach.

280    Feng Peng, Pan Yingjun, Wei Biao, Mi Deling, Jiang Shuqing, Jin Wei, "Extended SOT Wavelet Packet Coding Algorithm for Remote Sensing Images ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1590 - 1594 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Ordinary image compression codec are not good choices for remote sensing images and always lose crucial features, such as edges and texture, during the coding procedure. A new compression scheme is proposed based on wavelet packet which has good performance on image detail processing. The problems arising from the application of zerotree-based algorithm to wavelet packet transform are analyzed. A generation version of parent-children relationship, named Extend Spatial Orientation Tree, to solve the parental conflict is defined and we complete the algorithm combined with SPIHT to get a new compression scheme: Extended SOT wavelet packet coding (ESOT-WPC). The experimental results show that, under the same compression rate, the new codec method outperforms SPIHT both visually and in terms of PSNR.

281    Gerrit Jordaan, K. van der Walt, "Three-Dimensional Photography Using a Single Digital Camera in an Automated Material-Handling Facility ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1595 - 1600 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Three-dimensional vision and photography has been used in many disciplines for a long time. However, modern technological developments and increasing levels of industrial automation are making increasing demands for the development and implementation of new, innovative support systems for, inter alia, quality assurance and component identification purposes. Three-dimensional photography is often the preferred way of addressing this need. The system as described represents an experimental photographic system for the acquisition of three-dimensional images of components moving along a conveyor belt system as part of an automated material-handling system in a pseudo-industrial environment. The photographic system consists of only one digital camera and a scanning laser beam. Preliminary results indicate that fairly accurate images can be acquired using such a system, whilst good rendering can result from careful manipulation of the data of photographed components.

282    Qu Yan-bin, Meng Fan-gang, Gao Lei, "A New Variable Step Size LMS Adaptive Filtering Algorithm ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1601 - 1605 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a relation among the theoretical optimum step size, the error signal, and the input signal is introduced, and based on the relation, a new variable step size least mean square (VSS-LMS) algorithm for adaptive filtering is proposed. The proposed algorithm has less computational complexity and converges faster to a lower steady state error than existing algorithms. Meanwhile, it eliminates much of the shortcoming resulted from changing the step size in the adaptive process. Some computer simulation results are included to support the theoretical analysis of the proposed algorithm.

283    Z. Hocenski, T. Keser, A. Baumgartner, "A Simple and Efficient Method for Ceramic Tile Surface Defects Detection ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1606 - 1611 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper is developed and presented method for failure detection in ceramic tile production using computer visual diagnostic. This method is focused on detecting of failures on ceramic tile surface in manner of highly contrasted dot shaped formation incorporated into ceramic tile surface which are result of failures in production chain. The ceramic tile quality grade is directly influenced by amount and type of failures on its surface and with presented method in this paper we try to contribute to automating of final stages in ceramic tile producing chain. This presented and developed method is optimized for fast execution and for efficient detection of mentioned failures without need for reference tile comparison system.

284    Mingyan Jiang, S. Pfletschinger, "Power Spectral Density Estimation of Noisy Signal Based on Wavelet ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1612 - 1616 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The power spectral density estimation of signals plays an important role in the understanding and analysis of the spectral distribution of signals. In this paper, we adopt dyadic wavelet, multi-band wavelet and complex wavelet to estimate the power spectral density of noisy signals, especially to speech signals and complex modulation signals. We also analyze the properties of different wavelet methods for decomposition and denoising. The analysis shows that our methods are efficient in decreasing the estimation runtime and increasing the estimation accuracy, and can be used in real-time engineering applications.

285    A. Gardel, J.L. Lazaro, I. Bravo, J.P. Derutin, T. Chateau, "Parallel Implementation of Modified 2D Pattern Matching ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1617 - 1622 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a highly efficient and parallelized HW implementation of multiple modules processing a pattern matching algorithm of a 2D affine model object applied to the detection and tracking of an autonomous vehicle. The pattern matching problem has been adapted to the edge detection of the rear side of a Cycab vehicle modeled by the centroid and scale parameters. Reordering of the pattern and online generation of pixels of interest are the main contributions. The computing time for an image is independent of the number of pattern matching processing modules instantiated in hardware, making feasible to use them in large filters. The maximum operation frequency achieved has reached up to 103.1 MHz with minimal use of resources. An implementation of 200 parallel modules is capable to process 200 frames per second for image sizes of 512x512 pixels while equivalent program in a desktop PC executes only 4 fps.

286    Tian Junwei, Huang Yongxuan, "Histogram Constraint Based Fast FCM Cluster Image Segmentation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1623 - 1627 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Fussy c-mean cluster algorithm (FCM) is often used in image segmentation, but most FCM algorithm is time wasteful, for the purpose of improving segmentation efficiency, a fast segmentation algorithm based on histogram constraint is proposed. The new algorithm resample initial image to reduce data size, but reduction of data size space may cause distortion and make FCM converged to error threshold, in order to get best segmentation result, constraint based on distance deviation of histogram is incorporated. The initial histogram is smoothed to get its profile before calculating distance deviation, and its amplitude is transformed to a unified value. Correct resample ratio can be calculated from the changed histogram by golden section searching algorithm. Experiments are performed to validate the new fast FCM and the results shown that the segmentation result keeps in the same level with traditional FCM algorithm while the processing speed increases greatly. Compared with the other algorithms, the consumed time of our method is 1.0%-4.8% of traditional FCM algorithm, 3.4%-9.4% of 2D entropy algorithm and 5.1%-13.6% of Otsu algorithm, the average processing efficiency is 63, 22 and 15 times higher than above algorithms. The experiment results are consistent with theory and prove that distance deviation of histogram can reflect distortion degree of resample image, and the right segmentation can be deduced from reduced data.

287    A. Wang, Xinhua Zhang, Yu Chen, Jie Wu, "B Spline Wavelet and SVM Threshold Based Medical Image Edge Extraction ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1628 - 1632 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to extract the significant edges of the medical image without the interference of the internal noise and the external noise, a new medical image edge extraction algorithm is proposed. We use the information measure to remove the internal noise. According to the characteristics of wavelet transform and our requirements, we design a new quadratic B spline wavelet to discriminate the external noise and extract the edge feature information at the same time. Then we choose the Support Vector Machines (SVM) to select the threshold of the wavelet modulus to reconstruct the edge characteristics. After the computer simulation, the experiment results show that the proposed edge extraction algorithm provides the best trade off between noise rejection and accurate edge localization.

288    T. Shinohara, J.-y. Takayama, S. Ohyama, A. Kobayashi, "Yarn Separation for Structure Analysis of Textile Fabric on Three-dimensional Computed Tomography Image ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1633 - 1638 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a yarn separation method is proposed for structure analysis of textile fabric on its three-dimensional (3-D) image obtained by an X-ray computed tomography (CT). In this method, the directions of the filaments, which a yarn consists of, at all the voxels of the 3-D image are firstly estimated by correlating the voxel values with a filament model. Each filament is secondly reconstructed by connecting the voxels of the filaments based on the estimated filament directions. Each yarn is then reconstructed by clustering the reconstructed filaments using a distance between two filaments. Consequently, each yarn of the textile fabric on the 3-D image is separated. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by experimentally applying this method to 3-D image of a sample plain woven fabric, which is made of polyester two folded yarn. The each two folded yarn is correctly separated by this method.

289    A. Cesari, J.M. Dilhac, C. Alonso, A. Cid-Pastor, "A DC-DC converter FPGA driver for Efficiency Enhancement of Wideband RF Power Amplifiers ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1639 - 1644 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A digital driver enabling the use of highly efficient, switched DC-DC converters for dynamic supply of radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PA) is proposed in this paper. Its design procedure, targeting a FPGA implementation, is fully detailed. Using simulation procedures, the potential of the proposed driver to enhance both PA linearity and efficiency figures in wideband RF applications is highlighted, as well as its robustness in front of temporal misalignments between the RF and the supply paths.

290    S. Rajesh, K. Sandeep, R.K. Mittal, "A Fast Progressive Image Sampling Using Lifting Scheme And Non-Uniform B-Splines ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1645 - 1650 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes lifting scheme based a new fast algorithm for progressive image acquisition that enables an approximation of whole image at each step. The detail coefficients of second generation wavelets have been used to find the most significant samples. An image, which is considered here as the functions of non-uniform B-splines over the Delaunay triangulation, is developed by using recursively obtained scattered data set of significant pixels. The efficiency of the present method is shown and the visual qualities of the multiresolution images are compared with those obtained by other methods.

291    Zhiqiang Bian, H. Ishii, H. Shimoda, "An Optimization Method of Marker Arrangement for Augmented Reality ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1651 - 1656 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Improving tracking accuracy is one of the most important issues for applying augmented reality to nuclear power plant field work. When employing tracking method using single camera and markers, tracking accuracy depends highly on marker arrangement. Manual design of marker arrangement is difficult to find a marker arrangement with high tracking accuracy. Therefore this study is subject to develop a marker arrangement optimization system based on genetic algorithm. Tracking error computation is necessary for each marker arrangement in marker arrangement optimization. Present tracking error computation method are all probabilistic and therefore feasible to nuclear power plant A wheel tracking error computation algorithm is developed. A marker arrangement optimization algorithm is realized by combining genetic algorithm with the wheel tracking error computation algorithm. Trial results show that tracking accuracy can be improved significantly by applying the advices provided by the marker arrangement optimization system.

292    L. Gonzalez, J.M.T. Palenzuela, "Improving oil slick detection by SAR imagery using ancillary data ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1657 - 1662 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main trouble of oil spill detection systems based on synthetic aperture radar image is the discrimination of true oil slicks from other surface phenomena giving a similar signature. Most of these systems consist of three main stages: dark areas detection, features extraction and classification. The aim of this work is to improve the classification performance by using additional data in order to define a more accurate training set and identifying the features with the highest discrimination capability. It was used 27 ENVISAT ASAR images of the Prestige oil spill together with data from other sources and meteorological or oceanographic models. Results show that the radiometric features seem to work better in order to distinguish between oil slicks and look-alikes, and also that itis possible identify as look-alikes using ancillary data up to 10% of the dark areas previously detected.

293    M.C. Perez, J. Urena, A. Hernandez, A. Jimenez, W.P. Marnane, F. Alvarez, "Efficient Real-Time Correlator for LS Sequences ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1663 - 1668 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The cross-correlation function and the side-lobes of the auto-correlation function of LS codes are zero in a certain vicinity of the zero shift. Therefore, the effects of the Inter-Symbol- Interference and Multiple-Access-Interference that appears in CDMA and multi-sensor systems are mitigated. Conventionally, the detection of these sequences has been achieved by means of straight-forward matched-filter correlators. In this paper, a new correlator which significantly reduces the total number of operations to be performed is proposed, allowing real-time operation.

294    A. Mateo, F. Soto, J.A. Villarejo, C. Fernandez, "Automatic Inspection System for Quality Evaluation of Fresh Tuna Meat ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1669 - 1674 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes an automated visual inspection system SIVATUNtrade for quality control of tuna meat which automate manual inspection operation. Depending on whether tuna are reared in cages or in the open sea and depending on the method of capture (electroslaughtering, shooting, etc.), differences are observed and changes take place in the organic nature of blue fin tuna (Thunnus Thynnus) meat, affecting appearance and quality. These changes are caused by an increase and accumulation of lactate, which negatively affects the quality. This drop in quality translates into loss of value of the meat in Japanese tuna markets (tsukiji market and sashimi market are the main destinations of tuna captured off the southeast coast of Spain). In order to evaluate these changes, Japanese experts are employed to carry out visual inspections, which therefore constitute a subjective assessment. This paper describes the development of an automated visual inspection system that can analyze, model and detect these changes. The ultimate aim is to establish quality indicators and classifiers that will accompany tuna meat from the time of capture and so make it possible to track this product in the main tuna meat export markets. In this way we can establish a connection between variation of tuna meat quality and the feeding and slaughtering methods used, thus providing feedback to the fattening and slaughtering processes so as to improve the global quality of blue fin tuna catches.

295    R.J. Lopez Sastre, P. Gil Jimenez, F.J. Acevedo, S. Maldonado Bascon, "Computer Algebra Algorithms Applied to Computer Vision in a Parking Management System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1675 - 1680 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: From this paper, we propose a novel methodology to compute a 2D homography applying some algorithms of computer algebra. We consider the classical problem of solving (exactly) a linear system of algebraic equations, and we suggest a new algorithm for computer vision, based on homomorphism methods over Zopf, to solve a system of equations necessary to achieve a 3 times 3 matrix H which lets us to compute the projective transformation which translates coordinates between points in different planes. From this work, we want to show that it is possible to apply a symbolic approach to some crucial issues of computer vision, moreover of the numerical methodology, in order to reduce the complexity of some algorithms, and to eliminate the problems associated with loss of precision and normalization. We test our technique in a real situation: a parking management system, which creates a pseudo-top-view of a parking area to determine if there are free parking lots or not.

296    E.R. Arce-Santana, J.M. Luna-Rivera, D.U. Campos-Delgado, O. Gutierrez-Navarro, "An Object-Tracking Algorithm Based on Bayesian-Learning ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1681 - 1686 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Real-time object tracking is recently becoming very important in many video processing tasks. Applications as video surveillance, robotics, people tracking, etc., need reliable and affordable video tracking tools. Most of current available solutions are, however, computationally intensive and sometimes require expensive video hardware. In this paper, we propose a new object tracking algorithm for real-time video based on a new probabilistic approach that results in a Bayesian-learning process. This approach infers the trajectory of a moving object by applying a very simple optimization method, which makes the tracking algorithm robust and simple to implement. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed tracking algorithm in complex real-time video sequence scenarios.

297    S. Zaboli, M.S. Moin, "CEW: A Non-Blind Adaptive Image Watermarking Approach Based on Entropy in Contourlet Domain ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1687 - 1692 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for non-blind watermarking of still gray level images in contourlet domain. It uses the human visual system (HVS) characteristic, and an innovative entropy based approach to create an efficient watermarking scheme. It decomposes original image in contourlet domain in four hierarchical levels and watermarks it with a logo image, which is scrambled thru a well-known PN-sequence. A novel entropy-based method is developed for selection of contourlet coefficients that provides an adaptive way for determining the number of watermarked coefficients and watermarking factor at each level of contourlet decomposition. This approach shows resistance against some attacks presented in the watermarking literature.

298    P. Petrovic, "New Approach to Reconstruction of Nonuniformly Sampled AC signals ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1693 - 1698 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The problem of AC signal reconstruction is addressed in this paper. This study propose a practical and new algorithm for signal reconstruction, and discuss potential applications to recover band-limited AC signals (with known frequency spectrum but unknown amplitudes and phases) from irregularly spaced sets of integrated values of processed signals. Based on the value of the integer of the original input (analogue) signal, a reconstruction of its basic parameters is done by the means of derived analytical and summarized expressions. Computer simulation demonstrating the effectiveness of these algorithms, are also presented.

299    M.I. Costa, S. Soares, P. Assuncao, J. Barroso, "Signal Reconstruction Techniques Applied to High Frame Rate Sequences ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1699 - 1703 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays there are specific video equipments which allow acquisition at very high frame rates, e.g., up to 5000 fps. When observing a high frame rate sequence, it becomes noticeable that a great percentage of the frames' pixels values do not suffer great changes along the sequence. Hence, if a pixel's value remains the same, then a unique sample is enough to represent that particular pixel over several frames. Only pixels that suffer great variations require a higher number of samples to be correctly represented. This work reports a methodology that combines compression and reconstruction techniques to evaluate an alternative to the traditional compression methods 25/30 fps. In the proposed method, sets of pixels are extracted along the temporal direction and by exploiting the high temporal correlation of the signals, a proper decimation process is applied in order to create a sequence with a lower number of frames and consequently smaller file size. The main objective is to propose a new compression methodology that will take advantage of the signal characteristics using both compression and reconstruction techniques.

300    M. Hanifi, F. Sedes, D. Aboutajdine, A. Lasfar, "Multi-class Support Vector Machine: A new approach to characterize a texture ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1704 - 1708 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Our former work primarily concerned the classification of satellite images after having coded their textures by a new approach of coding. These texture characteristics are extracted using cooccurences matrix because of their wealth of information from texture. The results obtained showed the interest from the second coding, which will be explained later on, and which will improve the results of the first coding. At first, we present, briefly, the first coding which reduces the number of gray levels while passing from 256 levels to 9 gray levels; this phase will serve to code original textures. Then, we show how the second coding will be makes increase the levels of gray to 16, and improves quality of the image. Lastly, classification by SVM will be carried out in order to show the performance of the method used while varying the various parameters of the SVM.

301    I. Bravo, P. Jimenez, M. Mazo, J.L. Lazaro, J.J. de las Heras, A. Gardel, "Different Proposals to Matrix Multiplication Based on FPGAS ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1709 - 1714 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Matrix multiplication is a typical operation in different engineering areas, such as signal or image processing. This paper makes a brief description about some matrix multiplication proposals when working in FPGAs (field programmable gate array). Thanks to their low prices and low costs, currently these devices are used in many and different applications. There are some alternative methods that optimize execution time to carry out this operation under FPGAs. The internal structure of these devices allows parallel execution of matrix multiplication. However, a systolic structure needs many internal resources such as embedded multipliers and often it cannot be used because of the low number of embedded multipliers in the used device. This structure is commonly used in FPGAs for small size matrices. However our proposed alternatives allow an efficient multiplication of matrices of sizes as big as 512 times 512 elements. The study done in this work compares the delay and area consumed of different matrix multiplication algorithms.

302    D.M. Oliveira, S.C. Cao, X.F. Hermida, F.M. Rodriguez, "Virtual Reality System for Industrial Training ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1715 - 1720 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a virtual reality training system for maintenance of industrial equipment is presented. Since equipment are usually designed with CAD tools, it is feasible to create the virtual reality model. Despite of the virtual reality system itself, seting up an industrial related training system implies several processes in order to transform initial computer aided design model into interactive models suitable for training processes. Our virtual training system is being developed following two main implementation approaches. On one hand a commercial tool (Eon Professional) is being used. On the other, the same system is being developed using open-source tools. Both approaches are described in this paper.

303    D. Martinez Oliveira, F. Martin Rodriguez, X. Fernandez Hermida, "IMGVM: An Image Oriented Virtual Machine forc Real-Time Computer Vision ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1721 - 1726 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a simple architecture for an image oriented virtual machine targeted to computer vision applications is introduced. This virtual machine provides a low level approach to image processing working on very high level data structures which allows developers to setup the sequence of processing actions in an easy way. Additionally, this architecture provides a common environment for prototyping and production systems simplifying the deployment process of the final application.

304    I.K. Cihan, H.G. Senel, "Gray Level Topological Corner Detection ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1727 - 1730 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new corner detection algorithm based on the topological median filter is proposed. Topological quasi dilation and erosion operators with circular structuring element are used to detect the corners on gray level images.

305    M.S. Yasein, P. Agathoklis, "A Robust, Feature-based Algorithm for Aerial Image Registration ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1731 - 1736 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper an algorithm for aerial image registration is proposed. The objective of this algorithm is to register aerial images having only partial overlap, which are also geometrically distorted due to the different sensing conditions and in addition they may be contaminated with noise, may be blurred, etc. The geometric distortions considered in the registration process are rotation, translation and scaling. The proposed algorithm consists of three main steps: feature point extraction using a feature point extractor based on scale-interaction of Mexican-hat wavelets, obtaining the correspondence between the feature points of the first (reference) and the second image based on Zernike moments of neighborhoods centered on the feature points, and estimating the transformation parameters between the first and the second images using an iterative weighted least squares algorithm. Experimental results illustrate the accuracy of image registration for images with partial overlap in the presence of additional image distortions, such as noise contamination and image blurring.

306    K. Hoshino, H. Sumi, T. Nishimura, "Noise Detection and Reduction for Image Sensor by Time Domain Autocorrelation Function Method ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1737 - 1740 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The present paper describes noise detection and reduction for an imaging system by a method of autocorrelation of pixel data change as a function of time. The random noise level could be detected for each pixel using the proposed method. An algorithm proposed for determining the noise level, and calculating the pixel value by the autocorrelation function value reduced the calculation cost. The proposed method is effective for reducing noise in real time image processing.

307    O. Ozfidan, U. Bayazit, H.A. Curpan, "Cluster Based Sensor Scheduling in a Target Tracking Application with Particle Filtering ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1741 - 1746 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In multi-sensor applications management of sensors is necessary for the classification of data they produce and for the efficient use of sensors as well. One of the important aspects in sensor management is the sensor scheduling. By scheduling the sensors, serious reductions can be achieved in the cost of bandwidth, power, and computation. In this work a simple solution for the problem of sensor scheduling in a multi-sensor target tracking application is presented. Due to non-linearity of the problem itself, proposed solution is presented in the framework of non-linear Bayesian estimation.

308    J. Piskorowski, R. Kaszynski, "A New Method for Transients Suppression in Phase-Compensated Analog Filters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1747 - 1750 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discusses a new theoretical method for suppressing transients in phase-compensated continuous-time filters. Using the compensated low-pass Chebyshcv filter, we introduce time-varying parameters to its structure for the purpose of the minimization of the transient that was lengthened because of the group delay compensation. The paper also discusses the stability conditions of the designed filters, and the concept of the proposed filters work in the continuous running mode. Results verifying the effectiveness of the proposed approach are presented and compared to the traditional filters.

309    J. Piskorowski, R. Kaszynski, "A Non-Standard Method of Signals Filtering in Systems Containing Analog Multiplexers ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1751 - 1754 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this article, we propose a novel concept of a continuous-time filter of constant component that exhibits a very short response in the time domain without significant distortions in the frequency domain. Such a designed filter is then applied in the system containing analog multiplexer, where it is able to reveal its advantageous properties. Results verifying the effectiveness of the proposed approach are presented and compared to the traditional filters.

310    P. Thangavel, T. Kumaran, "Fragile Watermark for Tamper Detection using Structural Distortion Measure ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1755 - 1760 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Verifying the content of digital images or identifying forged regions would be obviously useful when digital pictures are presented as evidence. We present a curvelet logo watermark based on the image fusion approach. The forgery is determined as the one which lacks the logo watermark. We have used structural distortion approach for integrity verification which we have tested on examples of real forgeries. We have also investigated the effect of attacks such as lossy compression, brightness, etc. Region of interest influences our approach to verify image integrity.

311    R.G. Fernandes, D.R.C. Silva, L.A.H.G. de Oliveira, A.D.D. Neto, "Fault Neural Classifier Applied to a Level Control Real System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1761 - 1766 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents the development of a fault detection and isolation system applied to a system of real levels connected by fieldbus network. The system was developed using artificial neural networks and tested just as much in a simulated environment as in real environment intending to highlight difficulties found in real tests which there is not when one works only with simulation.

312    S.N. Omkar, K.M. Manoj, D. Mudigere, Dipti Muley, "Urban Satellite Image Classification using Biologically Inspired Techniques ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1767 - 1772 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper focuses on optimisation algorithms inspired by swarm intelligence for satellite image classification from high resolution satellite multi-spectral images. Amongst the multiple benefits and uses of remote sensing, one of the most important has been its use in solving the problem of land cover mapping. As the frontiers of space technology advance, the knowledge derived from the satellite data has also grown in sophistication. Image classification forms the core of the solution to the land cover mapping problem. No single classifier can prove to satisfactorily classify all the basic land cover classes of an urban region. In both supervised and unsupervised classification methods, the evolutionary algorithms are not exploited to their full potential. This work tackles the land map covering by Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) and Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) which are arguably the most popular algorithms in this category. We present the results of classification techniques using swarm intelligence for the problem of land cover mapping for an urban region. The high resolution Quick-bird data has been used for the experiments.

313    M. Lopez, J.A. Vilan, J.M. Matias, J. Taboada, "Quality Control of Wood-Pulp Chips Using A 3D Laser Scanner and Functional Pattern Recognition ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1773 - 1778 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We describe a real-time quality control system for wood chips using a 3D laser scanner. The work evaluates the appropriateness of applying a functional rather than the typical vectorial approach to a pattern recognition problem. The problem to be resolved was to construct an online system for controlling wood-pulp chip granulometry quality for implementation in a wood-pulp factory. A functional linear model and a functional logistic model were used to classify the hourly empirical distributions of wood-chip thicknesses estimated on the basis of images produced by a 3D laser scanner. The results obtained using these functional techniques were compared to the results of their vectorial counterparts and support vector machines, whose input consisted of several statistics of the hourly empirical distribution. We conclude that the empirical distributions have sufficiently rich functional traits so as to permit the pattern recognition process to benefit from the functional representation.

314    J.L. Mato, M. Pereira, J.J. Rodriguez-Andina, J. Farina, E. Soto, R. Perez, "Reduction of Intermodulation Effects in Power Amplifiers through Segmented Predistortion ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1779 - 1784 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Current communication standards, such as DAB, DVB-T or 4G impose strong requirements to limit the negative effects on modulated signals of distortion or bad synchronization between emitter and receiver in digital channels. Distortion is mainly due to the nonlinear behavior of the output stage of the emitter's power amplifier, in the form of saturation or memory effects. In order for these effects to be mitigated, a correction can be applied to the input signals, causing them a distortion contrary to that occurring in the amplifier. Several analog and digital predistortion techniques have been proposed in the literature. This paper presents a new digital predistortion method which allows the requirements of DVB-T gap fillers in single frequency networks (SFN) to be accomplished while reducing processing time and complexity with regard to previous solutions. Experimental results are presented which support the claimed contributions of the method.

315    J. San Pedro Wandelmer, S. Dominguez Cabrerizo, "Synchronized digital video subsampling to achieve temporal resolution independence ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1785 - 1790 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present a selective video sub-sampling algorithm to achieve temporal resolution independence in applications with hard requirements on frame sequentiality, especially targeted to video identification systems based on fingerprint strings. The algorithm extracts video entropy, and based on the resulting series, a set of intervals and frames for each interval are selected. The same exact intervals and frames can be repeatedly extracted for any other variation of the original content, which is especially desirable when variations have undergone dramatic quality and frame rate reduction in their distribution. Different from basic subsampling techniques, the proposed method is not just able to get a frame set of equal length for different frame rate variations, but the generated set includes more frames when events are going on in the video, while less frames are chosen when the video content remains steady. This fact provides a significant improve of performance in terms of recall and precision values in video identification applications.

316    P.M. Faria, R.A.M. Braga, E. Valgode, L.P. Reis, "Interface Framework to Drive an Intelligent Wheelchair Using Facial Expressions ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1791 - 1796 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Many of the physically injured use electric wheelchairs as an aid to locomotion. Usually, for commanding this type of wheelchair, it is required the use of one's hands and this poses a problem to those who, besides being unable to use their legs, are also unable to properly use their hands. The aim of the work described here, is to create a prototype of a wheelchair command interface that do not require hand usage. Facial expressions were chosen instead, to provide the necessary visual information for the interface to recognize user commands. The facial expressions are captured by means of a digital camera and interpreted by an application running on a laptop computer on the wheelchair. The software includes digital image processing algorithms for feature detection, such as colour segmentation and edge detection, followed by the application of a neural network that uses these features to detect the desired facial expressions. The results obtained from the framework interface provide strong evidence that it is possible to comfortably drive an intelligent wheelchair using facial expressions.

317    E. Blanco, M. Mazo, L.M. Bergasa, S. Palazuelos, "Hue and Saturation Dispersion Modeling. Application to the Improvement of the Segmentation in the HS Sub-space ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1797 - 1802 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a modeling of the hue and saturation dispersions of classes projected in the HS plane is presented. The relevance of the proposed modeling is its application in general clustering processes in the HS domain. In a previous work about class separation in the HS plane for segmentation improvement, it was necessary to calculate the hue and saturation variances of the classes for their different locations in the HS plane. Classes may be composed by a high number of samples and variances are distinct for the different locations within the HS plane, so this process needs a high processing calculus time. In the current paper, the hue and saturation dispersions are modeled (requiring a lower processing time) and are applied to that segmentation process. The authors propose to use the geometric-analytical relationships between the HSI space and the YC1C2 tristimulus. These relationships allow to estimate the dispersions of the classes projected in the HS plane from their dispersions in the C1C2 linear chromatic plane. The results obtained in different practical applications show the validity of the proposal and a remarkable improvement in the processing time.

318    D. Skinner, S.Y. Foo, "Classification using a Radial Basis Function Neural Network on Side-Scan Sonar Data ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1803 - 1806 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Detecting and classifying mines among natural formations and man-made debris along the sea floor can be a tedious task. To reduce operator dependency, an automated computer aided detection and classification system is needed. Our proposed automated system uses a two-step process. First the images are normalized and then a supervised learning method, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), is applied to a side-scan sonar (SSS) data set. This method is able to extrapolate beyond the training data and successfully classify mine-like objects (MLOs).

319    S. El-Etriby, A.K. Al-Hamadi, B. Michaelis, "Dense Stereo Correspondence with Slanted Surface using Phase-based Algorithm ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1807 - 1813 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The model of local spatial frequency provides a powerful analytical for image analysis. In this paper we explore the application of this representation to long-standing problem in stereovision "the foreshortening problem". We develop phase difference-based algorithm that use an adaptive scale selection process at the corresponding points in the two views. This takes into account surface perspective distortion (foreshortening). Challenges arise from the fact that stereo images are acquired from a slightly different view. Therefore, the projection of the surface in the images is more compressed and occupied a smaller area in one view. Instead of matching intensities directly, a Gabor scale-space expansion (scalogram) is used. The phase difference at corresponding points in the two images is used to estimate the disparity. The suggested algorithm provides an analytical closed-form expression for the effect of perspective foreshortening. It also demonstrates a novel solution to the phase-wraparound problem that has limited the application of other phase-based method. The efficiency and performance is confirmed on the basis of analysis of rectified real images. Hence, our proposed method has a superior performance in comparison with other methods.

320    G. Emilie, G. Christine, S. Jean-Marc, "Trust Engines to Optimize Semi-Automated Industrial Production Planning ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1814 - 1819 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We have proposed an interactive assistance system (IAS) to help the operators of a semi-automated industrial unit to increase their work productivity. At any moment the system suggests them to choose among a limited subset of possible tasks of higher priority. However, a remaining issue in this IAS is when one or more operators do not cooperate properly with it. We must take into account that they do not perform a task they have chosen and/or perform a task without indicating this action to the system. To address this issue, in this paper, we integrate a computational trust engine in the IAS. The IAS uses the trust engine to determine the trust level of an action carried out by a human operator.

321    P. Gastaldo, G. Parodi, F. Picasso, R. Zunino, "Embedded Public-key Cryptosystems Via Enhanced Montgomery Multiplication ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1820 - 1825 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Montgomery multiplication algorithm is one of the most efficient techniques used to speed up the modular multiplications required during exponentiation processes in public-key cryptography. In view of the expanding demand of embedded security services, this paper tackles the problem of efficiently supporting Montgomery's method on inexpensive digital circuitry and focuses on the finely integrated product scanning (FIPS) variant of Montgomery's multiplication. The proposed approach improves on the basic FIPS formulation by removing sources of inefficiencies, and boosts the exploitation of the computing resources in digital hardware. Experimental tests on different, commercial DSP devices demonstrate the benefits of the enhanced algorithm implementation and confirm both the method effectiveness in increasing efficiency and its general validity.

322    F. Dopatka, R. Wismuller, "Design of a Realtime Industrial-Ethernet Network Including Hot-Pluggable Asynchronous Devices ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1826 - 1831 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach to design a realtime Industrial-Ethernet network with the feature to add asynchronous sending devices like laptops or personal computers to the network without affecting the realtime performance. The idea is based on the modification of switching engines with usage of standard cabling and network interface cards. Although the implementation is similar to Siemens ProfiNet IRT, we will point out advantages of our more general approach. As a research result in formal modelling, we present a way to generate bipartite conflict graphs out of a given network infrastructure and communication requests of the devices. This graphs can be colored in polynomial time, which leads to schedules for each switch. Additionally, we discuss possible hardware designs of a modified Ethernet switch.

323    M.J. Ferreira, C.P. Santos, J. Monteiro, "Texture Segmentation Based On Fuzzy Grammar for Cork Parquet Quality Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1832 - 1837 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an approach for image texture segmentation based on the wavelets transform and on a fuzzy grammar inference system. It was developed for the Portuguese cork industry, specifically for the quality control in the cork parquet sector. The main purpose was to deal with major quality issues related with texture features. The segmentation procedure reveals a good performance indicated by high classification rates. This approach was integrated in a vision system leading to an industrial prototype that has already been tested, revealing good perspectives of full industrialization.

324    Wee Meng Yeo, Xue-Ming Yuan, "Optimal Inventory Policy For Products With Warranty Agreements ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1838 - 1843 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This working paper discusses the optimal policy for a periodic review inventory system with two-component products under non-renewable warranty agreement. Customer demands for products are independent and identically distributed with a common general distribution. Components are subjected to failure with exponential distributions once products are sold. The objective of this work is to decide the optimal inventory level of the product and components so that the total operational cost is minimized.

325    R.P. Pantoni, E.A. Mossin, O.S. Donaires, D. Brandao, "Configuration Management for Fieldbus Automation Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1844 - 1848 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The industrial communication fieldbus protocols have evolved significantly in the last years. The advanced characteristics of instruments diagnosis and the advanced and flexible algorithms for control elaboration are some examples of advancements that have collaborated for this evolution. Considering this evolution, the automation systems have demanded more and more skilled people and tools directed to the configuration process automatization with features that must abstract the system complexity. In this context, it is presented in this paper a fieldbus configuration management approach for automation systems based on software project configuration management concepts and practices.

326    M.A. Dominguez, P. Marino, F. Poza, S. Otero, "Design of a Networked Control System to Integrate Vehicular Electronic Devices ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2870 - 2875 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The electrical circuits and their Electronic Control Units (ECUs) in buses and coaches are essential for their good working. Drive, braking, suspension, opening door, security and communication devices must be integrated in a reliable and real time information system. The industrial communication networks or fieldbuses are a good solution to implement networked control systems for the onboard electronics in the public transport buses and coaches. The authors are working in the design of multiplexed solutions based on fieldbuses to integrate the body and chassis functions of city public transport buses. An example for the EURO5 model of the Scania manufacturer is reported in this paper. The authors are also working in the implementation of new modules based on FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) that can be used in these networked control systems.

327    M.G. Sanchez, I. Cuinas, A.V. Alejos, "Interference and impairments in radio communication systems due to industrial shot noise ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1849 - 1854 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Measurements of radio impulsive noise in industrial and urban electromagnetic environments have been conducted and its effect on radio communication systems is studied. An impulsive noise measurement system has been designed and built. It meets and improves the main features of classical equipments used to measure noise, offering both in-phase and quadrature outputs simultaneously. The system was carefully calibrated before a measurement campaign was conducted in industrial and urban environments to get impulsive noise statistics. Results show that shot noise events are less frequent in the industrial than at the urban environment, but when a noise event occurs, noise pulses appear more grouped in bursts, exhibit larger amplitude and wider bandwidth. In both cases, shot noise pulses have very high amplitude, long duration and high repetition rate, so the performance of radio communication systems could be significantly reduced in the industrial environment. The effect of the noise burst on digital radio communication systems using different types of modulation is analyzed.

328    J.J. Yin, S.H. Yeung, W.K.S. Tang, K.F. Man, S. Kwong, "Enhancement of Multiobjective Search: A Jumping-Genes Approach ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1855 - 1858 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Inspired by the gene transposition in biological genome, recently, a new evolutionary computing algorithm has been developed for optimization. It consists of two newly designed operations: copy-and-paste and cut-and-paste, which have been proven mathematically on the basis of schema theory. In this paper, their uniqueness for balancing the exploration and exploitation searching effect is explained. In the meantime, the enhancement of searching efficiency for the multiobjective problems is demonstrated. Its ability is further reinforced by a real world application for a microstrip patch antennae design. The obtained results indicated that this new algorithm is indeed beneficial for gaining a much improved non-dominated solutions front as compared with those derived from the conventional method.

329    P. Wongthongtham, E. Chang, "Ontology Instantiations for Software Engineering Knowledge Management ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1859 - 1863 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we explore the development of systems for software engineering knowledge management. Software engineering knowledge is represented in the software engineering ontology whose instantiations, which are undergoing evolution, need a good management system. Software engineering ontology instantiations signify project information which is shared and has evolved to reflect project development, changes in the software requirements or in the design process, to incorporate additional functionality to systems or to allow incremental improvement, etc. In a large volume of updated project information, systematic management is of importance.

330    Page(s): , Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/ISIE.2007.4374891 , "PDF Not Yet Available In IEEE Xplore ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1859 - 1863 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

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331    E.A. Mossin, L.C. Passarini, D. Brandao, "Networked control systems distance learning: state of art, tendencies and a new fieldbus remote laboratory proposal ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1870 - 1875 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Due to the increasing presence of the Internet in the academic and residential environment, the literature shows an increasing number of experiments of distance learning in the automation and industrial control area in the last decade, in which theoretical procedures as well as practical lessons, can be carried through remote access. In this context, this article presents a brief survey on the academic experiments in the application of on-line laboratories and introduces a new proposal of remote access architecture based on FOUNDATION fieldbus protocol using a simulated environment.

332    Ching-Tsan Chiang, Tung-Sheng Chiang, "A Converged Recurrent Structure for CMAC_GBF and S_CMAC_GBF ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1876 - 1881 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new recurrent structure has been developed for both CMAC_GBF and S_CMAC_GBF in this paper. From the view of control, CMAC_GBF is capable of its excellent learning ability and superior of its control of complex nonlinear systems, but it is difficult for CMAC_GBF to solve problems of dynamic or time-relevant systems. This study develops recurrent structure for CMAC_GBF and S_CMAC_GBF with the method of employing the output of each hypercube to feedback to itself. This approach makes CMAC_GBF and S_CMAC_GBF to have the learning capability of temporal pattern sequences, and has more complex learning capability and is better than static feedforward networks. The design of recurrent structure and the driven of mathematic formulas and learning rules were accomplished in this paper. The proof of the learning convergence of the recurrent structure for CMAC_GBF and S CMAC_GBF is completed. The examples of temporal pattern sequences was demonstrated for the dynamic leaning capability of this recurrent structure.

333    Yinsong Wang, Sujuan Liu, Cai Zhang, "Recursive Estimation of Time Delay in Thermodynamic Process ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1882 - 1886 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An on-line estimation method based on standard recursive least squares and the minimum cost function is presented and applied to estimate thermodynamic process-a model of two orders rational transfer function plus a time delay. The algorithm relies on the fact that if the continuous time model has a delay or anticipation shorter than one sampling time, then a real negative zero arises in the corresponding sampled system. By inspection of the phase contribution of this zero, the value of the fractional delay is recursively updated. Other parameters and integral time delay can be obtained by minimizing the cost function in two-step estimation algorithm. Simulation results illustrate the performances of the algorithm.

334    R.P. Pantoni, L.C. Passarini, D. Brandao, "Developing and implementing an open and non-proprietary device description for fieldbus devices based on software standards ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1887 - 1892 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Support for interoperability and interchangeability of software components which are part of a fieldbus automation system relies on the definition of open architectures, most of them involving proprietary technologies. Concurrently, standard, open and nonproprietary technologies, such as XML, SOAP, Web services and the like, have greatly evolved and been diffused in the computing area. This article presents a FOUNDATION fieldbustrade device description technology named Open-EDD, based on XML and other related technologies (XLST, Xerces, OO, XML Schema), proposing an open and non-proprietary alternative to the EDD (electronic device description). This initial proposal includes defining the programming language of the technology in the Foundation fieldbustrade protocol, implementing a compiler and a parser, and finally, integrating and testing the new technology using field devices and a commercial fieldbus configurator.

335    Tao Hong, Mo-Yuen Chow, P. Haaland, D. Wilson, R. Walker, "Scheduling a Life Science High-Throughput Platform under Starvation Constraints Using Timed Transition Petri Nets and Heuristic Search ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1893 - 1898 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: High-throughput (HT) platforms have been increasingly used in the life science area for diverse bio-chemical experiments. This paper addresses the scheduling of HT platform based experiments under multiple constraints, such as operation constraints, resource constraints and starvation constraints. We use timed transition Petri nets (PN) to model the experimental process with constraints. We first propose the transition variant property of the PN model. We then propose the HCH (Hong-Chow-Haaland) algorithm, which is customized from A* algorithm, to find a feasible solution. HCH algorithm is more efficient than L1 algorithm and most other A* extended algorithms in identification of new markings when applied to the transition variant PN. We then applied HCH algorithm to two typical HT processes. The results show that HCH algorithm can be used to find optimal solutions with the time complexity of identifying new markings less than 2% of the L1 algorithm.

336    A. Marti, J.C. Campelo, J. Pardo, R. Ors, J.J. Serrano, "A distributed control system for citric fruits conservation and maturation based on CAN and Internet networks ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1899 - 1904 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In citric fruits conservation and maturation systems it is very important to have precise information about parameters that indicate the citric fruit state. This information allows computing the appropriate control actions in order to achieve an optimum controlled citric fruit conservation and maturation. Last technological advances must be also used in this agriculture field to forget the rudimentary control systems that are being used at the present time. This paper describes a new distributed control system devoted to control citric fruits cold chambers that applies the last computer and electronics techniques. It is structured over different communication networks, making possible a remote pursuit and control in real-time over Internet networks and offers an improved features of flexibility and reliability. In each cold chamber, there are a strategically distributed set of sensors and actuators that are interconnected by means of a C.A.N network. In each cold chamber, one control node centralizes the chamber information and calculates the control actions. The control node information is also overturned on a backbone C.A.N network that interconnects all cold chambers with a personal computer. This computer is in charge of carrying out a second treatment and storage of the information and its diffusion to Internet. Finally, each user can be connected to his plant via an Internet connection or using a GPRS or WAP mobile telephone, to see the process evolution or to modify the parameters of each cold chamber.

337    A. Herrero, E. Corchado, P. Gastaldo, F. Picasso, R. Zunino, "Auto-Associative Neural Techniques for Intrusion Detection Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1905 - 1910 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Intrusion detection systems (IDS's) ensure the security of computer networks by monitoring traffic and generating alerts, or taking actions, when suspicious activities are detected. This paper proposes a network-based IDS supporting an intuitive visualization of the time evolution of network traffic. The system is designed to assist the network manager in detecting anomalies, and exploits auto-associative back-propagation (AABP) neural networks to turn raw data extracted from traffic sources into an intuitive 2D representation. The neural component operates as a sort of smart compression operator and supports a compact representation of multi-dimensional data. The empirical verification of the mapping method involved the detection of anomalies in traffic ascribed to the simple network management protocol (SNMP), and confirmed the validity of the proposed approach.

338    K. Matsuo, Y. Noro, T. Takeo, H. Ito, "Optical Evaluation System for a Seaweed-Water Mixture in a Seaweed Processing Plant ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1911 - 1915 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An in-process optical measurement system has been proposed for a seaweed-water mixture in a seaweed processing plant with the aim of quality evaluation of final products. The system or method is based on the assumption that the optical transmissions of the mixture at particular wavelengths could be related to seaweed-product quality. In order to ascertain the above expectation, we have made measurements in a plant and done some analysis, including principal component analysis, on the measurement data. The results imply that the optical transmission data of the mixture can be used to estimate the quality of the final seaweed products. The information obtained could also be useful in making a feedback control of the process for producing better products.

339    A. Flammini, D. Marioli, E. Sisinni, A. Taroni, "A real-time Wireless Sensor Network for temperature monitoring ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1916 - 1920 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the past, several approaches have been proposed to employ wireless sensor networks in distributed control environment. The aim is to exploit advantages as mobility and scalability, but their diffusion is limited by reliability and predictability requirements. In particular, event-driven protocols usually adopted in standard solutions (as IEEE802.11 or IEEE802.15.4) are not well suited for industrial applications. In this paper, authors propose an hybrid approach that ensures time deadlines respect by means of a TDMA allocation schema and utilizes CSMA/CA for network management purposes. Experimental prototypes, based on COTS hardware, have been realized to verify the feasibility of this solution. A star network with up to 16 nodes and a cycle time of 128 ms has been implemented in order to monitor the fluid temperature in plastic machineries.

340    Junta Doi, K. Shimizu, M. Masuya, W. Sato, "High-Density Reconstruction and CAD Technologies for Heritage and Archeological Artifacts ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1921 - 1926 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Surface models with unorganized triangular meshes have already been built based on the "retrieving topology from the ranged surface data," procedure using, for example, Delaunay tessellations from the scanned cloud points. The procedure is widely used; however, when a high-density scanning is required, ranging error goes beyond the scanning interval and high-precision reconstruction becomes impossible. To overcome the problem, a topology pre-assigned high-resolution (1-10 mum) modeling procedure, is proposed for the irregular and complicated artifacts in shape. This procedure enables one to construct a watertight model and complete reproduction of the artifacts in shape and color, to manipulate the shape of the resulting model using CAD technologies for virtual restoration, cosmetic surgery, morphological anthropology and counterfeit detection. This proposal is practicable for all kinds of objects, automating the current manual, time consuming and rework requiring modeling, and producing a versatile successive 3D shape manipulation.

341    Lihong Hu, Xiansheng Qin, Yanjun Hu, "A Capability Assignment Concept Model for Resource Management System of Product Development ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1927 - 1932 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Until recently the major share of the attention of researchers has stayed at process perspectives. The neglect of capability perspectives has resulted in many problems in resource management system. This paper presents a complete capability assignment concept model, called PDRM-CACM, for the resource management system of product development. The model contains eight basic elements (capability, resource, role, activity, administrative role, permission, administrative permission, constraint), and the corresponding relations between the elements. The basic idea behind the model is that resource assignment is actually capability assignment in essential. Thus, we emphasize that the basic element capability must stay at the central position in the model. We specified PDRM-CACM in formal specification language Z in detail. PDRM-CACM is a comprehensive model which integrates role-based access control technology into traditional resource assignment model. At last, we describe the hierarchy operations which provide the foundation of maintaining the concept model.

342    G.C. Vineel, A. Sarkar, "A System for Real-Time Delivery of Wind Farm Production Forecasts ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1933 - 1937 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Intermittency management systems (IMS) are expected to improve the quality of power produced by wind farms and thereby facilitate their integration into the power grids. Wind farm production forecasting is seen as a key enabling technology for intermittency management. Such a wind farm production forecasting (WPF) system needs to interface and collaborate with multiple external systems for its operation. It requires inputs from meteorological systems, wind being the primary driver for power production on wind farms. It also needs real-time operational SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) data from wind turbines to monitor their states. The output of the WPF system can in-turn be potentially used by a diverse set of secondary systems, of which the IMS is one. Hence a forecasting system is expected (a) to implement the forecasting model, (b) to establish standards for interfacing with external systems, and (c) to establish mechanisms for making the production forecasts available to other systems or users. This paper presents a pattern, which we call the input-process-output pattern, for designing a WPF system. The design was implemented in the form of the GE wind farm production forecasting (GE WPF) system which provides a site-specific short-term, one hour ahead to sixty hours ahead, forecasts of aggregate wind farm power. It comprises of a set of loosely-coupled, independently-executing modules. The external interface module (input) handles all communications with the external systems such as the meteorological forecasting agents and the SCADA systems. The forecasting engine (process) implements the forecasting model and hence translates the meteorological forecasts to the wind production forecasts with the aid of SCADA data. The user interface module (output) makes the output forecasts available to users in the form of an Web interface. The model-view-controller paradigm was suitably leveraged for its implementation.

343    Page(s): , Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/ISIE.2007.4374904 , "PDF Not Yet Available In IEEE Xplore ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1933 - 1937 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

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344    F.J. Martinez-Lopez, D.U. Campos-Delgado, J.M. Luna-Rivera, E. Arce-Santana, "Quality-of-Service Analysis for Linear Multiuser Detectors in the Uplink of a Wireless Network ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1945 - 1950 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In any wireless network is important to measure the quality-of-service (QoS) at the mobile units. Based on this information, the network will relocate their resources in order to achieve the performance specifications. Hence this objective motivates this paper, where analytical evaluations of the signal-to-noise plus interference ratio (SNIR) are carried out for each active user in a wireless communication system. In particular, this work studies the performance of linear detectors for direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems at different loading levels using singular value decomposition (SVD) techniques in the uplink channel. The QoS in terms of the SNIR are compared for the matched filter (MF), decorrelator, projector and minimum-mean-squared error (MMSE) detectors. In the analytical evaluations, two techniques are proposed to quantify the SNIR according to the multiple-access interference (MAI) and noise representation. The first one is based on an average of the MAI and noise information of all mobile users at the base station. The second approach relies on computing explicitly the interference for each active user. Simulation results show a performance comparison between both approaches, and a Monte-Carlo numerical evaluation in terms of the SNIR and the number of active users.

345    J.L. Sanchez, A. Jimeno, H. Mora, J. Mora, F. Pujol, "A Cordic-based Architecture for High Performance Decimal Calculations ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1951 - 1956 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Decimal arithmetic supported by digital computers has been gaining renewed importance over the last few years. However, the development of high performance radix 10-based systems is still incipient. In this paper, a modification of the CORDIC method for decimal arithmetic is proposed. The resulting algorithm works with radix 10 operands and combines decimal arithmetic with elementary angles so as to reduce the number of iterations required to achieve certain precision. Different experiments showing the advantages of the new method compared with the original decimal CORDIC method are also described. Finally, an architecture for the method implemented on FPGA is proposed.

346    Li Bo, Li Hui, Chen Ying, "WIP management and control based on just-in-time: model and information system development ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1957 - 1961 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Work-in-process (WIP) management is a big problem for manufacturing, especially for many kinds of products manufacturing. Firstly, the WIP control strategy, production control strategy (PCS) and the factors affecting normal producing of a discrete manufacturing enterprise are analyzed. Then, based on the production characteristics and present situation of the manufacturing enterprise in China, a task management model is proposed to minimize the WIP. This model is designed to describe and forecast the dynamic interaction and mutual effect between WIP and just-in-time (JIT). Thirdly, the whole application of the task management model is given through the example of a gear manufacturing enterprise in China. Meanwhile, the realization of electronic kanban and the computer information system of the task management model are also put forward. The fact proves that the model and the system can effectively manage the WIP.

347    Devinder Thapa, Jaeil Park, Chang Mok Park, Gi-Nam Wang, Dongmin Shin, "A Formal Model for Real-Time Automated Manufacturing System Control with Timed-MPSG ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1962 - 1967 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to extend the MPSC model by introducing the temporal properties to check time constraint, and do the performance analysis of the real-time shop floor controller. The MPSG (message-based part state graph) model has been developed for the execution portion of shop-floor controllers that operate in a distributed and hierarchical control environment. It is based on deterministic finite state automata and represents the execution module of shop-floor controller as a communicating finite state machine. However, there is still no consideration for handling the time in this framework. For this purpose, a formal model of Timed-MPSG processes is proposed in terms of a real-time part processing task. Furthermore, the conceptual idea, control flow algorithm and the implementation methodology of the Timed-MPSG are described with a simple example.

348    A.N. Belbachir, M. Litzenberger, C. Posch, P. Schon, "Real-Time Vision Using a Smart Sensor System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1968 - 1973 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a real-time data processing concept for asynchronous "address event" image sensors in highspeed machine vision applications. In the implemented system, a dual-line temporal contrast vision sensor asynchronously responds to relative illumination intensity changes in the visual scene, and encodes the information in the form of "timed address event" representation (TAE) data. The TAE stream consists of the event generation time concatenated to the address event (AE), which encodes the coordinates of the pixel in the 2times256 matrix. The event data processing includes object detection, denoising and scaling, and feature extraction. The feature extraction step comprises circle fit and orientation estimation techniques that enable robust recognition of a wide range of objects. The data processing algorithms take advantage of the efficient information encoding in the TAE data protocol, yielding a flexible, compact and low-cost real-time machine vision system for high-speed shape detection, object orientation extraction and monitoring.

349    A. Molina-Garcia, J.A. Fuentes, E. Gomez-Lazaro, A. Bonastre, J.C. Campelo, J.J. Serrano, "Application of Wireless Sensor Network to Direct Load Control in Residential Areas ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1974 - 1979 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the application of wireless sensor network to monitor and control electrical loads in residential areas, mainly heating and cooling loads, which accounts for around 50% of the residential electricity consumption. In this way, a control algorithm has also been implemented in order to select the optimum load control strategy according to a target demand profile and a set of prefixed constraints, allowing the customers to modify their power demand with minimum comfort levels. Therefore, this application offers the residential customers a flexible, powerful and low-cost tool to manage their electrical loads, avoiding any additional wiring and extending the wireless sensor network technology to small customers, with around 30% share of the global electricity consumption. This system has been implemented in a university environment, and the results are also included in this paper.

350    L. Tuovinen, P. Laurinen, H. Koskimaki, E. Haapalainen, J. Runing, "Building a Database to Support Intelligent Computational Quality Assurance of Resistance Spot Welding Joints ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1980 - 1985 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A database system for storing information on resistance spot welding processes is outlined. Data stored in the database can be used for computationally estimating the quality of spot welding joints and for adaptively setting up new welding processes in order to ensure consistent high quality. This is achieved by storing current and voltage signals in the database, extracting features out of those signals and using the features as training input for classifier algorithms. Together the database and the associated data mining modules form an adaptive system that improves its performance over time. An entity-relationship model of the application domain is presented and then converted into a concrete database design. Software interfaces for accessing the database are described and the utility of the database and the access interfaces as components of a welding quality assurance system is evaluated. A relational database with tables for storing test sets, welds, signals, features and metadata is found suitable for the purpose. The constructed database has served well as a repository for research data and is ready to be transferred to production use at a manufacturing site.

351    A. Anand, C. Manikopoulos, Q. Jones, C. Borcea, "A Quantitative Analysis of Power Consumption for Location-Aware Applications on Smart Phones ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1986 - 1991 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The industry is producing new wireless mobile devices, such as smart phones, at an ever increasing pace. In terms of processors and memory, these devices are as powerful as the PCs were one decade ago. Therefore, they are perfectly suitable to become the first real-life platforms for ubiquitous computing. For instance, they can be programmed to run location-aware applications that provide people with real-time information relevant to their current places. Deploying such applications in our daily life, however, requires a good understanding of their power requirements in order to ensure that mobile devices can indeed support them. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of power consumption for location-aware applications in our SmartCampus project, which builds a large scale test-bed for mobile social computing. Based on this analysis, we conclude that carefully designed applications can run for up to six hours, while updating the user location frequently enough to support real-time location-aware communication.

352    R. Rekik, M.A. Mastouri, "Implementing Of CIOP Protocol for Communication Using CORBA Environment ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1992 - 1996 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Distributed computer control in complex embedded systems oversees diverse electronic control units connecting hundreds or thousands of analogue and digital sensors and actuators. These systems are also called today sensors networks. Nodes in sensor networks can sense, compute, build links and communicate (Including relaying, setup and discovery) without a central control. The application possibilities can be wildly imaginative leading to use highly intelligent real-time distributed systems. The publish/discover/subscribe/distribute paradigm matches well with these possibilities. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that our definition of the new protocol labeled "control area network inter-ORB protocol - CIOP' is bound closely to the features of the RT-CORBA, to the information models of the OMG's DAIS specification and to the CAN bus, well known as a real-time underlying network. So, the first section gives the reasons in favour of the use of CAN bus conjointly with the OMG's DAIS specification. The second section describes a ClOP specification. The third section describes the implementation of CIOP in CORBA environment. In the fifth section we give our actual and future works in this field.

353    T. Gulrez, M. Kavakli, "Precision Position Tracking in Virtual Reality Environments using Sensor Networks ," ISIE 2007, pp. 1997 - 2003 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In an immersive interactive virtual reality (VR) environment a real human can be incorporated into a virtual 3D scene to navigate a robotic device within that virtual scene. This has useful applications in rehabilitation. The non-destructive nature of VR makes it an ideal testbed for many applications and a prime candidate for use in rehabilitation robotics simulation. The key challenge is to accurately localise the movement of the object in reality and map its corresponding position in 3D VR. To solve the localisation problem we have formed an online mode vision sensor network, which tracks the object's real Euclidean position and sends the information back to the VR scene. A precision position tracking (PPT) system has been installed to track the object. We have previously presented the solution to the sensor relevance establishment problem where from a group of sensors the most relevant sensing action is obtained. In this paper we apply the same technique to the VR system. The problem can be broken down in two steps. In step one, the relevant sensor type is discovered based upon the IEEE 1451.4 Transducers Electronic Data Sheets (TEDS) description model. TEDS is used to discover the sensor types, their geographical locations, and additional information such as uncertainty measurement functions and information fusion rules necessary to fuse multi-sensor data. In step two, the most useful sensor information is obtained using the Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD) method. In this study we conduct two experiments that address the localisation problem. In the first experiment a VR 3D environment is created using the realtime distributed robotics software Player/Stage/Gazebo and a simulated PPT camera system is used to localise a simulated autonomous mobile robot within the 3D environment. In the second experiment, a real user is placed in a cave-like VR 3D environment and a real PPT camera system is used to localise the user's physical actions in reality. The physica- l actions of the real user are then used to control the robotic device in VR.

354    J.G. Garcia, J.G. Ortega, L.N. Nicto, A.S. Garcia, "Design and Validation of an Open Architecture for an Industrial Robot ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2004 - 2009 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the improvement of robotic manipulator systems, open software platforms play an important role in control design of robots, especially where new techniques, as force control, want to be included. A good platform can provide both simulation functions that speed up the development of different algorithms and experimentation functions which include complex programming and huge data collection. This paper presents a new open software architecture for an industrial manipulator that permits easy implementation of model-based and sensor-based control concepts. In addition, it proves to be interesting for robotics research since it allows the integration of standard industrial components. The entire system has been successfully developed, implemented, and demonstrated for a robotic task which required the interaction between the manipulator and an unknown environment.

355    Y. Takahashi, T. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, "Evaluation of human physical burden on Simple Self-Transfer Aid Robotic System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2010 - 2015 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We have developed a simple self-transfer aid robotic system and have conducted evaluation experiments. The users targeted are people with impaired walking ability who use a wheelchair, however are still able to walk to some extent. With the aid transfer, these users can maneuver themselves independently to and from apparatus, in this case, toilets. In practice, users lean their upper-bodies onto the saddle of a robotic arm, which lifts and transfers them to their destination. We have conducted the detail experiments on the human physical burden of the self-transfer aid robotic system, and have confirmed that the human physical burden was able to ease when using optimum conditions of the arm length and arm speed of the self-transfer aid robotic system.

356    Ji Yulong, Sun Yuqing, Chen Haiquan, Zhang Yindong, Chen Lei, Zhang Hongpeng, "Study on Integrated Hydraulic Propulsion Vessel ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2016 - 2021 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A ship propulsion method, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), was put forward and its characteristic was discussed. After that, dynamic mathematic model of IHP vessel was developed. Based on the model, dynamic response character of the system and the influences of four parameters (oil bulk modulus, rotary inertia, seawater density and oil temperature) upon the system were discussed. The simulation results show that IHP method is feasible. Oil bulk modulus and rotary inertia will influence the system dynamic behavior significantly. Seawater density and oil temperature will not only influence the dynamic behavior but also the steady state, so these parameters should be taken into account when an IHP system is to be designed. IHP method offers a new idea for ship design.

357    P. Sousa, R. Araiijo, U. Nunes, "Real-Time Labeling of Places using Support Vector Machines ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2022 - 2027 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Humans refer almost to everything by their characterization rather than their detailed descriptions. For example, in indoor environments places are specified as: rooms, corridors, etc. Such categorizations, if learned by a robot, could improve the capabilities in the areas of navigation, localization, or human- robot cooperation. This paper studies the problem of categorizing environments into semantic categories. A new approach based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) is proposed and described for learning to perform classification of environment. The SVM is trained using a supervised training algorithm. This method uses simple features extracted from laser range measures, using methodologies normally used in computer vision. In the present paper the proposed method is used to distinguish between two classes of places from sensor data: rooms and corridors. The real-time experimental architecture designed for classification is presented. Experimental results obtained with real sensor data demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

358    C. Nerguizian, V. Nerguizian, "Indoor Fingerprinting Geolocation using Wavelet-Based Features Extracted from the Channel Impulse Response in Conjunction with an Artificial Neural Network ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2028 - 2032 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a method to localize a mobile station in an indoor environment using wavelet- based features (WBF) extracted from the channel impulse response (CIR) in conjunction with an artificial neural network (ANN). The proposed localization system makes use of the fingerprinting technique and employs CIR information as the signature and an artificial neural network as the pattern matching algorithm. For the considered indoor environment, the obtained CIR information can not be applied directly to the input of the ANN due to the high number of the CIR samples since an ANN with a high number of inputs requires a high number of learning patterns during its training. Consequently, relevant features reflecting the CIR signature have to be extracted and then applied to the ANN. The relevant features may be some physical channel parameters or a compressed version of the CIR signature. In this paper, the extraction of the CIR features is done using a wavelet-based compression. The particularity of the method is in the representation of the CIR signature in a judicious way facilitating the design of the ANN. Moreover, when the extracted features correspond to the CIR signature, the localization system tends to give mobile location with a high precision. Simulation of measured CIR in an indoor environment, showed a precision of 2 meters for 91% and 70% of trained and untrained data, respectively.

359    D.I. Jones, "An experimental power pick-up mechanism for an electrically driven UAV. ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2033 - 2038 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: An actively controlled mechanism for picking up electrical power from the conductors of an overhead line on a distribution network is described. The mechanism is part of a novel concept for inspecting power lines from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The background to the application is explained and an outline given of a small, ducted-fan rotorcraft which draws its power from the overhead line (OHL). A cranked linkage is proposed that maintains a firm sliding electrical contact with the OHL and compensates for the movement of the rotorcraft. The paper contains details of a kinematic analysis and 3D computer visualization of the mechanism's working range. The design of an experimental pick-up mechanism is described and a computer simulation shows how impedance control can regulate the contact force with the OHL. Experimental results using an air vehicle simulator (AVS) are presented to verify the action of the pick-up mechanism.

360    P.J. Komi, M.R. Jackson, R.M. Parkin, "Plant Classification Combining Colour and Spectral Cameras for Weed Control Purposes ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2039 - 2042 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Weed plant detection and classification is a difficult task for any computer vision system. Previous studies show promising results with either colour camera or spectral imaging solutions. However, typical colour camera solutions have found it hard to deal with overlapping leaves, and spectral solutions often lack in the spatial resolution required for accurate leaf level detection. In this paper a novel system for weed detection and classification is presented using both low-cost RGB (Red, Green, Blue) colour and spectral (400 - 1000 nm) cameras combining the strengths of these individual technologies. The system presented performs accurate leaf level classification and is capable of identification at 97.6% with non-overlapping full leaves in laboratory under controlled lighting conditions. Plant leaf samples from 6 different plant types were used. With dedicated hardware and optimized software the system should be capable of at least 5 km/h real-time operation in field conditions.

361    Li Chen, Yishen Guo, "Adaptive Control of Dual-Arm Space Robot System in Inertial Space ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2043 - 2046 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the adaptive control of free-floating dual-arm space robot system is studied. Firstly, in order to overcome the difficulty that the dynamic equations of dual-arm space robot system can not be linearly parameterized, the system is modeled as under-actuated robot system. And then with the augmentation approach, we demonstrate that the dynamic equations of the system can be linearly dependent on inertial parameters. Based on the results, an adaptive control scheme of dual-arm space robot system is developed. The asymptotic stability of the control scheme is proved with Lyapunov method. A planar free-floating dual-arm space robot system with two objects is simulated to verify the proposed control scheme.

362    M. Pettersson, J. Olvander, H. Andersson, "Application Adapted Performance Optimization for Industrial Robots ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2047 - 2052 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Industrial robots are designed for a large spectrum of user scenarios. This implies that the robot cannot be tailor made for each situation and hence its full potential might not always be fully exploited. For further efficient use of robots the concept of application adapted performance optimization is introduced. This means that the robot control is optimized with respect to thermal and fatigue load for the specific program, which the robot performs. Simultaneously the motion program itself i.e. the path planning can be optimized in order to get the most out of the robot. These ideas are tested on a six axis robot in a press tending application.

363    L. Angel, A. Traslosheros, J.M. Sebastian, L. Pari, "High-speed Visual Servoing of PKMs ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2053 - 2058 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a visual servoing architecture based on a parallel robot for the tracking of faster moving objects with unknown trajectories is proposed. The control strategy is based on the prediction of the future position and velocity of the moving object. The synthesis of the predictive control law is based on the compensation of the delay introduced by the vision system. Demonstrating by experiments, the high-speed parallel robot system has good performance in the implementation of visual control strategies with high temporary requirements.

364    Zu Guang Zhang, N. Yamashita, M. Gondo, A. Yamamoto, T. Higuchi, "Development of Mechanical and Control Systems for a Robotic Fish Using Electrostatic Film Motors ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2059 - 2064 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We describe the design features that underlie the operation of Seidengyo (electrostatic fish), a light, flexible, and bio-inspired robotic fish that swims in water like an actual fish. These features include an elaborate power transmission system and a compact and all-purpose robot controller. The power transmission system permits reciprocating power, from a 3-layer- structure electrostatic film motor, to be converted to periodic oscillations of a caudal fin. The controller is capable uf easily generating high-frequency and high-voltage driving signals and rapidly accomplishing various control tasks (e.g., sampling sensor, computing control algorithms and so on). As a result, we can control oscillations of the caudal fin via a synchronous operation approach to realize open-loop swimming. We present the results of experiments that focus on the performance of the constructed controller.

365    Y. Hasuda, S. Tshibashi, H. Kozuka, H. Okano, J. Ishikawa, "A robot designed to play the game "Rock, Paper, Scissors" ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2065 - 2070 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We produced a robot that can play the game "rock, paper, scissors". The robot and a person play the game facing each other. We developed an image processing system that is capable of recognizing the shape of a human hand. We also designed the robot to express feelings through its voice, body actions and facial expressions that varied depending on the outcome of the game.

366    A. Janot, C. Bidard, M. Gautier, F. Gosselin, D. Keller, Y. Perrot, "Characterization of a medical interface ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2071 - 2076 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The medical interface studied in this paper is an haptic interface. These interfaces are robotic devices intended to enhance the user's immersion in virtual environments through the stimulation, of the haptic sense. Usually, they consist of an articulated mechanical structure which introduces distortion between the operator and the explored world. In order to assess the quality of the devices, it must be identified. This paper deals with this issue and introduces the characterization of the medical interface. Each 3 degrees of freedom (DOFs) branch uses a parallelogram and double parallelogram loop. The characterization is based on the inverse model and least squares method.

367    F. Ortiz, J.A. Pastor, B. Alvarez, A. Iborra, N. Ortega, D. Rodriguez, C. Concsa, "Robots for hull ship cleaning ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2077 - 2082 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A critical operation for ship maintenance is periodical hull blasting before re-painting. Up to date some partial solutions exist like blasting turbines for vertical surfaces or water blasting units for striping. This paper presents the EFTCoR family of robots, designed by DSIE, that represent an integral solution for hull blasting that achieves the efficiency, safety and environmental requirements of shipyards. The paper also shows the results of the tests performed under real working conditions and a brief summary of the architectural framework for the robotic systems development.

368    F.J. Berenguer, F. Monasterio-Huelin, "Stability and Smoothness Improvements for an Underactuated Biped with a Tail ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2083 - 2088 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this work we present an important improvement in our model of biped mechanism that allows the elevation in a stable form of the system's feet during the execution of trajectories. This improvement allows for simpler trajectory planning and also facilitates the reduction of losses in the collision between the feet and the ground. On the other hand, we add to the design phase the study of the displacement of the Zero Moment Point, as well as the variation of the normal component of the ground reaction force during the motion of the system. Consideration of the above mentioned magnitudes in the design phase allows us to design the necessary support area of the system. These magnitudes will be used as a smoothness criterion of the ground contact to facilitate the selection of robot parameters and trajectories.

369    K. Regenstein, T. Kerscher, C. Birkenhofer, T. Asfour, M. Zollner, R. Dillmann, "Universal Controller Module (UCoM) - component of a modular concept in robotic systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2089 - 2094 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: At our institute we built a variety of robots. As these robots are quite different as well in size, shape and in actuation principle it would be very time consuming and inefficient to build a computer and hardware architecture especially tailored to the specific robot. In this paper it will be described how common aspects in robot control can be identified and how a modular software framework and a respective computer architecture can be mapped to modular components on the hardware side. A decentralized computer architecture based on embedded PC systems connected to local controller modules via CAN-bus was developed. The requirements and restrictions that led to the development of these controller modules and their associated power amplifier boards will be described.

370    A. Hentout, B. Bouzouia, Z. Toukal, "Behaviour-based Architecture for Piloting Mobile Manipulator Robots ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2095 - 2100 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this article, we present a generic hierarchical behaviour-based model architecture for piloting mobile manipulator robots. The proposed model architecture is based on three level hierarchical behaviours. Two behaviours are high- level, two others are of intermediate-level and finally one behaviour is low-level. The first two behaviours constitute the supervisor agent, which manages the global system. The last three constitute the mobile robot agent and the manipulator robot agent. They respectively control the mobile base and the manipulator arm. We also propose an implementation methodology to adapt this architecture to the RobuTER robot architecture.

371    J.E. Domenech, C.V. Regueiro, C. Gamallo, P. Quintia, "Learning Wall Following Behaviour in Robotics through Reinforcement and Image-based States ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2101 - 2106 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this work, a visual and reactive wall following behaviour is learned by reinforcement. With artificial vision the environment is perceived in 3D, and it is possible to avoid obstacles that are invisible to other sensors that are more common in mobile robotics. Reinforcement learning reduces the need for intervention in behaviour design, and simplifies its adjustment to the environment, the robot and the task. In order to facilitate its generalization to other behaviours and to reduce the role of the designer, we propose a regular image-based codification of states. Even though this is much more difficult, our implementation converges and is robust. Results are presented with a Pioneer 2 AT. Learning phase has been realized on the Gazebo 3D simulator and the test phase has been proved in simulated and real environments to demonstrate the correct design and robustness of our algorithms.

372    D.W. Hodo, J.Y. Hung, D.M. Bevly, D.S. Millhouse, "Analysis of Trailer Position Error in an Autonomous Robot-Trailer System With Sensor Noise ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2107 - 2112 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A low cost solution for controlling trailer lateral position in a robotic tractor-trailer system is being considered. In this paper, several practical issues involved in the implementation of such a system are presented. Instruments for navigation and control consist of a single GPS receiver and a hitch-mounted sensor for the measurement of the angle between robot (tractor) and trailer. In previous work, the authors examined the effects of errors in the hitch-angle measurement on path tracking performance. This analysis was expanded to include the effects of noise in the GPS measurements. The relative merits of mounting the GPS receiver on the robot or trailer are considered.

373    D.U. Campos-Delgado, D.R. Espinoza-Trejo, E. Palacios, "Closed-loop Torque Control of an Absorbing Dynamometer for a Motor Test-Bed ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2113 - 2118 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to test control algorithms for DC and AC motors, under a variable speed configuration, is necessary to provide a regulated load torque. Moreover, it is desirable to adjust on-line this quantity in order to simulate practical scenarios and nonlinear loads. Thus, with this objective in mind, the design and closed-loop torque control strategies for an absorbing dynamometer are detailed in this paper. This device is constructed using a permanent-magnet DC motor and a two-quadrant DC-DC chopper, and it is designed to operate independently of the motor velocity orientation. Two nonlinear control schemes are presented to regulate accurately the torque provided by the dynamometer. Finally, simulation and experimental results are illustrated for a 2HP DC motor test-bed.

374    Lu Ren, Lidai Wang, J.K. Mills, Dong Sun, "2-D Automatic Micrograsping Tasks Performed by Visual Servo Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2119 - 2124 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a visual servo control approach and develop the corresponding software to perform micrograsping tasks in a two-dimension plane (2-D). Specifically, using a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) robotic manipulator to manipulate a micro-gripper and automatically grasp a micro-part. In the proposed control scheme, two types of position feedback signals are utilized. One is the relative positions of the micro-part with respect to the micro-gripper measured by the developed computer vision system, which is used for visual servo control. The other is the absolute displacements of the micro-part measured by the fixed linear encoders, which is used to check the corresponding motions. The whole control software is developed by LabVIEW, to improve operation speed. Furthermore, a two-stage grasping strategy is employed: in the first stage, pattern-matching is performed once and the bonded micro-gripper is controlled, to directly reach a specific position adjacent to the mating edge of a designated micro-part with the same y coordinate; in the second stage, pattern-matching is performed at each control update interval while the micro-gripper is displaced towards the micro-part with steps on the order of one micron magnitude, until the micro-part is completely grasped. Experiments conducted on a 6-DOF experimental manipulator demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed control approach and grasping strategy.

375    Zhenwen Su, Bi Zeng, Guangchang Liu, Feng Ye, Minglin Xu, "Application of Fuzzy Neural Network in Parameter Optimization of Mobile Robot Path Planning Using Potential Field ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2125 - 2128 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper discussed a new mobile robot path planning algorithm. It analyzed the traditional path planning algorithm that employs artificial potential field and fuzzy logic, and then develop a new method combing artificial potential field, neural network and fuzzy Logic, which realized real-time obstacle recognition and smooth motion in dynamic environment. This algorithm improves the traditional artificial potential field performance, while reducing its drawbacks' influence effectively. Experiment and simulation shows this method can make the robot avoid obstacles effectively and avoid being trapped in "dead area".

376    K. Machleidt, J. Kroneis, S. Liu, "Stabilization of the Furuta Pendulum Using a Nonlinear Control Law Based on the Method of Controlled Lagrangians ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2129 - 2134 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design details for a nonlinear control law to stabilize a Furuta pendulum experimental apparatus. The controller is based on the method of controlled Lagrangians - a well-known energy based approach for stabilization of underactuated mechanical systems in Lagrangian form. An advanced model of the Furuta pendulum including friction effects is used for the controller synthesis. A systematic approach to determine the controller parameters for achieving an acceptable control performance is described. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design method.

377    M. Marron, J.C. Garcia, M.A. Sotelo, F. Huerta, M. Cabello, J. Cerro, "Tracking Multiple Objects Using a Kalman Filter and a Probabilistic Association Process ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2135 - 2138 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper one of the most important solutions in position estimation is used in conjunction with a data association algorithm in order to achieve a multi-tracking application. A Kalman filter is extended and adapted in order to track the position and speed of a variable number of objects in an unstructured and complex environment. Both the developed algorithms and the results obtained with their real-time execution implementation in the mentioned application are described, and interesting conclusions extracted from these experiments are remarked in the paper. Finally, tracking results of the proposed algorithm are compared with another multi-object estimator based on a particle filter previously developed by the authors.

378    S.S. Ying, X.S. Qin, "Visualization Bio-Mimetic Model of Muscular Drive ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2139 - 2143 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There exist large numbers of papers on muscle modeling for biomechanics or virtual reality but, in our opinion, they are inconvenient as a practicable method for muscular drive modeling for robotic joint or bio-mechanisms. We now propose a computational approach to modeling artificial muscle for robotic joint or bio-mechanisms drive. In the full paper, we explain in detail the proposed efficient method; in this abstract we just summarize briefly how we developed our visualization muscular drive model. This paper advocates a two-element model representing the complex mechanical properties of artificial muscles, the model utilizes Zajac's method and neglects the effect of series elastic element, in addition, its three-dimensional geometry entity is designed. In order to build this muscle model rapidly, a software plugin is developed based on ADAMSTM that allows the creation of control module and multi-body dynamic system for use in bio-mechanisms. As an example, a bio-mimetic joint actuator for robots comprising four muscle models is built and analyzed. The results show that our visualization model of muscular drive has good simplicity and accuracy.

379    A. Sabanovic, M. Elitas, "SMC Based Bilateral Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2144 - 2149 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Design of a motion control system should take into account (a) unconstrained motion performed without interaction with environment or other system, and (b) constrained motion with system in contact with environment or another system or has certain functional interaction with another system. Control in both cases can be formulated in terms of maintaining desired system configuration what makes essentially the same structure for common tasks: trajectory tracking, interaction force control, compliance control etc. It will be shown that the same design approach can be used for systems that maintain some functional relation - like bilateral or multilateral systems, relation among mobile robots or control of haptic systems.

380    S. Achiche, Zhun Fan, F. Bolognini, "Review of Automated Design and Optimization of MEMS ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2150 - 2155 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In recent years MEMS saw a very rapid development Although many advances have been reached, due to the multiphysics nature of MEMS, their design is still a difficult task carried on mainly by hand calculation. In order to help to overtake such difficulties, attempts to automate MEMS design were carried out. This paper presents a review of these techniques. The design task of MEMS is usually divided into four main stages: System Level, Device Level, Physical Level and the Process Level. The state of the art o automated

381    Xiaoteng Tang, Li Chen, "Nonholonomic Motion Planning of Space Robot System with Dual-Arms Using Genetic Algorithm ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2156 - 2160 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we use genetic algorithm solve problem of the optimal nonholonomic motion planning of free-floating space robot system with dual-arms. Base on the linear momentum conservation and the angular momentum conservation of the system, the system state equations for control design are established. The approximate optimal control scheme of the system proposed is studied, and a genetic algorithm for the optimal control of the system proposed is developed. The optimal motion planning approach proposed possesses the advantages that it can obtain the desired angles of the base's attitude and arms' joints only by controlling the arms' joints motion. Some simulations for a planar free-floating space robot system with dual-arms is done to verified the proposed approach.

382    A.S. Conceicao, H.P. Oliveira, A. Sousa e Silva, D. Oliveira, A.P. Moreira, "A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of an Omni-Directional Mobile Robot ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2161 - 2166 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a nonlinear model based predictive controller (NMPC) for trajectory tracking of a mobile robot. Methods of numerical optimization to perform real time nonlinear minimization of the cost function are used. The cost function penalizes the robot position error, the robot orientation angle error and the control effort. Experimental results of the trajectories following and the performance of the methods of optimization are presented.

383    L. Ribas, M. Izquierdo, J. Mujal, E. Ramon, "A Prototype of a Low-Cost, Downsizeable, Dynamically Reconfigurable Unit for Robot Swarms ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2167 - 2172 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Swarm robotics deals with emergent behavior of a collection of robots. These robots must be cheap and small in order to make it feasible to have a swarm out of them. In this work we present a prototype for one of such robots with emphasis on communication and processing capabilities. The result is a flexible, reconfigurable, dual-processor robot that could be used in physical modeling of robot swarms. The built prototype shows that further implementations can be easily downsized and inexpensive.

384    Sergiu-Dan Stan, Radu Balan, Vistrian Maties, "Multi-objective Design Optimization of Mini Parallel Robots Using Genetic Algorithms ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2173 - 2178 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is aimed at presenting a study on the optimization of the Biglide and Bipod mini parallel robots, which comprises two-degree-of-freedom (DOF) mini parallel robots with constant and variable struts. The robot workspace is characterized and the inverse kinematics equation is obtained. In the paper, design optimization is implemented with Genetic Algorithms (GA) for optimization considering transmission quality index, design space and workspace. Here, intended to show the advantages of using the GA, we applied it to a multicriteria optimization problem of 2 DOF mini parallel robots. Genetic algorithms (GA) are so far generally the best and most robust kind of evolutionary algorithms. A GA has a number of advantages. It can quickly scan a vast solution set. Bad proposals do not affect the end solution negatively as they are simply discarded. The obtained results have shown that the use of GA in such kind of optimization problem enhances the quality of the optimization outcome, providing a better and more realistic support for the decision maker.

385    D. Kaynov, C. Balaguer, "Industrial automation based approach to design control system of the humanoid robot. ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2179 - 2184 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an advanced control system for the humanoid robot. The main advantage of the proposed control architecture is the use of the standardized and frequently used in the automation industry solutions and commercial available hardware components. It provides the scalability, the modularity and the application of standardized interfaces and brings the design of the complex control system of the humanoid robot from a closed laboratory to the industry. The main parts of the proposed control system, such as hardware and software architectures and communication infrastructure are presented. As well as some aspects of the humanoid robot walking control from the automation side are discussed. The designed control system was implemented with the Rh-1 humanoid platform, the second phase of the Rh project, which have been launched by the Robotics Lab at the University Carlos III of Madrid at 2002.

386    Daniel Pizarro, Manuel Mazo, Enrique Santiso, Hideki Hashimoto, "Localisation and Reconstruction of Mobile Robots in Intelligent Spaces. A single camera solution ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2185 - 2190 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an approach to solve a 3D tracking of mobile robots based on visual information from a fixed and calibrated camera. The proposed algorithm builds a metric model of primitives of the object structure. The approach allows a redefinition of the tracking problem into one of bayesian inference. Robot pose is the result of a sequential algorithm that searchs for a posterior distribution of robot pose and structure model given a set of fiducial points measured in the image plane. The method of correspondence between the model and measurements is supported by a joint distribution compatibility test. The proposed algorithm allows also the addition of new information into the previous model, which converts the present method into a simultaneous pose and reconstruction approach. Metric initialization is solved by combining some amount of odometry information jointly with image measurements. A Maximum Likelihood approach to initialization is described. Real results are shown using a mobile robot and a low cost camera.

387    Jorge A. Mendez-Iglesias, Francisco J. Ruiz-Sanchez, "Human Stability Analysis on Time-Delayed Teleoperation Tasks ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2191 - 2196 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present our first experimental results on the real-time stability analysis of the human operator performing on time-delayed teleoperation system. Due to the fact that human operator behavior is non linear, time varying and the complexity of the techniques to analyze in real-time this kind of systems, we used a discrete linearization of the model and determined for each sample if the system is stable or unstable. In this way, the stability analysis is based on the real-time identified model of the human operator and the Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria is applied to the model. The reason to use Routh-Hurwits instead of Jury criteria is due to the required amount of computational steps. Having determined if the system is stable or unstable in the sampling time, we are able to evaluate the human operator performance. In this way, the proportion of stable and unstable points obtained in the execution of a certain task, provides a performance indicator. The main result of this analysis indicates that human performance, measured as the proportion of stable / unstable points, is increased with repetitive executions of the task and independent of the magnitude of the delay in the visual feedback information.

388    Yu Xiaoliu, Cen Yuwan, Chu Liuhuo, Gao Wenbin, "A Structure Error Compensation Method for the Parallel Mechanisms ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2197 - 2201 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The structure error, which is not belonged to the kinematical parameters' error, is studied in this paper. According to the characters of the parallel mechanism, a compensation method for structure error is presented. This method can compensate the errors caused by kinematical parameter errors and non-kinematical parameter errors, which are both parts of the structure errors. This method is applied to the iterative compensation for the structure errors caused by the branch chains with prismatic joints in parallel mechanisms. The compensation mathematic model is derived. The structure errors decreased obviously by once iteration of the forward kinematics, and to the higher order by twice. We take this method to simulate the error compensation of a parallel orientation mechanism with 2-degree of freedom (DOF). The simulation result shows that the structure error is reduced to one in hundreds after compensation.

389    C. Larouci, E. Dehondt, A. Harakat, G. Feld, "Modeling and Control of the Vehicle Transmission System Using Electric Actuators; Integration of a Clutch ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2202 - 2207 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a method to carry out an electrical simulator of the vehicle transmission chain including a clutch by using electric actuators controlled thanks to a dedicated torque control laws. It proposes an equivalent electrical system to the vehicle transmission chain. This equivalent system is easily exploited and can operate under a reduced power scale. This equivalent system allows to carry out various tests on manual, automatic or robotized gearboxes, on clutch or heat engine. Moreover, it allows to carry out a vehicle test benches by optimizing the cost and the time of the development phase of the vehicle transmission system. The proposed method is validated by numerical simulation and measures.

390    I. J. Spark, M. Yousef Ibrahim, "Manoeuvrable Gantry Tractor Comprising a "Chorus Line" of Synchronised Modules ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2208 - 2213 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A method of automatically manoeuvring a gantry tractor through right angle turns, U-turns and narrow gates is described. In order to maxmise traction and maneuverability both the wheel angle steering effect and the drive wheel speed steering effect are integrated. This technique produced identical and cooperative redundant steering systems. In addition, through this work, a second level of cooperative redundancy can be achieved when the angle between the longitudinal axes of adjacent modules is also positively controlled. The advantage of cooperative redundancy is that when any steering system begins to fail it is reinforced by the other steering system.

391    Olivier Chocron, Emmanuel Delaleau, Jean-Luc Fleureau, "Flatness-Based Control of a Mechatronic Weed Killer Autonomous Robot ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2214 - 2219 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes an advanced command method for controlling a weed killer robot designed to work through corn ranks autonomously. The control task consists in guiding precisely the robot between two ranks of young corn seedlings while it weeds. The kinematic model developed shows the non linearity of the system and how it impacts the command accuracy of the robot. We bring here, for the first time, a high-level control based on non linear equations to aim for a very robust control method. Robustness is needed in this kind of applications because of the important uncertainties and perturbations in the environment. In this way, we hope the future robot will be able to work in spite of mud, cracks and rocks present on its track.

392    Roberto Morales Caporal, Mario Pacas, "Predictive Direct Torque Control for Synchronous Reluctance Machines at Very Low and Zero Speed without Mechanical Sensor of the Rotor Position ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2220 - 2225 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a technique to estimate the rotor position on predictive direct torque controlled synchronous reluctance machines at very low and zero speed without position sensor. In this range of operation, the natural anisotropy of the rotor is exploited and a test voltage signal is injected in certain control cycles and during short time. The additional test voltage does not produce any undesired torque as a compensation signal is provided. The identification of the rotor position is based on the measurement of the phase currents and their time derivatives. Due to the anisotropy of the rotor the inductances depend on the rotor position, so the time derivatives of the currents contain the required rotor position information. The obtained signals are processed by means of a quadrature phase-locked loop observer to extract the rotor position signal without detriments in phase and frequency. The developed identification scheme does need any encoder or additional special current or voltage sensors. Based on the mentioned strategy a sensorless predictive direct torque control scheme for the synchronous reluctance machine has been developed and implemented. Experimental results using a DSP and a field-programmable gate array embedded in the same board verify the effectiveness of the proposed sensorless predictive direct torque control scheme.

393    Mihai Comanescu, Todd Batzel, "Sliding Mode MRAS Speed Estimators for Sensorless Control of Induction Machine under Improper Rotor Time Constant ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2226 - 2231 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper discusses the speed estimation accuracy of two Sliding Mode Model Reference Adaptive System observers under improper rotor time constant. The SM MRAS observers are used for speed estimation in a sensorless direct field oriented (DFO) induction machine (IM) drive. In a sensorless DFO drive, the rotor fluxes are estimated based on the measured voltages/currents and are used for field orientation. Speed estimation by the rotor flux MRAS method is attractive since the reference quantities (rotor fluxes) are already available. Classic MRAS or SM MRAS speed estimators are viable alternatives and they work well under ideal conditions. The paper analyzes the speed estimation error of the SM MRAS observers under real conditions (improper rotor time constant and nonideal integration) and compares it with the Classic MRAS method.

394    S. Caux, P. Maussion, "Robust sensorless tuning of a PMSM drive with 2D experimental designs ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2232 - 2237 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an original application of the experimental designs method to a PMSM drive control without mechanical sensors. The position, velocity and back emf observer used is a redundant observer structure. This observer includes different gains and filters that have to be tuned optimally for the best convergence performance. The proposed method is based on the statistic analysis of parameter influence on a defined performance criterion. The most influent parameters and their optimal levels are identified. A new two dimensional design is also carried out for a robust tuning of the observer coefficients, in order to reject the influence of the parameter variations. This analysis is called cross product plan and highly reduces the number of required experiments.

395    Evgen Urlep, Karel Jezernik, "Low and Zero Speed Sensorless Control of nonsalient PMSM ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2238 - 2243 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A speed sensorless control of nonsalient PMSM is demonstrated in this paper, where estimated rotor flux is directly utilized, instead of transformation angle. A discrete-time sliding-mode current controller in stationary frame with EMF feedforward is employed. The operation at low speed is improved by reducing the disturbance impact. The estimation angle error at zero speed is limited by injecting additional DC current that compensates for the unknown load torque and enables operation at zero speed.

396    M. Cesar Rodriguez, Cesar Sanz, "A Sensorless Controller for a Kind of Linear Variable Gap-Reluctance Resonant Drive ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2244 - 2249 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a new kind of sensorless electronically controlled horn for automobiles. The main benefits of this new horn over the classical electromechanical counterparts are: a much longer lifetime, a lower level of generated electro-magnetic interference, a better behavior against aging and stress, the avoidance of the adjusting operation during manufacturing and its multifunction capabilities. To fulfil all these targets we have substituted the electromechanical breaker of previous designs by a solid state switch controlled by a low-cost microprocessor on board the horn. In order to detect the resonance condition of the horn we use a novel technique based on the analysis of the current across the coil, avoiding the need for any sound-level, position or motion sensor. At present there are commercial products based upon the prototypes built according to this design.

397    R. Zaimeddine, E.M. Berkouk, L. Refoufi, M. Bousalah, "A Scheme of EDTC Control using a Three-Level Voltage Source Inverter for an Induction Motor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2250 - 2255 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The object of this paper is to study a new control structure for sensorless induction machine dedicated to electrical drives using a three-level voltage source inverter (VSI). The amplitude and the rotating speed of the flux vector can be controlled freely. Both fast torque response and optimal switching logic can be achieved; the selection is based on the value of the stator flux and the torque. A novel DTC scheme of induction motors is proposed in order to develop a suitable dynamic. We propose an approach; in wich we enhance the response of torque and flux with optimal switching strategies. However, the middle point voltage of the input DC voltages of the three-level NPC voltage source inverter presents serious problems caused by a fluctuation of the DC voltage sources UcU, UcL. As consequence to these problems, we obtain an output voltage of the inverter which is asymmetric and with an average value different from zero. In this paper, we will present one solution to minimise this fluctuation. This solution uses a clamping bridge to regulate the input voltages of a three-level inverter VSI NPC. A scheme of Enhanced direct torque control "EDTC" with complete cascade is simulated for an induction motor. The results obtained indicate superior performance over the FOC one without need to any mechanical sensor.

398    Ching-Guo Chen, "Sensorless Speed Control of Switched Reluctance Drives Using a Nonlinear Controller ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2256 - 2261 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a nonlinear speed-loop controller for sensorless control of a switched reluctance motor (SRM). By on-line estimating the self-inductances of the motor, the shaft position and speed of the SRM is obtained. A simple nonlinear controller can compensate for speed-estimation error and parameter variations is derived from a Lyapunov function. Then, a closed-loop sensorless drive system can thus be achieved. The details of the sensorless technique and the controller design are discussed. By using a 32-bit microprocessor, a fully digital drive system including a digital speed-loop controller and a digital current-loop controller is implemented here. The hardware circuit of the drive system is very simple. The proposed drive system performs well in speed responses, load disturbance rejection capability, and robustness. Several experimental results are presented in the paper to validate the theoretic analysis.

399    Pavel Vaclavek, Petr Blaha, "Analysis of Observability Conditions for AC Induction Machine Sensorless Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2262 - 2267 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: AC induction motors become very popular for motion control applications due to their simple and reliable construction. There are applications in which speed sensors should be omitted, to achieve cost reduction. In such a situation, we have to solve the task of state reconstruction only from voltage and currents measurements - design so called sensorless control algorithm. In the current paper, we present a simplified AC induction machine model suitable for speed observer design together with its observability analysis. Conditions of speed and rotor resistance observability are defined.

400    Mitja Nemec, Uros Flisar, David Nedeljkovic, Vanja Ambrozic, "Accurate Detection of Initial Rotor Position in a Multi-Pole Synchronous Machine ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2274 - 2277 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a method for initial rotor position estimation of PMSM drive. The method is suitable for salient pole motors, and is accurate even for inductance with non-sinusoidal profile. The main idea of the method is to apply six voltage pulses to the motor and measure the current's response according to the rotor position. This response is then pretabulated in dependence of electrical angle and stored. Before start up of the drive, the detection algorithm only needs to apply the same six voltage vectors, measure the current's response and find its closest match within the stored pre-tabulated responses. The proposed approach is computationally simple and very accurate, as it is shown in experimental results.

401    Carlos Ortega, Antoni Arias, Josep Balcells, Cedric Caruana, "High Frequency injection in a Matrix Converter DTC Drive for sensorless operation of a PMSM ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2278 - 2283 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A sensorless Direct Torque Control (DTC) of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drive using a high frequency hf hf voltage injection technique without compromising the simplicity of the original DTC algorithm, is proposed in this paper. A new hf hf injection algorithm, in which the hf hf carrier is introduced by the direct modification of the fundamental voltage vectors of a Matrix Converter (MC), is developed and explained in detail. The position signal is then obtained from the direct demodulation of the resulting hf hf currents. Experimental results showing the effectiveness of the proposed method are shown.

402    Pablo Garcia, David Reigosa, Fernando Briz, Dejan Raca, Robert D. Lorenz, "Automatic Self-Commissioning for Secondary-Saliencies Decoupling in Sensorless-Controlled AC Machines Using Structured Neural Networks ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2284 - 2289 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The focus of this paper is secondary-saliency decoupling in carrier signal injection-based sensorless control of AC machines using structured neural networks. Structured neural networks are utilized for automatic commissioning and decoupling of secondary saliencies including saturation-induced saliencies. Automatic commissioning process is necessary for easy implementation and for acceptance of the carrier signal injection-based sensorless control by drives industry. In comparison with classical compensation methods, such as lookup tables, this technique has advantages of reducing commissioning time and automating the process. These advantages are result of a physics-based design of structured neural networks, which is responsible for their scalability, and moderate size and complexity. In comparison with traditional neural networks, structured neural networks are simpler, physically insightful, less computationally intensive and easier to train.

403    Sanchez Lekue Aritz, "Analysis of the FSMs implementation with mini-microprocessors in FPGAs ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2290 - 2294 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is the analysis of the convenience of implementing Finite State Machines (FSM) in FPGAs programming mini-microprocessors, instead of implementing a specific FSM. To reach this objective, the performance of some mini-microprocessor cores have been analyzed, and compared with the specific implementations. The obtained results expound some guidelines to help in the decision of using or not a mini-microprocessor to implement a FSM in a project.

404    H. Barthelemy, S. Bourdel, N. Dehaese, J. Gaubert, G. Bas, "Gm-C low-pass-filter designed for a Zero-IF base-band demodulator ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2295 - 2300 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A versatile 5th order low-cost GM-C low-pass-filter for a Zero-IF base-band demodulation scheme is presented in this paper. The circuit is designed for a low-power 2.45GHz direct-conversion receiver based on frequency shift keying (FSK) modulation with a 2MHz corner frequency to provide rejection of the adjacent channels. Corner frequency of the proposed filter can be easily controlled from a DC bias current source. The circuit has been simulated under 2.5V using the 0.28¿m standard CMOS process technology. The total output noise density is equal to 47nVrms at 2MHz. The corresponding total harmonic distortion is lower than 0.3% when a 2MHz-20mV peak-to-peak input sinusoidal voltage is applied. At the same simulation conditions and up to 8MHz, the circuit exhibits a frequency-rejected higher than 28dBc. The filter total silicon area is 100¿m×100¿m and the total current consumption is 180¿A under 2.5V supply voltage.

405    Slavisa Jovanovic, Philippe Poure, "Design of power electronic digital controller based on FPGA/SOC using VHDL-AMS language ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2301 - 2306 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, authors detail a Top-down design methodology for Power Electronic digital controller based on Field Programmable Gate Aray or System-On-Chip. This design flow uses VHDL-AMS language. The application case of a shunt three phase power active filter is studied. An optimised architecture is designed and each step is detailed. Each block of the architecture is modeled in VHDL at several abstraction levels, from real data format to specific binary format. To achieve closed loop simulation, analog and power elements are modeled in VHDL-AMS. The whole closed loop system is successfully validated at various abstraction levels of the digital control, using ADVanceMS.

406    Mayela Zamora, Manus Henry, "FPGA Implementation of Frequency Output and Input Using Handel-C ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2313 - 2318 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of digital frequency input and output for data transmission remains common in the design of many embedded applications. Conventional methods of frequency generation, based on counting clock cycles, have a precision which is inversely proportional to the frequency to be generated. This paper describes a simple frequency generation technique which, when implemented in low-cost FPGA hardware, provides a precision of 5 × 10-6% or better for all frequencies. The method represents an intermediate non-available frequency by dithering between two exact frequencies. Laboratory measurements show that, averaged over 2s, the desired frequency is generated to the required precision. This application is used to illustrate the high level of abstraction in the Handel-C language for describing FPGA functionality.

407    Eric Janssen, "GreenChip SR: Synchronous Rectifier controller IC ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2319 - 2325 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The GreenChip SR is a synchronous rectifier controller IC. It is capable of driving a synchronous rectifier switch in a Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS). The circuit has a novel way of operation, which ensures fast turn-off of the synchronous rectifier switch. A smart blanking circuit prevents false detection due to ringing signals. It also contains additional circuitry for controlling the output voltage and current. The IC can directly drive an optocoupler. Furthermore, it has additional protection functions integrated.

408    P. Degen, H. de Groot, R. Pagano, F. Pansier, K. Schetters, "Control of Active Clamp Forward Converters by Independent Primary and Secondary ASICs ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2326 - 2331 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes an ASIC solution to control a multi-output control-driven active-clamp forward converter devoted to PC power supplies. The primary- and secondary-side switches of the forward converter are driven by dedicated ASIC units. In detail, regulation of the main-switch duty-cycle is achieved by a primary IC implementing feed-forward control, while the outputs of the converter are locally regulated by two ASICs independently from the primary-switch duty-cycle. Since no communication is required during normal mode, the duty-cycle is defined by the the primary IC which controls the main switch is such a way that the primary duty-cycle is larger than the secondary one. Only during stand-by mode, communication between the primary controller and the secondary ones is required to increase the efficiency up to 50%. An opto-coupler device informs the primary side of the converter about the situation occurring at secondary side. Accordingly, the optocoupler communicates to the primary control ASIC the required duty-cycle, or that the primary switch has to be turned off at the occurrence of a failure at secondary side. The low-power mode efficiency is at least 50% at 500 mW load to meet the 1W stand-by requirement, and increases substantially at higher load. Experimental results carried out on a 300W demoboard are reported in this paper.

409    L. Idkhajine, M-W. Naouar, E. Monmasson, A. Prata, "Standard FPGA-based or Full FPGA-based Controllers for Electrical systems, two viable solutions ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2332 - 2337 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a comparison between a standard FPGA-based controller and a full FPGA-based controller for electrical systems. The first controller uses a standard low cost FPGA such as Xilinx Spartan and the second one uses an Actel Fusion FPGA which integrates all the peripherals required for these kinds of applications. The purpose here, is to analyze in details the potential benefits offered by this last solution compared to the first one. To this purpose, a current control algorithm for AC drives has been implemented on both targets. This comparison concerns the design methodology (evaluation of the reusability of designs), the time/area performances and also the quality of the system control.

410    Marius Monton, Antoni Portero, Marc Moreno, Borja Martinez, Jordi Carrabina, "Mixed SW/SystemC SoC Emulation Framework ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2338 - 2341 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Developing HW modules for standard platforms like PCs or embedded devices requires a complete system emulator availability to detect and fix bugs on developed HW, Operating Systems (OS) drivers and applications. This paper presents a set of plug-ins to an open-source CPU emulator that enables mixed simulations between platforms emulators and hardware (HW) modules described in SystemC. In this paper three plugins for QEMU are described: one for connecting TLM SystemC modules to any bus QEMU emulates, one for connecting SystemC to PCI bus for PC based platform and one plug-in for connecting SystemC to AMBA bus for ARM platforms. With this framework, it is possible to develop OS drivers at the same time HW is developed and final application tested running in this virtual platform.

411    I. Garcia-Vargas, R. Senhadji-Navarro, G. Jimenez-Moreno, A. Civit-Balcells, P. Guerra-Gutierrez, "ROM-Based Finite State Machine Implementation in Low Cost FPGAs ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2342 - 2347 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents a technique for the resource optimization of input multiplexed ROM-based Finite State Machines. This technique exploits the don't care value of the inputs to reduce the memory size as well as multiplexer complexity. This technique has been applied to a publicly available FSM benchmarks and implemented in a low-cost FPGA. Results have been compared with tools supported ROM and standard logic cells implementations. In a significant number of test cases, the proposed technique is the best design alternative, both in resource requirements and speed.

412    Zeliang Shu, Yuhua Guo, Na Ding, Jisan Lian, "FPGA-based Control of STATCOM using a Compact SVPWM Algorithm ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2348 - 2352 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the development and implementation of a space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) controller using field programmable gate array (FPGA). Based on system-on-chip design technology, the entire real-time digital signal processing functions, including synchronous rotating frame transform, low-pass filter, three-phase phase-locked loop (PLL), dc voltage controller, and SVPWM generator, are all implemented and synthesized into a medium density FPGA chip. Experimental results obtained from a 500 kVA STATCOM are investigated to demonstrate high-performance of the design controller during steady-state and dynamic operation.

413    J. Colomer, J. Brufau, P. Miribel-Catala, A. Saiz-Vela, M. Puig-Vidal, J. Samitier, "Power conditioning circuitry for a self-powered mobile system based on an array of micro PZT generators in a 0.13μm technology ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2353 - 2357 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we present the conception and design of a power conditioning circuit for an autonomous low power System in Package based on a micro piezoelectric generator as the main power source. The electrical model of the selected source is implemented in the Spectre-Analog Artist environment of Cadence, based on experimental measurements. This model is used to simulate the power source with the power conditioning electronics in the design process. In order to increase the current capability of the power source, several PZT sources are placed in parallel. The power circuits are also presented, which are defined by a rectifier and a linear regulator which is based on a low-dropout regulator (LDO), and a low power bandgap reference to define the threshold voltage for the close-loop regulation. These circuits have been designed in a commercial 0.13 μm technology from ST Microelectronics through the CMP-TIMA service.

414    Marta Alonso, Francisco Huerta, Carlos Giron, Emilio Bueno, Alvaro Hernandez, Francisco J. Rodriguez, Santiago Cobreces, "Industrial control system for a back-to-back multilevel NPC converter based on DSP and FPGA ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2358 - 2363 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: New energy concepts such as Distributed Power Generation are changing the face of electric distribution and transmission. Power electronics researchers try to apply new electronic controller solutions enabling the implementation of new and more complex control algorithms. This paper presents the design, implementation and test of the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) tasks of a novel real-time controller for a NPC (Neutral Point Clamped) (three-level) multilevel converter. The controller is based on a floating-point Digital Signal Processor (DSP) and a FPGA, by operating in a cooperative way. The proposed system is instantiated to the next system: a 150 kVA back-to-back three-level NPC VSC (Voltage Source Converter) for wind turbine applications.

415    Yaseer A. Durrani, Ana Abril, Teresa Riesgo, "Architectural Power Estimation Technique for IP-Based System-on-Chip ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2364 - 2368 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present an architectural power estimation technique for register transfer level. The proposed methodology allows to estimate the power dissipation on digital systems composed of intellectual property (IP) components by using the statistical knowledge of their primary inputs. During the power estimation procedure, the sequence of an input stream is generated by a genetic algorithm (GA) using input metrics. Then, a Monte Carlo zero delay simulation is performed and a power dissipation macromodel function is built from power dissipation results. From then on, this macromodel function can be used to estimate power dissipation of the system just by using the statistics of the IPs primary inputs. In our experiments with the test IP system, the average error is 29.63%.

416    Helder A D Nogueira, Jose M V Santos, "On the design of a Fail Stop Microcontroller ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2369 - 2373 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the FPGA design of a partially Fail-Stop 8 bit RISC microcontroller. After core implementation, the spare resources in FPGA devices can be used to implement Fault Detection blocks in the seek of a Fault Coverage as high as possible, having always present the logic cell occupation limit. The individual analysis of core components rated a group of entities by fault probability, and Fault Detection methods were implemented for 3 of them. The result is a logic activity Fault Coverage of about 70 %, obtained with an Logic Cell overhead of only 45%, and a system FIT (Failures in Time) improvement of 143%.

417    Elena Lago, Enrique Soto, Juan J. Rodriguez-Andina, "Study of FPGA Implementations of Scheduling Algorithms for High-Performance Switches ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2374 - 2379 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One of the most important issues in current high-performance packet switches is the availability of efficient algorithms to maximize instantaneous throughput. (D)PHM and iSLIP are well-known algorithms for virtual output-queued switches. In this paper, a comparative study of the implementation of both types of schedulers in different families of FPGAs is presented. Experimental results show that, in addition to the well known advantages of using field-programmable logic, the proposed implementations provide a performance-complexity trade-off which makes them a suitable practical alternative for high-performance scheduling tasks.

418    Carlos Paiz, Mario Porrmann, "The Utilization of Reconfigurable Hardware to Implement Digital Controllers: a Review ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2380 - 2385 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reviews the impact of Reconfigurable Hardware (RH) on the design of digital controllers. It starts by showing the application areas in which this technology has more influence. The reasons of the technology migration are then analyzed, pointing specific examples from the literature. Finally, run-time reconfiguration (RTR) of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) is revised and its utilization for designing FPGA-based controllers is presented. The research trends are shown, giving an insight on the potential benefits of using this technology.

419    Vincenzo Delli Colli, Roberto Di Stefano, Fabrizio Marignetti, Maurizio Scarano, "Design of a System-on-Chip PMSM Drive Sensorless Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2386 - 2391 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The Sliding-Mode Position and Speed Observer is a simple and well-known mechanical sensor-less solution for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) that is inherently robust in the medium-high speed range. The paper proposes a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of a simple observer exploiting the high computational power of the device aiming to improve the speed estimation behavior and to make a step towards a System on Programmable Chip (SOPC) sensor-less PMSM drive.

420    Dezso Sera, Remus Teodorescu, Pedro Rodriguez, "PV panel model based on datasheet values ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2392 - 2396 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell/panel in Standard Test Conditions (STC)1 are shown, as well as the parameters extraction from the data-sheet values. The temperature dependence of the cell dark saturation current is expressed with an alternative formula, which gives better correlation with the datasheet values of the power temperature dependence. Based on these equations, a PV panel model, which is able to predict the panel behavior in different temperature and irradiance conditions, is built and tested.

421    B. Cougo, P. C. Cortizo, F. F. Rocha, G. G. B. Coelho, P. F. Seixas, L. de V. B. Machado Neto, "A Photovoltaic System for Remote Fault Detection in Distribution Lines Using a Novel MPPT Algorithm ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2397 - 2402 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the development of a photo-voltaic voltaic system used to feed a remote fault detector for 11.4kV and 22kV lines. The photovoltaic module also charges two 18Ah Lead-Acid batteries which maintain the circuit on at night. A Buck converter was used to interface the PV module and the battery bank. This MOSFET-based converter is controlled by a new MPPT algorithm developed in order to extract the maximum power of the PV module taking into account battery charging characteristics and noise effects in current and voltage measurements. The system is controlled by a TMS320LF2811 DSP, from Texas Instruments, which searches for the maximum power point of the PV module and also interfaces with the communication system, based on a 50km range mobile radio, PRO5100, from Motorola.

422    Rafael K. Jardan, Istvan Nagy, Angel Cid-Pastor, Ramon Leyva, Abdelali El Aroudi, Luis Martinez-Salamero, "Combined Photovoltaic / Thermal Energy System for Stand-alone Operation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2403 - 2408 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The utilization of solar energy can be made by photovoltaic (PV) cells to generate electric power directly and solar thermal (T) panels can be applied to generate heat power. When the utilization of the solar energy is necessary to generate electric power, the option of using T panels in combination with some heat / electric power conversion technology can be a viable solution. The power generated by utilizing the solar energy absorbed by a given area of solar panel can be increased if the two technologies, PV and T cells, are combined in such a way that the resulting unit will be capable of co-generation of heat and electric power. In the present paper combined Photovoltaic / Thermal panels are suggested to generate heat power to produce hot water, while the photovoltaic part is used to obtain electric power mainly for covering the electric power consumption of the system, to supply the electronic control units and to operate pump drives etc. Ac and dc supplies are provided by converters for covering self-consumption and possibly the need of some household appliances. The development and design of the system is made by extensive use of modeling and simulation techniques. In the paper a part of the simulation studies, carried out to determine the energy balance in the electric energy conversion section of the system and the control structure, assuming stand-alone operation is presented.

423    Alberto Pigazo, Victor M. Moreno, Marco Liserre, Antonio Dell'Aquila, "Wavelet-Based Islanding Detection Algorithm for Single-Phase Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2409 - 2413 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Distributed Generation (DG) systems based on inverters connected to low-voltage electrical grids, such as low power PV systems in buildings, require reliable islanding detection algorithms in order to determine the electrical grid status and operate the inverter properly. Passive and active islanding detection methods are local detection techniques which have been presented and analyzed in literature. The first approach is based on current and voltage measurements at the inverter side of the point of common coupling (PCC) between the electrical grid, the local load and the DG system. Active methods introduce a disturbance at the PCC in order to reveal the islanding condition. This paper proposes a new hybrid detection algorithm based on monitoring of high-frequency components of the DG system output power due to PWM, the output LCL filter and the employed current controller. Wavelet analysis is applied to obtain time localization of the islanding operation mode. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed detection algorithm.

424    C. Cabal, C. Alonso, A. Cid-Pastor, B. Estibals, L Seguier, R. Leyva, G. Schweitz, J. Alzieu, "Adaptive digital MPPT control for photovoltaic applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2409 - 2413 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) is often used to increase the energy conversion efficiency for intermittent energy sources. Numerous of research teams work today to improve this type of algorithms. We had developed real-time MPPT controls based on the Extremum Seeking Control principle first implemented on analogical circuit. Today, to be more flexible and adaptive with several structures of power static converters, our new MPPT algorithms are implemented on numerical circuits. Our aim is to obtain high performances. To achieve a high quality matching between sources and loads, our new MPPT control adjusts continually the static converter duty cycle. Transitory effects are immediately detected and new MPP rapidly recovered. In addition, this digital control has an adjustment delay which allows an adaptation to a large power range from high to low points and then a real optimisation. Experimental results validate the global behaviour of this control for photovoltaic systems.

425    N. Femia, M. Fortunato, G. Lisi, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, M. Vitelli, "Guidelines for the Optimization of the P&O Technique in Grid-connected Double-stage Photovoltaic Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2420 - 2425 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the guidelines for the optimization of the maximum power point tracking Perturb&Observe technique in grid-connected double-stage photovoltaic systems are discussed.

426    L. Egiziano, N. Femia, G. Lisi, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, M. Vitelli, "Design and Optimization of a Maximum Power Point Tracking controller for a PV battery charger ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2426 - 2431 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper the design criteria for a Maximun Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller of a dc-dc converter for photovoltaic (PV) applications are presented. The switching converter matches a single panel with a battery and performs the maximum power point tracking at the battery's terminals instead that at the panel's output. Comparisons among analytic results, simulations and experimental measurements on a laboratory prototype are presented and discussed.

427    G. Grandi, C. Rossi, G. Fantini, "Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems Based on a Dual-Panel MPPT Algorithm ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2432 - 2436 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a modular structure for grid-connected photovoltaic generation systems is presented. The basic generation unit consists in a quasi-parallel connection of two PV panels, with a dedicated buck-boost (or fly-back) PWM converter. The chopper input voltage, i.e., the PV panels' voltage, is regulated according to a novel MPPT algorithm, based on a forced small displacement in the working points of the PV panels. Outputs of the several generation units are parallel connected to the dc-bus of a standard active power filter, linked to the electric network. The grid-inverter regulates the dc-bus voltage to a proper fixed value, injecting the power coming from the units into the mains. Each generation unit works as a stand-alone converter, i.e., signal connections among the units or between each unit and the main active filter are not required.

428    Mihai Ciobotaru, Remus Teodorescu, Frede Blaabjerg, "On-line grid impedance estimation based on harmonic injection for grid-connected PV inverter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2437 - 2442 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents an on-line software method for impedance estimation of the energized impedances such as power system grid. The proposed method is based on producing a perturbation on the output of the power converter that is in the form of periodical injection of one or two voltage harmonic signals. The single harmonic injection uses a 600 Hz signal and the double harmonic injection uses a 400 Hz and 600 Hz signals, respectively. During the perturbation, the current response(s) at the same frequency as the injected signal(s) is/are measured. The value of the grid impedance is estimated using two different signal processing algorithms. The DFT technique is used for the single harmonic injection and the statistic technique is used for the double harmonic injection. The grid impedance estimation is used for compliance with the anti-islanding requirements of the German standard (VDE0126) and for robust control of the distributed power generation systems (DPGS). Selected results are presented to confirm the performances of the proposed method.

429    Dragos Ovidiu Kisck, Valentin Navrapescu, Mariana Kisck, "Single-Phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner with Optimum Voltage Angle Injection for Minimum VA requirement ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2443 - 2448 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper deals with an optimized Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC), which aims at the integration of series and shunt active power filters with minimum VA loading of the UPQC. The series active filter is a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), that operates in two functioning modes. During the unbalanced voltage sag/swell at the input side, the DVR maintains the rated voltage at the load side. It regulates the load voltage with minimum VA loading of the overall UPQC by an optimum voltage angle injection. A technique of achieving both input current distortion compensation, power factor correction and also mitigating the supply-voltage variation (sag/swell) at the load side, is presented as well. To reduce the total cost, but to increase the performance, the system is fully digital-controlled using the fixed-point TMS320F240 digital signal processor. The present paper discusses the VA requirement issues of the proposed UPQC. The performances of the optimum UPQC have been verified on an experimental prototype.

430    Mahda Janabali, Sina Meshksar, Ebrahim Farjah, Mansour Zolghadri, "Voltage Sag State Estimation For Power Distribution Systems Using Kalman Filter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2449 - 2453 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The increased awareness on power quality has resulted in the need to quantify the voltage sag performance of a distribution feeder, similar to what has been done on characterizing the reliability performance of a feeder. Since it is impossible to measure the sag level at every node of a distribution feeder, estimation of sag characteristics at unmetered nodes becomes necessary. This paper proposes the concept of "voltage sag state estimation" using a Kalman filter. The applied technique has the following characteristics: 1)It makes use of the model characteristics of a distribution feeder, 2) It is based on a limited number of metering points, and 3) It employs a Kalman filter to estimate the sag profile along a distribution line. The procedure is then applied to part of an IEEE 123 bus distribution test system and the results have been compared with least mean square approach. The comparison shows the improvements provided by this method. The results of the sag state estimator can then be used to calculate the feeder power quality performance indices such as the System Average RMS Frequency Index (SARFIx).

431    Antonio Moreno-Munoz, J. M. Flores, D. Oterino, Juan J. G. de la Rosa, "Power line conditioner based on CA PWM Chopper ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2454 - 2456 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Utility power quality problems like input voltage unbalance and sag conditions severely stress electronic equipment. Voltage sag forecasting is a complex issue, since it involves a large variety of random factors, such as: type of short-circuits in the power system, location of faults, protective system performance and atmospheric discharges. Recently, the AC-AC converters have been proposed as voltage compensator. In this paper a new topology is proposed; its main advantage is that in addition to compensate voltage sag, it can compensate voltage swell too, by changing the duty ratio.

432    R. S. Herrera, P. Salmeron, J. R. Vazquez, S. P. Litran, "Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory to N Wire Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2457 - 2462 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The control strategy derived from the instantaneous reactive power theory is one of the most commonly used in the Active Power Filters (APFs). For the last decades other formulations have been developed in order to achieve compensation objectives different to the proposed in the original one. Nevertheless, all of them can be only applied to three-phase systems, i.e.: in those formulations frameworks, they can not be used to obtain the control strategy for a polyphase system. This paper presents a new approach which can be applied to n wire systems. The powers and currents expressions derived from the formulations presented up now can be obtain applying this new approach. In this paper, the original p-q and the modified p-q formulation expressions are obtain in the new approach framework.

433    S. P. Litran, P. Salmeron, J. R. Vazquez, R. S. Herrera, "A New Control for a Combined System of Shunt Passive and Series Active Filters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2463 - 2468 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new control algorithm for a hybrid filter formed by a series active filter and a passive filter connected in parallel with the load is proposed. The new control strategy is based on the dual formulation of the vectorial theory of electric power, so that the signal injected by the active filter is able to compensate the reactive power and the harmonics of the load current. To verify the developed theoretical analysis, the proposed control scheme has been simulated in the platform MATLAB-Simulink and applied to a three-phase three-wire system. The simulation results to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm are presented.

434    Zhenhuan Zhang, Huijin Liu, "L2 -Gain Control for Single-Phase Active Power Filter Using Euler-Lagrange Model ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2469 - 2474 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The performance and application of Active Power Filter (APF) in power system is closely linked to the selection of control strategies. The paper proposes a novel L2 -gain control algorithm for single-phase APF using Euler-Lagrange (EL) dynamic averaged model. The EL dynamic averaged model of single-phase APF with unknown disturbances is established in terms of EL system theory. Based on EL averaged model presented, L2 -gain control laws and the whole control objectives of single-phase APF are proposed, which can guarantee the stability of closed system and achieve asymptotically tracking control objectives and disturbances attenuation. Furthermore, in order to overcome the difficulty in estimating the ripple component on dc-side capacitor voltage, the modified control algorithm is proposed by neglecting the ripple component. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm.

435    Xiaoqing Li, Guozhu Chen, "Three-Phase Low-Harmonic Rectifier Based on Third Harmonic Current Injection with Passive Circuit ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2475 - 2480 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Study to use passive approach to reduce input current's harmonics of three-phase diode rectifier based on injection of third harmonic current is performed in this paper. Compared with the popular star/delta transformer, a set of star-connected capacitors are used as injection circuit. The circuit operates at third serial resonant state and therefore enhances the amplitude of circulating third current. Principle and characteristics of the injection circuit are analyzed in details, which including the condition of optimal injection, the effect of component parameters' deviation and the load varying range with optimal component parameters. This approach has better harmonic suppression performance than passive filter's and more simple and reliable than active power filters. Results of simulation and experiments validate the feasibility of the method and analysis.

436    D. Gallo, C. Landi, N. Rignano, "DSP based Instrument for Real-Time PQ Analysis ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2481 - 2486 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the paper, the characterization of designed and implemented high-performance real-time power quality measuring instrument is discussed. After a description of the hardware, in term of devices chosen, firmware, in terms of peripheral settings, data acquisition management and data transfer mode, the paper continues with the discussion of power quality analyzer software, showing each single implemented algorithm. In particular, some sections of algorithm are discussed and then characterized; the paper is completed with metrological characterization of the whole instrument prototype, through various types of test signals, that emulate the extreme work conditions.

437    Alejandro Munduate, Inigo Garin, Gabriel Garcera, Emilio Figueres, "Robust Model-Following Control for the Current Loop of a Medium Voltage Neutral Point Clamped Active Filter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2487 - 2492 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents a robust model-following control technique applied to the current loop of a three phase shunt active filter based on an NPC inverter. A modelling procedure for implementing the proposed control is also shown. The transfer functions for the control of the currents injected by the active filter in the synchronous dq frame have been derived. The proposed control technique is compared with conventional PI control, showing that the former improves the line current distortion without the need of a high crossover frequency of the current loop. The viability of the proposed scheme is shown by means of computer simulations using Saber¿.

438    R. Pregitzer, J. G. Pinto, M. Joao Sepulveda, Joao L. Afonso, "Parallel Association of Shunt Active Power Filters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2493 - 2498 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes different types of parallel association of Shunt Active Power Filters, presents computer simulation models developed in PSCAD®/EMTDC¿, and shows simulated results for each case. The control system used in the active filters is based on the Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory (p-q Theory). The active filters use periodic sampling as switching technique. Two types of parallel associations are presented: two active filters in different parallel feeders; and both active filters connected in parallel at the same point of the electric installation. The paper also proposes a control strategy to solve an inherent operation problem that occurs in the second type of parallel association.

439    Pedro Neves, J. G. Pinto, R. Pregitzer, Luis F. C. Monteiro, M. J. Sepulveda Freitas, Joao L. Afonso, "Experimental Results of a Single-Phase Shunt Active Filter Prototype with Different Switching Techniques ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2499 - 2504 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents experimental results obtained with a developed single-phase shunt active power filter laboratory prototype operating with different switching techniques. This active filter can compensate harmonic currents and power factor in single-phase electric installations. Its power circuit is based on a two-leg IGBT inverter, with a single capacitor in the dc side, and an inductor in the ac side. Its control system is based on a simple stratagem that enables the use of the traditional Theory of Instantaneous Reactive Power (p-q Theory), originally developed to three-phase power systems, in single-phase systems. The experimental results are obtained for the active filter operating with two different switching techniques: Periodic Sampling (with variable switching frequency) and Pulse Width Modulation (with constant switching frequency) for two different frequencies (8 kHz and 16 kHz). Three different types of loads are used: linear RL load, rectifier with RL load, and rectifier with RC load.

440    Jan T. Bialasiewicz, Eduard Muljadi, "Power Quality of Renewable Energy Systems Can Be Evaluated Using Simulation Data ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2505 - 2509 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper presents a comparative study of a renewable energy system using simulation data versus the data recorded for its implementation at the Hybrid Power System Test Bed (HPSTB) at the National Wind Technology Center, NREL. The simulation data were obtained from the model realized using RPM-SIM simulator. This study shows that under different conditions the power, voltage, and frequency traces of a simulated system follow closely those recorded. Consequently, it is concluded that the quality of power generated under different conditions can be evaluated using simulation data and that such simulation study can be used to develop the structure and control strategy of renewable energy system to meet power quality requirements.

441    V.F. Corasaniti, M.B. Barbieri, P.L. Arnera, M.I. Valla, "Reactive and Harmonics Compensation in a Medium Voltage Distribution Network With Active Filters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2510 - 2515 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents the design of a shunt active filter to compensate reactive power and harmonics in the medium voltage level of a power distribution system. Reconfiguration of the power delivery network imposes new constraints in a distribution substation so that the reactive compensation should be increased. The alternative of shunt active filter compensation connected to the 13.8 kV level is analyzed. Two alternatives are proposed, the first one considers full compensation with the active filter while the second one uses the existing capacitor bank and builds the complementary compensation with the active filter. In the last case, the capacitor bank is modified to make a 5th harmonic filter to avoid system resonances. Both proposals show very good performance.

442    Page(s): , Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/ISIE.2007.4375003 , "PDF Not Yet Available In IEEE Xplore ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2510 - 2515 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

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443    C.E Carrejo, E. Vidal-Idiarte, L. Martinez-Salamero, J. Calvente, "Predictive Digital Sliding-Mode Current Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2520 - 2525 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we present a digital sliding-mode control for current regulation of power switching converters. Quasi-sliding characteristics of discrete-time sliding control are minimized by means a predictive strategy, that avoids continuous sampling action of inductor current. This predictive control strategy doesn't need a previous knowledge of power switching converter parameters and keeps robust characteristics of classical sliding-mode current control.

444    Edith Clavel, James Roudet, Thierry Chevalier, Dragos Postariu, "Modeling of connections taking into account return plane: Application to EMI modeling for railway ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2526 - 2531 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The modeling of electrical characteristics of connections is an important stage of the design phase of a structure. Indeed, they have an impact on the current density distributions inside conductors as well as on the current distributions when several components are connected in parallel. This modeling has to be modified in case of a return plane in the studied structure as for power electronics or railway applications. For the first field the cooling system itself can be a ground plane and for the second one, the earth has to be modeled. This article presents different ways to take into account a return plane while modeling the electrical equivalent circuit of connections above it. It starts with the simplest one, the image method, and continues with the use of a complex skin depth result of the solving of Carson integral.

445    Maurizio Cirrincione, Marcello Pucci, Gianpaolo Vitale, "Direct Power Control of Three-Phase VSIs for the Minimization of Common-Mode Emissions in Distributed Generation Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2532 - 2539 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents two new Switching Table Direct Power Control (DPC) strategies of three-phase grid connected VSIs for distributed generation, deviced for the minimization of the common-mode emissions. These strategies have been called DPC-EMC 1 (Electro Magnetically Compatible) and DPC-EMC 2. Both of them reduce the common-mode emissions of the VSI by alternatively using only even or only odd voltage vectors in each of the six sectors in which the grid voltage lies, without using any null vector. DPC-EMC 2 outperforms DPC-EMC 1 in terms of harmonic content of the injected current and ripple of the active and reactive power waveforms. These approaches permit the common-mode emissions to be reduced in comparison with the classic DPC algorithm, at the expense of a slight increase of the harmonic content of the injected current waveform. A comparison among the classic DPC, DPC-EMC 1 and DPC-EMC 2 is presented in numerical simulation in terms of dynamic performances, harmonic content of the injected current and harmonic content of the common-mode voltage.

446    Jean-Charles Le Bunetel, David Gonzalez, "Design of power supply in function of EMI assessment ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2540 - 2543 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we present how the design of a power converter can be effectively improved by means of EMI phenomena simulation. We will consider the design of a converter intended as battery charger for telecommunication facilities. First of all, the phenomena involved in the generation of electromagnetic interference are reviewed. Then the main ideas used to obtain the EMI simulation model are outlined. A model of the power converter in the frequency-domain is obtained and validated through experimental measurements. Finally, this model is used to improve the design of the converter from the EMI point of view, resulting in a reduction of space, weight and cost of the filtering devices.

447    M. Hernando, A. Fernandez, M. Arias, M. Rodriguez, Y. Alvarez, F. Las-Heras, "Radiated noise measurement system to estimate the EMI regulations compliance of a power electronic circuit ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2544 - 2549 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: One of the requirements that electronics circuits may satisfy are the conducted and irradiated noise specifications. While conducted noise is well covered in the literature, the radiated noise is not. Regulations about radiated noise impose limits in the noise measured three or ten meters far away the electronic equipment. These measurements are usually made in anechoic rooms, which are a very expensive equipment, and the measurement procedure is not a «plug-and-play» feature, but a carefully protocol of measurement is required. Once the electronic circuit has been tested, in case the regulation was not met, the designer unknowns the source of the problem, so the procedure to make the electronic circuit to comply with the regulation used to be a trial-and-mistake method, when the experience of the designer is essential. A new radiated noise measurement technique is proposed in this paper with two objectives: to simplify the measurement procedure and to have more information about the noise sources. The main idea is to scan the electric/field at two arbitrary but known distances. From these measurements, the Source Reconstruction Technique (SRT) allows the identification of the noise sources in the surface of the circuit and the field estimation at any distance, so that the regulation compliance can be evaluated. Moreover, if the regulation is not satisfied, the effect of the noise source modification can be tested, to find how the circuit must be modified to comply with the regulation.

448    J. Aime, J. Roudet, E. Clavel, O. Aouine, C. Labarre, F. Costa, J. Ecrabey, "Prediction and measurement of The magnetic near field of a static converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2550 - 2555 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Increases of switching levels and frequency make the compliance with radiated EMC standards more and more difficult. A modeling method based on the partial equivalent element circuit (PEEC) formulations, permitting to know the field emitted by the layout of complex power electronic structures, is presented in this paper. The near magnetic field of a buck chopper has been measured and calculated. The comparison of the simulated results with measurements shows the effectiveness of the modeling methods and of the near field acquisition bench.

449    Christian Lazo Ramirez, Manuel Fernandez Veiga, "QoS in Vehicular and Intelligent Transport Networks Using Multipath Routing ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2556 - 2561 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) consist of an spontaneous association of a group of vehicles that dynamically change their position and exchange data between each other, regarded as autonomous network segments with flat addressing schemes. However, its study has shown the benefits obtained by interconnecting them to fixed network segments and to the Internet. In this article the performance of a multipath routing protocol and its impact on global quality of service metrics will be analyzed by means of simulating different schemes of data transmision in a hybrid IPv6 VANET. The scenario consists of a fixed network segment with a central server and two gateways interconnecting two hierarchical VANET segment whose nodes show a high degree of mobility, such as vehicles in an urban environment.

450    E. Egea-Lopez, M. V. Bueno-Delgado, J. Vales-Alonso, J. Garcia-Haro, A. S. Martinez-Sala, S. Costas-Rodriguez, F. Gil-Castineira, C. Lopez-Bravo, "On the Implementation of a Multi-Reader Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Architecture ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2556 - 2561 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are one of the enabling technologies for the ubiquitous computing paradigm. At the moment, the EPCglobal organization leads the development of industry-driven standards for this field and has settled the EPC "Gen 2" as a reference standard. In this paper, we analyze the anti-collision procedure of EPC "Gen 2" to find the time needed to identify a population of tags, by means of the finite Markov-chain of the system. In addition, a UHF multi-reader prototype based on time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme is evaluated in this work. In this TDMA scheme, the reader time-slot duration is allocated according to the computations obtained from our analytical study. The main conclusions derived from this implementation are summarized in this work.

451    M. Rodelgo-Lacruz, F. J. Gil-Castineira, F. J. Gonzalez-Castano, J. M. Pousada-Carballo, J. Contreras, A. Gomez, M. V. Bueno-Delgado, E. Egea-Lopez, "Base technologies for vehicular networking applications: review and case studies ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2556 - 2561 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we review the state of the art of two key hardware technologies that support vehicular applications: on-board embedded systems and wireless sensor networks (WSN). We focus on pre-competitive or state-of-the-art hardware, and illustrate its use with two case studies: on-line navigation assistance and data collection in a mobile WSN. In the first case (based on a joint collaboration within project FUNCMOV PGIDIT05TIC00501CT, Xunta de Galicia, Spain), we describe our development experience with automotive embedded systems. In the second case, we analyze the feasibility of wake-up schema to gather data from highly dispersed sensor nodes. The goal of the paper is to offer a perspective on the current possibilities of these hardware systems.

452    Laurent Franck, Felipe Gil-Castineira, "Using Delay Tolerant Networks for Car2Car communications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2573 - 2578 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we identify and discuss the main issues and challenges to implement a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) to allow multi-hop Car2Car (C2C) -also known as Vehicle2Vehicle (V2V)- and car2infrastructure (C2I) communications. C2C communications are designed to increase automobile security and comfort, but a single hop is not enough [1]. Efficient network layers are necessary to overcome these limitations.

453    Ana Vazquez Alejos, Manuel Garcia Sanchez, Inigo Cuinas, "Development of a Tracking and Automatic Distress Generation System for Coastal Fleet Ships ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2579 - 2581 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces a multiplatform communication system developed to provide real time positioning of the fishing or recreation boats that usually move in the marine zones known as A1 and A2. The system also generates automatically the alert signal from a boat operating in these marine zones. The most important target of the system is to increase the security of navigation in these zones, as well as to facilitate the work of marine rescue teams by improving the precision in the positioning of ill-fated boats. As an additional functionality, the system is equipped with the capacity to control the position of the crew and the dinghies on board. This capability allows detecting the accidental falls to the sea, making possible therefore the performance of the ship in the first steps of a rescue operation.

454    Paolo Bellavista, Eugenio Magistretti, Uichin Lee, Mario Gerla, "Standard Integration of Sensing and Opportunistic Diffusion for Urban Monitoring in Vehicular Sensor Networks: the MobEyes Architecture ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2582 - 2588 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The emerging industrial relevance of vehicular sensor networks pushes towards their adoption for large-scale applications, from traffic routing and relief to environmental monitoring and distributed surveillance. With homeland security issues in mind, we have developed MobEyes, a fully distributed opportunistic harvesting system for urban monitoring. In MobEyes, regular vehicles equipped with sensors collect and locally store monitoring data while moving on the streets. Sensors may generate a sheer data amount, especially in the case of audio/video recording, thus making traditional reporting unfeasible. MobEyes originally adopts the guidelines of locally generating summaries of sensed data and of taking advantage of vehicle mobility and opportunistic one-hop communications to pump summaries towards mobile collectors, with minimal overhead, reasonable completeness, and limited latency. To that purpose, it carefully considers standard specifications to portably integrate with heterogeneous sensors, in particular by exploiting the Java Media Framework to interwork with cameras, the JSR179 Location API to interface with heterogeneous localization systems, and the Java Communications API to access lower-layer environmental sensors.

455    Osama Omari, Egon Ortjohann, Alaa Mohd, Danny Morton, "An Optimal Control Strategy for DC Coupled Hybrid Power Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2589 - 2594 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes how different power sources of a hybrid power system may be connected together through a DC bus and then to a grid through a main inverter in such a way that a decoupling between the state variables of the power sources and the state variables of the grid is achieved. A layout showing such a structure will be presented, and an online control strategy for such a layout will be developed to show that it is modular, expandable, and easily controllable. The transmission behaviour of such a structure under different load and meteorological conditions will be investigated by applying the developed control strategy to a developed simulation model of the structure and some indicative results will be introduced and discussed.

456    Tero Halkosaari, "Speed Sensorless Vector Control of a Redundant Permanent Magnet Wind Power Generator ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2595 - 2600 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Permanent magnet motors are coming more and more popular in many low speed and high speed applications. The conventional motor drive, consisting of a standard speed induction motor with a gearbox, can be replaced of a very low speed or a very high speed permanent magnet motor having no gearbox. The advantages are, for example, the increased efficiency and the reliability, and the reduced weight, noise and costs of the whole drive system. Permanent magnet motors can be designed efficiently for very low speeds with a high pole number. This makes PM-machines very attractive for wind power generators, which are in high power (≫ 1 MW) wind mills typically rotating about 10 rpm - 20 rpm. One important aspect of motor drives is the reliability of the drive system. The reliability of the PM wind power generator can be increased by using multiple stator modules or stator segments independent of each other. These segments can be considered, for example, as independent stator parallel windings which are each fed by own frequency converter. If one of the frequency converters fails, the other ones can continue the operation while the failed unit is changed. This paper describes the speed sensorless vector control of a variable speed multi-module PM wind power generator. The theory and laboratory tests are shown for a 4×1 kW PM-generator. Finally, the actual wind power generator tested is a 16 rpm 3 MW axial flux PM-generator consisting of 3 stator modules.

457    M.L. Doumbia, K. Agbossou, E. Granger, "Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrogen Based Photovoltaic/Wind Energy System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2601 - 2606 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic simulation model to study the behavior of renewable energy systems with hydrogen storage (RESHS). The complete system model is developed by integrating individual sub-units of the photovoltaic arrays, wind turbine, batteries, electrolyzer, fuel cell and power conditioning units. The sub-models are valid for transient and steady state analysis as a function of voltage, current, and temperature. Such a global model is useful for optimal dimensioning and effective control design of the RESHSs. The state of charge control method was chosen to validate the developed simulation models. The results confirmed previous experimental measurements on the test bench.

458    M. Triggianese, P. Marino, J. Morren, S.W.H. de Haan, "Reduction of Harmonics from MW-class Wind Turbines by Interlaced Active Front-Ends ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2607 - 2612 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: With the request of renewable energy also the size of the wind turbines is growing. The converters used to connect them to the grid have to transfer a big amount of captured power. Since they handle high power, the switching devices work with a low switching frequency. This results in a high harmonic distortion of the injected currents and the need of big passive filters on ac side. In order to improve the power quality of the transferred wind energy, an inverter system made up of interlaced active front-ends is proposed. Its mathematical model is also developed in order to analyze harmonic distortion. It can be introduced in the existing models of wind turbines and grid. The numerical results prove the benefits of the proposed system.

459    C.A. Ramos, A. Romero, R. Giral, L. Martinez-Salamero, "Maximum Power Point Tracking Strategy for Fuel Cell Power Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2613 - 2618 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a novel strategy for management of fuel cell power generation is proposed minimizing the fuel consumption. A characterization of the maximum power points as function of the desired power is presented. Based on this information, a maximum power point tracking algorithm (MPPT- algorithm) for minimal fuel flow is designed. The system has a battery that supplies the energy for fast power transients, and a simple battery-charge system. Finally, an analysis of the fuel cell behavior at constant stack current, for changes in the fuel flow and the stack size is presented.

460    S. Alepuz, S. Busquets, J. Bordonau, J. Pontt, C. Silva, J. Rodriguez, "Comparison of Control Strategies to Meet Low Voltage Ride-Through Requirements in Distributed Power Generation Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2619 - 2624 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Low voltage ride-through requirements demand wind power plant to remain connected to the network in presence of grid voltage dips. Most of dips present positive, negative and zero sequence components. Then, the use of regulators based on symmetrical components is a good tool to control grid-connected converters, under grid fault condition. This work compares three different current controllers based on symmetrical components and linear quadratic regulator. Controller performance is evaluated on low voltage ride-through requirement fulfillment, dc link voltage ripple, grid current balancing and oscillating power flow. A neutral-point-clamped topology has been considered, because trends in wind power lead to increasing power and voltage levels. Simulations show that all three controllers work properly. Controller selection depends on the application and system constraints.

461    J. Sallan, J.F. Sanz, A. Llombart, M.P. Comech, J.L. Villa, "Efficiency improvement in wind turbines by increasing speed range using a tandem connection scheme ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2625 - 2630 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper describes the use of a tandem power electronic configuration in variable speed wind turbines to improve efficiency by allowing an increase in both rotational speed and maximum power sent to the grid. First, the possible increment in power is determined, limiting both current and losses in the machine to their rated values, but allowing an increase in terminal voltage. Next, the increment in captured energy for different wind distributions is assessed. Finally, the required power rating of the converters in the secondary system is estimated, taking into account that in the proposed system they have the extra task of extracting from the generator and sending to the utility the extra generated power.

462    P.J.H. Wingelaar, M.P.A. Geers, J.L. Duarte, M.A.M. Hendrix, "CO-tolerant operation of platinum-loaded PEM fuel cells ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2631 - 2636 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Biomass is a green energy source, which can be converted to hydrogen rich gas. If this gas is used as feedstock for a PEM fuel cell, it is possible to convert biomass to electricity in an environmental friendly way. A disadvantage of a PEM fuel cell is that platinum, which is used as catalyst to speed up the anode reaction, is a good adsorbent for CO. Carbon monoxide will adhere to the platinum surface blocking the catalyst for hydrogen oxidation. In order to clean the catalyst, oxygen can be added to the fuel stream. By applying negative voltage pulses to the cell terminals, existing water can get electrolyzed. This results in trace amounts of oxygen in the anode channel. Measurements performed on a poisoned fuel cell stack have been conducted. The results of the measurements show that the poisoned cells regenerate after a negative pulse. By optimizing the pulse amplitude, repetition time and duty cycle, the fuel cell used is CO-tolerant for gasses containing 50 ppm CO. Furthermore, cell oscillations, probably related to self-oxidation of carbon monoxide, are observed, which is remarkable for PEM fuel cells with pure platinum loaded catalysts.

463    A.G. Abo-Khalil, Dong-Choon Lee, Jeong-Ik Jang, "Control of Back-to-Back PWM Converters for DFIG Wind Turbine Systems under Unbalanced Grid Voltage ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2637 - 2642 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new control scheme for minimizing the torque ripple of the generator under unbalanced grid voltage for wind turbine systems using doubly-fed induction generators, where the negative sequence component of the rotor current is utilized. It is found that the generator torque ripples are related with the reactive power component. Increase of stator active power ripples caused by reducing the torque ripple is compensated by controlling the active power ripples of grid-side converter. Simulation results using PSCAD and experimental results show that the conventional vector control of DFIG without considering grid voltage unbalance results in excessive oscillations on the stator active and reactive power, and electromagnetic torque. On the other hand, with the proposed control strategy, improved system control and operation such as reducing oscillations of active power and generator torque can be achieved.

464    K. Rezaie, M. Haghnevis, H. Sajedi, "Application of Project Risk Management Models in Green Generating of Electricity ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2643 - 2648 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Risk management is the key element of project management. To deal with project risks various standards have developed their own models and different tools have been created to this end. A good model is a key part of a good process and having a successful project depends on it. Also proper tools are important to have a victorious project. But the combination of a good model and proper tools are the most important factor of victory. This paper, based on the latest researches, examines proper tools and models of risk management which can be applied for green (renewable) generating of electricity.

465    C. Cavallaro, V. Cecconi, F. Chimento, S. Musumeci, C. Santonocito, C. Sapuppo, "A Phase-Shift Full Bridge Converter for the Energy Management of Electrolyzer Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2649 - 2654 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The purpose of this work has been the development of the supplying system for an industrial electrolyzer. The hydrogen generating device is part of a complex system constituted by a supplying photovoltaic plant, the grid and a fuel cell battery. The main aim of this electrical system is the hydrogen storage devoted to the suitable load supplying in order to obtain an optimum load profile in case of domestic consumers. The converter is linked to a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm which enables a converter to extract the maximum power from the photovoltaic plant. The energy is supplied to the electrolyzer or the storage system according to the load profile. A phase-shift control strategy has been adopted and the ZVS at turn on driving strategy, in order to increase the efficiency and thus lowering the power consumption for the whole system. The system has been developed looking for the realization of a dedicated integrated circuits utilization where the control strategy has been implemented.

466    A.S. Neto, S.L.A. Ferreira, J.P. Arruda, F.A.S. Neves, P.A.C. Rosas, M.C. Cavalcanti, "Reduced Order Model for Grid Connected Wind Turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Generators ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2655 - 2660 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a reduced order model for grid connected wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators. The model is based on the field oriented control of the generator, considering that the rotor is fed by an ideal current regulated voltage source. This assumption makes the order if the induction machine model to be reduced to three but still allows representing with good accuracy the main wind turbine control schemes used. A wind park composed of 10 turbines of 2MW connected to a real power system is simulated for comparing the responses of the complete and reduced order models.

467    I.C. Petrea, S. Ioan, M. Daniela, "Operation of an Induction Generator Controlled by a VSI Circuit ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2661 - 2666 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper analyses the operation of an induction generator (IG) controlled by a voltage source inverter (VSI) circuit. This circuit performs both voltage and frequency regulation. The IG frequency is controlled by keeping constant the VSI synchronous frequency. For the IG voltage regulation two cascaded regulators are used, which have as reference the line voltage and the VSI DC voltage, respectively. The VSI also ensures a smooth voltage buildup during the start-up process. Simulations are made in order to investigate the reliability of such a configuration. In addition, experiments were carried out using a laboratory-scale prototype.

468    J.M. Guerrero, N. Berbel, J. Matas, J.L. Sosa, L.G. de Vicuna, "Control of Line-Interactive UPS Connected in Parallel Forming a Microgrid ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2667 - 2672 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the control strategy for an overall microgrid is presented. The control has two main levels: (i) the droop control of the inverters, and (ii) the control of the static bypass switch, and the droop settings for the management of the power flow. Thus, a flexible microgrid is obtained to operate in either grid-connected or islanded mode. Results from line- interactive UPS inverters connected in parallel forming a microgrid are presented, showing the feasibility of the presented solution.

469    L.G.B. Rolim, A. Ortiz, M. Aredes, R. Pregitzer, J.G. Pinto, J.L. Afonso, "Custom Power Interfaces for Renewable Energy Sources ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2673 - 2678 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Interface converters for renewable energy sources can be regarded as custom power devices. Thus they can be designed and operated so as to improve power quality at their connecting locations. This paper presents examples of converter designs based on p-q theory for different applications. Modeling, simulations and experimental results are given for converter prototypes operating either as active power filter (APF) or static compensator (STATCOM), while transferring real power to the utility grid. Compensation of harmonic distortions, power factor control, reactive support and voltage control are achieved with the proposed circuits.

470    H. Gaztanaga, I. Etxeberria-Otadui, S. Bacha, D. Roye, "Fixed-Speed Wind Farm Operation Improvement by Using DVR Devices ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2679 - 2684 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As the total number of installed wind farms is far from being negligible, an upgrading of their technology is essential to fulfill new interconnection requirements. Power electronics are considered to be a key technology to accomplish this task. In this paper the use of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) for the improvement of the ride-through capability of fixed-speed wind farms is analyzed. The contribution of the DVR is analyzed by means of Hybrid real-time tests (with a reduced- scale physical prototype) and offline (full scale) simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC. The study highlights the great contribution of DVRs to the transient behavior of fixed-speed wind farms. However, it is shown their need of an active power handling capacity in order to deal with the active power generated by the wind farm that can not be exported to the grid during the fault In addition to that the limited contribution of the device in normal operating conditions is highlighted due to the admissible voltage range at the wind farm.

471    M. Jasinski, M. Malinowski, M.P. Kazmierkowski, H.C. Sorensen, E. Friis-Madsen, D. Swierczynski, "Control of AC/DC/AC Converter for Multi MW Wave Dragon Offshore Energy Conversion System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2685 - 2690 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the paper a direct power and torque control-space vector modulated (DPTC-SVM) algorithm for AC/DC/AC converter is presented. This strategy leads to good dynamic and static behaviors. Additional power feedforward (PF) loop from a generator side converter (GSC) to line side converter (LSC) control improves dynamic of the power flow. As a result, more accurate input-output energy matching allows better stabilization of DC-link voltage. Hence, life time of DC-link capacitors would be prolonged. Moreover, proposed advanced control strategy gives possibility of control in whole power range of active and reactive power injected to the line. Line current has sinusoidal waveform with THD bellow 5% in all operation modes. Presented AC/DC/AC converter with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) system is considered to be implemented in wave energy converter - Wave Dragon MW [1].

472    T. Bossmann, A. Bouscayrol, P. Barrade, S. Lemoufouet, A. Rufer, "Energetic Macroscopic Representation of a hybrid storage system based on supercapacitors and compressed air ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2691 - 2696 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A hybrid energy storage system has been proposed using supercapacitor and compressed air [1] in order to store energy from photovoltaic panels. A simulation model is developed using energetic macroscopic representation. Such a description can be used to deduce new control laws of the hybrid storage system using specific inversion rules. The simulation model is validated by comparison with experimental results.

473    R.J. Sousa Lima, A.T. de Almeida, A.M.S. Mendes, A.J. Marques Cardoso, "High Power Quality System with Fuel Cell Distributed Generation - Simulation and Tests ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2697 - 2702 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the power quality (PQ) requirements for demanding loads are presented. The economic impacts associated with PQ are characterized. Conventional solutions using lead acid batteries and diesel engines are facing increasing opposition due to environmental concerns. Clean distributed generation is presented as potentially interesting option to provide high levels of power supply reliability. A proton exchange membrane fuel cell is being used to build an uninterruptible power system. The main objective of this work is to analyze the output power of the fuel cell generation system based on some power quality parameters such as THD and power factor, among others. Simulation and experimental results of the fuel cell DC/AC power converter operation are presented.

474    K. Arshak, F. Adepoju, "Adaptive Linearized Methods for Tracking a Moving Telemetry Capsule ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2703 - 2708 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we discuss system and method of determining the real-time location of an omni-directional diagnostic radio frequency (RF) system while the object (transmitter) is moving freely inside an inaccessible organ. A specific application to the human gastrointestinal (GI) organ is presented, showing the importance of the method in accessing a specific site for drug administration or for extracting fluid or tissue samples for biopsy and similar medical investigations. For practical purposes, omnidirectional antenna on the transmitter at 433 MHz, normalized transmitter power 1 W was modeled for simplicity, and Es/No = 20 dB (corresponding to the linear region of the target transceiver). A brief discussion of how the original analogue signals, after conversion to voltage, was adapted for position tracking. In the tracking algorithm, we employed a path loss scenario based on the popular log-normal model to simulate the effects of organs on signal quality between transmitter and receiver at various distances.

475    N.S. Dias, J.F. Ferreira, C.P. Figueiredo, J.H. Correia, "A Wireless System for Biopotential Acquisition: an Approach for non-Invasive Brain-Computer Interface ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2709 - 2712 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) promise to be a very important tool for the handicapped people in the near future. A wireless biopotential acquisition system is proposed as a solution for true mobility during non-invasive BCI operation. Special care about noise must be taken in a signal acquisition system for biopotentials. The EEG signal amplitude ranges from a few to dozens of micro-volts and it is very low compared with the interference from mains power. Thus, a good quality signal requires an efficient interference removal. The wireless system is operating at 2.4 GHz, the maximum data throughput is 120 Kbps, the system resolution is about 4 muV, the power consumption is 0.015 W and accommodates 5 single-ended channels. The dimensions of the wireless acquisition system are approximately 5.7times4.8times2.0 cm3.

476    H.R. Silva, J.A. Afonso, P.C. Morim, P.M. Oliveira, J.H. Correia, L.A. Rocha, "Wireless Hydrotherapy Smart-Suit Network for Posture Monitoring ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2713 - 2717 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A wireless smart-suit network for monitoring body kinetics, heart and respiratory rate during hidrocinesiotherapy sessions is presented. Sensing modules composed by 3-axis accelerometers, 3-axis magnetometers and interface electronics are used to monitor the body kinetics. Heart rate is measured using an ear clip infrared sensor and respiratory frequency is measured with inductance plethysmography. The sensor network is integrated in a swimming suit and data is transmitted in real time to a base station using a 2.4 GHz RF transceiver. Measurements of the rotation of shoulders, hips and spine are performed with a resolution of less than 2 degrees. A new MAC protocol for wireless sensing and actuation, LPRT protocol, implemented in MICAz motes is used. Some of the characteristics of the proposed protocol are low power consumption, real-time support and loss intolerant traffic. The protocol uses contention-free operation and retransmission scheme and is very flexible and has high throughput efficiency.

477    S. Ricci, L. Bassi, A. Dallai, E. Boni, P. Tortoli, "A Dual Transducer Ultrasound System for Quantitative Doppler Measurements ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2718 - 2723 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The possibility of accurately measuring the velocity of blood flowing in human vessels represents a significant opportunity for hemodynamic research and diagnosis. The ultrasound (US) investigation represents a non invasive, diffuse and low cost method capable of evaluating the blood velocity by exploiting the Doppler effect. Unfortunately, the accuracy attainable with standard US equipment is heavily limited by the difficulty of assessing the Doppler angle during in-vivo investigations. In this paper a house-made US system for quantitative velocity measurements is presented. This system relies on an open, full digital architecture appositely designed for research purposes. In particular, the system capability of simultaneously controlling two US probes is shown suitable to implement a novel measurement method which overcomes the above Doppler angle ambiguity. The results of recent in-vitro experiments are reported, showing a velocity measurement accuracy of 0.5% and a precision of 7%.

478    Y. Abe, A. Sasaki, H. Hashimoto, S. Yokota, Y. Ohyama, "A Method for Non-contact Measurement of Knee Load in Sport Motion ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2724 - 2729 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a method for non-contact measurement of knee load. Joint position data is acquired with image analysis. Masses and centers of gravity on each segment of human body is estimated with a multiple linear regression model. Knee torque is estimated based on kinetics and these data, and it is used index value of knee load. In the proposing method, human body is not restricted and measurement may be performed in a ordinary space without any special equipment set on the floor or wall. The method is effective for preventing knee injuries. The validity of the proposing method is verified with cross-correlation function between the estimated knee load and EMG signals. The knee load increases along with the knee flexion and extension, and is sustained by the torque around the knee exerted by the quadriceps femoris. EMG signal measured on the quadriceps femoris is also index value of knee load. The experiments are performed based on those data. As a result, it is reported that the time derivative of the torque corresponds to the EMG signals in the sense of phase.

479    Fan Ji, M. Juntunen, I. Hietanen, S. Eranen, "Advanced Photodiode Detector For Medical CT Imaging: Design and Performance ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2730 - 2735 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents an advanced photodiode detector design for medical imaging applications, especially computerized tomography. The detector is silicon based and integrates the through-wafer interconnection technology into conventional front illuminated photodiode. The number of photodiode elements in the detector can be extended in 2D without reducing the photodiode active area. The signal of each photodiode element can be directly read out from the backside of the detector. Moreover, detectors can be tiled together in 2D without any physical limitation. A test photodiode detector was designed and demonstrated with 3times3 photodiode matrix arrangement in this paper. Different parameters were measured and analyzed from the demonstrated chip and test structures. The results show that the detector inherits most of the performance advantages from the conventional front illuminated photodiode, and all the parameters can either meet or exceed the requirements of modern CT systems.

480    I-Yu Huang, Ming-Chih Lee, Yi-Wen Chang, Ruey-Shing Huang, "Development and Characterization of FPW Based Allergy Biosensor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2736 - 2740 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a novel flexural plate wave (FPW) allergy microsensor with integrated cystamine-based self-assembly monolayers (SAMs) for the detection of immunoglobulin-E (IgE) concentration in human serum. The propagation membrane of the FPW biosensor is constructed with Si/SiO2/Si3N4/ZnO multi thin-films and released from the 512 mum-thick 4-inch silicon substrate as a floating thin-plate by using bulk micromachining technology. To improve the yield and performance, a 3 mum-thick silicon diaphragm of the FPW device is designed in this research. The ultrasonic flexural plate waves are launched and received by a pair of Cr/Au interdigital transducers (IDTs) on the surface of the ZnO piezoelectric thin film. In this study, a 3 nm-height cystamine-glutaldehyde SAMs is developed for the immobilization of IgE antibody. The implemented FPW-based allergy biosensor with relatively high mass sensitivity (17200 cm2/g) and perfect sensing linearity (99.99%) of human IgE antigen is demonstrated in this paper.

481    A. Yamamoto, M. Rajendra, Y. Hirano, H. Kataoka, H. Yokota, R. Himeno, T. Higuchi, "Motion Generation in MRI Using an Electrostatic Linear Motor for Visualizing Internal Deformation of Soft Objects by tagged cine-MRI ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2741 - 2746 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces a new actuating system for MRI study, combining the linear electrostatic film motor and tagged cine-MRI process to visualize internal deformation of soft objects. The linear electrostatic film motor is MR-compatible, simple structure, and easily controlled by open-loop. Motion of the motor and MR scanning are synchronized by a trigger and the motor conducts more than 250 cycles of reciprocating movements to create deformation in the soft subjects. A force sensor is developed using shielded strain gauges to monitor the applied force to the objects during MR scanning and the MR- compatibility of the newly made sensor was evaluated. The developed system was tested against gel samples. The obtained images using the system clearly showed the internal deformation of the soft samples under pushing force given by the electrostatic motor. Although further modifications are desirable, the pushing force was successfully measured by the newly made force sensor during MR scanning.

482    R.A. Dias, J.H. Correia, G. Minas, "CMOS Optical Sensors for being incorporated in Endoscopic Capsule for Cancer Cells Detection ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2747 - 2751 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of CMOS optical sensors for cancer detection based on autofluorescence emission spectra. These optical sensors were fabricated for being an integrated part of an endoscopic capsule used in diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases. Cells and tissues show autofluorescence, in a part of the visible spectrum, when excited by ultraviolet or short-wavelength visible light. The emission spectrum of cancer tissue is different from the one of the healthy tissue, and, it is dependent on the cancer development stage. CMOS photodetectors can be used to measure that spectrum. Once they are small and easily integrated with readout electronics, they can be placed around all the surface of the endoscopic capsule. While, nowadays, a locomotion and stop mechanism is a challenge, this scheme can cover a large area of the gastrointestinal tract examination during the natural movement of the capsule. The complete system will innovate the way of physicians diagnose the gastrointestinal diseases.

483    J.G. Rocha, G. Minas, V. Sencadas, S. Lanceros-Mendez, "Liquid Flow Sensor Based on PVDF in its Beta Phase ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2752 - 2757 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This article describes a system for the measurement of liquid or gaseous fluids. The main innovation is that the device is of tubular form and is composed by a single part. It is manufactured from a piezoelectric polymer such as beta-PVDF, in which one electrode in the inside and three electrodes in the outer side are placed. One of the exterior electrodes is excited by an electric voltage, whose frequency, of the order of tens or hundreds of megahertz, produces mechanical oscillations in the area of the pipe in contact with it, producing an ultrasound with the same frequency. The areas of the pipe under the other two electrodes also work as ultrasound transducers, receiving the signal produced by the first one. There are two main methods of reading flows with ultrasound sensors: a method based on the Doppler effect and another method based in the transit time. In both of these methods, they are used the differences of frequency or phase between the emitted and the received signals in order to calculate the speed of the liquid or gas that passes through the pipe. The flow is then calculated by multiplying the speed of the fluid by the area of the section of the pipe. In this project, it was used the technique of the time of transit, where the flux is calculated from the difference between the time that ultrasounds need to travel in the direction of the flow and in the direction opposite to the flow. The main difference between this flow sensor and other ones available in the market is that this sensor is the pipe by itself, becoming simpler, more compact, more robust and cheaper.

484    M.A.F. Carvalho, J.G. Rocha, M. Carvalho, F.M. Duarte, J.A. Santos, "Monitoring system of discomfort in disability, bed rest people and surgical patients ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2758 - 2762 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Project aims to develop a system that allows to provide to the people with special needs (PSN) a relief to the level of the sensitive perception of discomfort, assuring greater independence, welfare, quality of life, prevention of illnesses/wounds, through the development of textile and polymers applications (cushions, mattresses and mattresses overlays) with functions of monitoring of pressure in the body's areas in contact with the support surfaces. In this group of PSN will be enclosed the people with serious motor limitations that condition their mobility/deambulation, such as bed rest people, patients under effect of sedatives or anesthesia during long surgeries (intra and post operative), patients and users in general of wheelchairs. These people have, for the most part of the cases, a commitment of sensitivity in the body's areas in contact with the support surfaces, or its motor capacity does not allow them to move regularly of position autonomously, as it would do a healthy person unconsciously. Than, insufficient sanguineous irrigation occurs as result of pressure exceeding too long the tissue capillary pressure depriving tissues of oxygen and essential nutrients, owing to ischemia and hypoxia, which then causes the pressure ulcers (UP) development.

485    A. Sasaki, Y. Abe, H. Hashimoto, S. Yokota, Y. Ohyama, H. Murakoshi, "Instruction Display for Learning Taijiquan Motions ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2763 - 2766 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes an instruction display for learning Taijiquan (Tai Chi Chuan), a Chinese physical exercise, which is practiced chiefly in China and also in other countries of the world. Its practice is believed to promote and keep one's health but most learners may have difficulties in accurately practicing it because of the complexity of Taijiquan motions. The instruction display helps the learners to understand and practice the motions simultaneously showing trajectories to be traced by their body segments, and actual positions of the body segments measured by tracking systems and sensors mounted on them. The instruction display also provides functionality that shows degrees of similarity between performed motions and expert's one as index value of learner's skill level.

486    G. Faglia, C. Baratto, S. Bianchi, E. Comini, M. Ferroni, A. Ponzoni, S. Todros, A. Vomiero, "Metal oxide nanowires for biochemical gas sensing ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2763 - 2766 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Interest in nanowires of semiconducting oxides is exponentially grown in the last years, due to their attracting potential applications in electronic, optical and sensor field. We have focused our attention on the sensing properties of metal oxide nanowires as conductometric and optical gas sensors and conductometric DNA sensor. Single crystal nanostructures were synthesized with the aim of exploring and studying their capabilities as nanosized sensors in form of multi nanowires sensors.

487    F. Belloni, D. Della Giustina, S. Riboldi, M. Riva, E. Spoletini, L. Bertossi, "Towards a Computer-Aided Diagnosis by means of Phonocardiogram Signals ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2770 - 2775 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A medical instrument for phono-cardiac signals acquisition and analysis is described in the paper. The system proposed is based on an electronic stethoscope with enhanced performances in environmental noise reduction, and a software tool able to reproduce, visualize and analyze the heart sounds. The recorded data can be collected and stored in patient- associated files, to build up a clinic history and to allow further consultation. A demonstrator of the system has been realized. Experimental results show clear improvements in the signal to noise ratio of the acquired sound. The proposed software tool can be used to assist physicians with the detection of basic heart diseases.

488    G. Neri, A. Bonavita, S. Ipsale, G. Micali, G. Rizzo, N. Donato, "Carbonyl sulphide (COS) monitoring on MOS sensors for biomedical applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2776 - 2781 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Resistive metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors have been tested in the monitoring of carbonyl sulphide (COS), a biomarker for acute rejection (AR) in lung transplanted patients. COS concentration in the breath of these patients (about 0.5 ppm) is in fact more higher than that found in healthy peoples, making possible the real time diagnosis of this pathology by breath analysis. In2O3-based MOS resistive sensors have been therefore tested at different temperatures and COS concentrations in order to optimize the sensor response and response/recovery time. The ultimate aim of this work is to develop a simple and cost-effective breath test for the acute rejection in lung transplanted patients.

489    M.L. Rodriguez-Mendez, C. Apetrei, I. Apetrei, S. Villanueva, I.J.A. de Saja, I. Nevares, M. del Alamo, "Combination of an electronic nose, an electronic tongue and an electronic eye for the Analysis of Red Wines aged with alternative methods ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2782 - 2787 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A combination of an electronic nose, an electronic tongue and an electronic eye has been used to discriminate between red wines aged in oak barrels and red wines matured in steel tanks in contact with oak wood chips. The quality of wines has also been analyzed by means of conventional chemical methods. Principal component analysis has demonstrated that both methods allow discriminating wines according to the type of ageing. Moreover, partial least squares (PLS) has demonstrated that measurements carried out with the electronic system allow establishing prediction models that are capable to infer the methodology used to age wines. Good correlations have been found between the signals obtained with the electronic system and the chemical parameters. The electrochemical signals have been successfully employed to estimate chemical parameters related to the polyphenolic content or the pH such as the tannins content.

490    D. Mazzei, G. Vozzi, A. Ahluwalia, A. Cisternino, "Development of a high-throughput bioreactor system for biomedical applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2788 - 2792 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Cell culture optimization of in-vitro cell culture for tissue engineering, pharmacological or metabolic studies require a large number of experiments to be conducted under varying conditions. In this paper we describe a high-throughput bioreactor system that allows conducting parallel experiments in a simulated in vivo-like environment. Our bioreactors consist in a mixing device controlled by an embedded system that regulates the insertion of gas in the culture medium in order to control its pH. Each culture system possesses of an autonomous control system able to ensure an optimal environment for cells. A computer communicates with the embedded system to acquire data and setup experiment variables. With this apparatus we can perform a high- throughput experiment controlling with several bioreactors working in parallel. In this paper we discuss the architecture of the system, and some experimental results are presented.

491    M. Tesconi, A. Tognetti, E. Pasquale Scilingo, G. Zupone, N. Carbonaro, D. De Rossi, E. Castellini, M. Marella, "Wearable sensorized system for analyzing the lower limb movement during rowing activity ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2788 - 2792 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A wearable sensing system was developed to monitor kinematic variables of lower limbs of an athlete during rowing activity. The system is thought to be used directly in the boat to analyze athlete performance during training or race activity. To allow "on-water" rowing activity monitoring the system has to be light, wearable and not cumbersome for the user. A prototype based on a sensing leotard made of fabric integrated conductive elastomer was realized. Conductive elastomer sensors show piezoresistive properties without changing the mechanical properties of the fabric. The prototype was tested in a laboratory set-up by comparing its outputs with the ones coming from a standard reference system. The preliminary results were encouraging. The next step will be to test the system performance "on-water" during training or race.

492    B. Vinci, C. Domenici, D. Cavallone, M. Brunetto, G. Vozzi, A. Ahluwalia, "Development of a liver model using PAM scaffolds in static and dynamic conditions ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2797 - 2800 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of the present work was to test the functionality of hepatocytes cultured on three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds realised with pressure activated microsyringe (PAM) system in static and dynamic conditions. The dynamic cell culture conditions have been produced using a bioreactor system developed and patented by our group. Hepatocytes used in this study were HepG2 cell line. Cells were seeded and cultured on hexagonal-three-dimensional polymeric poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA) scaffolds, initially sterilized and functionalised with murine collagen type IV. Hepatocytes cell density, glucose consumption, albumin and transferrin secretion rate have been measured daily for the whole length (7 days) of experiment. Cells under dynamic conditions showed an increase in cell density. Moreover, the metabolic cell function increased three times in comparison with monolayer culture. These results have suggested that the combination of three-dimensional scaffolds with a well defined topology and dynamic conditions were important for the development of a hepatic tissue model that could be use for drug testing and regenerative medicine.

493    F. Vozzi, M.A. Guzzardi, A.D. Ahluwalia, G. Vozzi, C. Domenici, ""Cell Cross-talk" analysis in static and dynamic Multi-Compartmental Bioreactor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2801 - 2804 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Our research is based on use of multi-compartmental bioreactor (MCB) designed on the basis of allometric scaling laws in order to recreate physiological life conditions of four different human cell types (pancreatic, adipocyte, endothelial and hepatic cells), interconnected each other trough media flow. In this work we have analysed the crosstalk of two different cell types: endothelial and hepatic cells, cultured in static and dynamic conditions without and with connection between them. Endothelial cells are derived by umbilical vein of human cord; while, hepatic cells are a purchased cell line called HepG2. We have set up optimal work conditions of both cell types before in static conditions and then in MCB system. The determination of cell behaviour alone and of their cross-talk has been determined by the analysis of urea, glucose, albumin and nitric oxide in collected samples of media culture. The results of this experiments have been showed that there is an increase in the release of urea and albumin and in the consumption of glucose, while there were not significant changes in nitric oxide levels, in the cells cultured in MCB system respect them cultured alone.

494    C. De Maria, G. Vozzi, C. Domenici, A. Ahluwalia, "A novel vascular bioreactor for remodelling and testing mechanical properties of blood vessels ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2805 - 2809 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Vascular diseases are one the principal causes of death in industrial countries. Current therapies, based principally on the use of autologous grafts, result often limited by shortage of donor sites and by the not well-known mechanical and biochemical relationships between the principal components of vessel and the risk factors. For this reason we have designed and realised a bioreactor able to reproduce the physio-pathological situations of a vascular tract with an inner diameter inferior to 6 mm. The device has been before modelled with an analytical and finite element model to fix the principal features for its design such as topology, culture medium flow and transmural pressure, and to evaluate its correspondence with physio-pathological states. After this modelling phase the bioreactor has been realised in silicone by casting technique. In the system realised carotid arteries have been culture for 24 hours varying the transmural pressure applied. Vascular mechanical properties have been tested before and after the experiment in order to evaluate how this physical stimulus acts on them and in particular on the remodelling of extracellular matrix and orientation of collagen fibers. The results obtained have demonstrated that this device was able to reproduce different physiological and pathological situations.

495    P. Guerrini, G. Vozzi, A. Ahluwalia, D. Mazzei, M. Palla, S. Rizzo, "Design and realisation of drop-free trocar for ophthalmic applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2810 - 2814 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this work a novel patented drop-free trocar (Italian Patent PI2007A000021) is described for minimum- invasive ophthalmic surgery. In this surgical practice the trocar has the function of microchannel for the insertion of surgical instruments into the vitreous cavity. The drop pressure between the inner cavity of the eye and the external environment causes the formation of a drop of vitreous humour at trocar-external environment interface. The outflow of vitreous humour produces a high risk of infection. This problem can be reduced by removing the amount of vitreous humour inside the cannula; but its reduction in the vitreous cavity is one of the principal risk factor of retinal detachment. For this reason the ophthalmic surgeons needs to have a device for minimum-invasive that allows to reduce the risks avoiding the outflow of vitreous humour. We have modelled, designed and realised a self-sealing valve system to prevent this flow through the cannula. This device is able to reduce retinal detachment risk or infections allowing safe minimum-invasive ophthalmic surgery. In this paper we describe the development and the first experimental results of this novel patented trocar.

496    A. Migliore, G. Vozzi, A.D. Ahluwalia, C. De Maria, F. Vozzi, "Microfabrication of Capillary System Using a Perfusion Cell Chamber ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2815 - 2819 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays, the biological tissue realized in vitro at experimental level, is characterised by thickness to the order of a few millimetres. This is related to the limitation of the diffusive transport of oxygen, nutrients and metabolic by-products. These results are incompatible with the realization of tissue which has relevant thickness or which requires a high vascularisation level (e.g. liver, heart, lungs). The attempts to create a vascular bed, integrated on bioartificial tissue, still remains in preliminary phases. The aim of the present study is to realize in vitro microvascular structures for tissue engineering applications. We designed and realized a culture chamber that allows the seeding, the development and the perfusion of cellular microvessels. The strategy adopted consist of the use of cylindrical polymeric scaffolds, onto which cells of the connective tissue (murine fibroblasts) can adhere and proliferate.

497    Page(s): , Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/ISIE.2007.4375058 , "PDF Not Yet Available In IEEE Xplore ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2815 - 2819 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

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498    S. Hermann, H. Bubb, "Development of an Objective Measure to Quantify Automotive Discomfort Over Time ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2824 - 2830 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The possibilities for describing sitting postural discomfort over time were demonstrated by using non-linear methods. Correlating Center of Pressure (COP) data with % of pressure under the ischial tuberosities (IP) and under the upper thighs (TH) it was further possible to explain the dynamics of the COP data in terms of discomfort perception. Visual recurrence were used to compare the COP data with IP and TH data and revealed transitions of discomfort over time. Therefore the technique of recurrence plots showed a clear change in the underlying dynamics of the data in relation to ones perceived discomfort level.

499    F. Frijia, F. Di Francesco, C. Anselmi, F. Vanni, F. Lombardo, R. Canapicchi, P. Salvo, N. Vanello, "Use of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for the investigation of the Human Olfactory System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2824 - 2830 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In vivo fMRI study of the human olfactory system is difficult not only because the devoted areas in human cortex are much less extended than those of the other sensory systems, but also for the presence of a high magnetic susceptibility around the olfactory stations. This work presents the results obtained in the attempt of developing a robust and reproducible fMRI technique to evaluate the human olfactory system in healthy subjects.

500    F. Di Francesco, S. Tabucchi, C. Loccioni, M. Ferro, G. Pioggia, "Development of a CO2 triggered alveolar air sampler ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2834 - 2837 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Despite its enormous potential, breath analysis is far from reaching a widespread use in the clinical practice. Among many reasons, the lack of effective and reproducible sampling procedures plays a primary role. In this paper, the design of an alveolar air sampler is presented.

501    M. Pacelli, G. Loriga, R. Paradiso, "Flat Knitted Sensors for Respiration Monitoring ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2838 - 2841 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Within the European integrated project "Proetex" (FP6-2004-IST-4-026987) three different wearable systems are under development to monitor physiological signals of firemen, detect environmental conditions and determine triage of victims during emergencies. All these systems use sensors that are integrated or embedded in garments to combine comfort to real wearability and real-time transmission. The present work is about the development and testing of electrodes and piezoresistive sensors made of yarn and integrated in the fireman's inner garment to monitor breathing.

502    Ting-na Shi, Xiang-chao Wang, Chang-liang Xia, Qian Zhang, "Adaptive Speed Control of PMSM Based on Wavelet Neural Network ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2842 - 2847 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: There are many difficulties in control of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) owing to its highly nonlinearity and multivariable characteristics. If using the conventional controller, the uncertainty factors such as the variation of motor parameter and the load disturbance will influence the control precision. To solve this problem, this paper presents an approach of adaptive speed control for PMSM based on wavelet neural network (WNN). This approach takes advantage of the wavelet function with its approximating ability and fast convergence property. It constructs speed controller by the network that has been trained off-line and regulates network's parameters in the course of controlling in order to adapt to the change of the environment. In addition, the system constructs another wavelet network to offer gradient parameters by on-line identification, which is used by the control network for its on-line study. The experiment results prove that this approach has lots of advantages such as fast response speed, high control precision and strong robustness.

503    Yang Tian, Ting-na Shi, Chang-liang Xia, Dan Liu, Qian Zhang, "Sensorless Position Control using Adaptive Wavelet Neural Network for PM BLDCM ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2848 - 2852 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the relationship between rotor position and phase voltages of permanent magnet (PM) brushless DC motors(BLDCM) is analyzed, a novel sensorless position control method for BLDCM is proposed, which is based on adaptive wavelet neural network(WNN). In this method, a multiple inputs-single output wavelet neural network model is built according to the analysis of sensorless position and micro-controller. There is no hidden unit at the beginning. During the learning process, the hidden units are increased or decreased according to an adaptive algorithm. The WNN is finally built with a much simpler and more compact structure. Through a gradient descent error algorithm, the WNN is trained both off-line and on-line. In the off-line training, the parameters of network are initialized and the number of hidden units is obtained. While on-line training, the weights of WNN are updated based on the output signals after filter. By mapping the phase voltages to commutating signals, the network can replace the traditional position sensors. By the experimental results, the method in this paper is verified to get the exact commuting signals.

504    D.O. Abdeslam, P. Wira, J. Merckle, D. Flieller, "Distortions Identification With Artificial Neural Networks Based on Symmetrical Components ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2853 - 2858 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new neural approach for identifying and compensating for harmonic distortions is proposed in this paper. Based on a new signal decomposition of the voltage and the current, this method identifies the direct, inverse and homopolar components of both the voltages and the currents of the supply network. For one signal, the component extraction requires four independant Adaline networks. The components are then used to on-line compute the instantaneous direct, inverse and homopolar powers. The learning capabilities of the Adalines allow to determine the APF (Active Power Filter) compensation currents under fluctuating conditions and according to the compensation objectives, i.e., harmonic compensation, power factor correction, or selective harmonic compensation. The resulting compensation currents are re-injected phase-opposite through an APF in real-time. The performance is evaluated through several simulation examples. The results show that the proposed neural method outperforms other methods, such as the conventional instantaneous power theory.

505    B. Makki, N. Sadati, M. Noori Hosseini, "Modeling Superconductive Fault Current Limiter Using Constructive Neural Networks ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2859 - 2863 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Although so many advances have been proposed in the field of artificial intelligence and superconductivity, there are few reports on their combination. On the other hand, because of the nonlinear and multivariable characteristics of the superconductive elements and capabilities of neural networks in this field, it seems useful to apply the neural networks to model and control the superconductive phenomena or devices. In this paper, a new constructive neural network (CNN) trained by two different optimization algorithms; back-propagation and genetic algorithm, is proposed which models the behavior of the superconductive fault current limiters (SFCLs). Simulation results show that the proposed approach is in good harmony with the real characteristics of the SFCLs.

506    C.F. Nascimento, A.A. Oliveira, A. Goedtel, I.N. Silva, J.R.B. Monteiro, M.L. Aguiar, "Harmonic Detection Based on Artificial Neural Networks for Current Distortion Compensation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2864 - 2869 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a method for the determination of part of the current harmonic components for the selective compensation harmonic by single-phase active power filter is presented. The non-linear load is composed by an AC controller with variable resistive load. The first six components are identified through artificial neural network. The effectiveness of the proposed method and its application in the single-phase active power filters with selective harmonic compensation are verified. Simulation results are presented to validate the proposed approach.

507    M. Hatti, "Neural Network Controller for P E M Fuel Cells ," ISIE 2007, pp. 341 - 346 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper considers that any system of production is subjected permanently to load steps change variations. In our case, we consider a static production system including a PEMFC is subjected to variations of active and reactive power. The goal is then to make so that the system follows these imposed variations. We were thus interested in control of the powers by using the neural networks controllers. Simulation requires the modelling of the principal element (the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) in dynamic mode. The model used is that described by J. Padulles with a modification concerning the addition of losses of activation and concentration. For the neural network, various network design parameters such as the network size, Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm, activation functions and their causes on the effectiveness of the performance modeling are discussed, the Quasi-Newton neural networks was described. Results from the analysis as well as the limitations of the approach are presented and discussed.

508    T. Hacib, M.R. Mekideche, N. Ferkha, N. Ikhlef, H. Bouridah, "Application of a Radial Basis Function Neural Network for the Inverse Electromagnetic Problem of Parameter Identification ," ISIE 2007, pp. 347 - 352 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this article an attempt is made to study the applicability of a general purpose, supervised feed forward neural network (FFNN) with one hidden layer, namely radial basis function (RBF) neural network and finite element method (FEM) to solve the electromagnetic inverse problem of parameter identification. The approach is used to identify unknown parameters of ferromagnetic materials. The methodology used in this study consists in the simulation of a large number of parameters in a material under test, using the FEM. Both variations in relative magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity of the material under test are considered. Then, the obtained results are used to generate a set of vectors for the training of RBF neural network. Finally, the obtained neural network (NN) is used to evaluate a group of new materials, simulated by the FEM, but not belonging to the original dataset. Performance of the RBF network was also compared with the most commonly used multilayer perceptron (MLP) network model. The obtained results show that RBF network performs better than MLP network model.

509    C. Lozoya, P. Marti, M. Velasco, J.M. Fuertes, "Effective Real-Time Wireless Control of an Autonomous Guided Vehicle ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2876 - 2881 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Wireless communication systems used in industrial environments must guarantee that the information is sent and received within precise time-bounds. However the nature of the radio channels and the medium access control (MAC) generates random communication delays. For networked control systems, these delays can cause severe performance problems. This paper presents an autonomous guided vehicle (AGV) path tracking control system whose closed-loop consists on a vehicle connected over a wireless network to the controller. To mitigate the negative effects of delays, we propose a Kalman-based network delay estimator in the controller, that provides effective control performance. Our approach is compared to previously proposed statistical estimation algorithms by evaluating the vehicle's travelling time and path deviation.

510    A. Cuenca, J. Salt, V. Casanova, "Multi-rate PID Controller for a Networked Control System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2882 - 2886 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In networked control systems several devices (controller, process and others) share a common communication bus. This feature can suppose delays when those devices try to transmit information through the unique bus, leading to a non- regular behaviour, that is, different variables are sampled and updated in a non-uniform way along the time. As a result, if the control system is designed by means of classical design techniques, control performance can be degraded, since these techniques used not to consider those delays. In order to undertake this problem, a solution based on a PID controller's parameters readjustment is proposed. This approach permits to retune these parameters depending on the detected delay. In this way, a clear performance improvement can be observed for the network based control system.

511    F. Hutu, S. Cauet, P. Coirault, S. Moreau, "Synchronization of a network of oscillators with delays in the case of 1-D smart antennas array: a passivity analysis approach ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2887 - 2892 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, networks of oscillators are studied in the case of 1D antennas array. Each oscillator of the network is associated to an antenna. In this case, time delays are introduced between oscillator outputs in order to modify the spatial gain of the antenna array. The unidirectionally coupled network has not be investigated in smart antenna array. Firstly, the structure is proposed with hyper-frequency elements and secondly, a new analysis tool is presented to study the stability. The delay effects on the network synchronization are tackled and it is assumed that the parameters of the oscillators are in a polytope. Using Lyapunov methods and LMI (linear matrix inequality) framework and the dissipativity theory, a new condition is given to ensure global exponential synchronization. A validation is made in simulation with Matlab.

512    Zheng Li, Mo-Yuen Chow, "Sampling Rate Scheduling and Digital Filter Co-design of Networked Supervisory Control System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2893 - 2898 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A networked supervisory control system is one type of networked control systems (NCS) in which a supervisor monitors and analyzes remote plants via communication network. This paper proposes an adaptive multiple sampling rate scheduling (AMSRS) methodology with digital filters in the signal process steps of the control loop to maintain the transmitted measurement signals' fidelity in order to help supervisor's decision making under normal and faulty operating conditions. Specifications of digital filters are chosen according to the system's frequency domain characteristics to bound the signal sampling and reconstruction errors as well as conserve available resource. A networked high throughput screening (HTS) process supervisory control system is used as a case study in this paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of using digital filters in the sampling rate scheduling method. A comparison between using the digital filter and previous zero-order hold approach (Z. Li and M.-Y. Chow, 2006) in signal reconstruction shows that digital filters can further reduce the reconstruction error. Furthermore, the use of filters extensively reduces the amount of consuming bandwidth (resource) in signal sampling and transmission (e.g., 40% and 56% bandwidth saved by two types of digital filters in specific case), and improves the system performance bounded by the limited resources.

513    V. Vasyutynskyy, K. Kabitzsch, "Towards Comparison of Deadband Sampling Types ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2899 - 2904 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The deadband sampling can be used in networked control systems to reduce the number of triggered events. The purpose of this paper is to define the influence of different factors on the efficiency of deadband sampling. Different deadband criteria, control algorithms and configurations of closed control loops using deadband samplings are compared on the basis of extensive simulations. The control loop performance and the number of triggered events are evaluated simultaneously.

514    K. Bouyoucef, K. Khorasani, "A Robust Congestion Control Strategy for Delay Dependent Differentiated-Services Networks ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2905 - 2910 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For time-delayed dependent scalable differentiated services (DiffServ) networks the use of robust control techniques are essential for addressing the congestion control problem. Sliding mode-based variable structure control (SM-VSC) technique robustness capabilities are utilized in this paper to design on the basis of an inaccurate/uncertain model, a new congestion control algorithm. The utilized fluid flow model (FFM) is of low order and simpler than a detailed Markovian queuing probabilistic models. The proposed time-delayed dependent congestion control dynamics is studied analytically to guarantee stability of the closed-loop system. To evaluate robustness and to demonstrate the capabilities of our proposed algorithm, simulation results are provided for different operating conditions and time-delay values.

515    D. Fernandez, J. Jimenez, J. Andreu, C. Cuadrado, I. Kortabarria, "A TCN Gateway Emulator ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2911 - 2916 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: TCN standard makes use of the WTB bus and MVB vehicle buses to provide necessary services which a train may require. This architecture takes advantage of complex multiprocessor gateways to link a vehicle bus to the wire train bus. To provide a robust development and verification environment, a TCN gateway emulation application has been created. This program develops a virtual network to test the TCN protocol stack and applications built on top of it.

516    O.K. Hussain, E. Chang, F.K. Hussain, T.S. Dillon, "Quantifying the Loss in Resource Benefit for Risk based Decision in Digital Business Ecosystem ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2917 - 2922 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In a financial digital business ecosystem, the trusting agent by analyzing beforehand the possible risk in interacting with a probable trusted agent can make a better decision of its future course of interaction with it. Another factor that would help the trusting agent in deciding whether to interact or not with a probable trusted agent, is to determine the probability of it not achieving the full benefit of its invested resources. In this paper, we propose a methodology by which the trusting agent can determine the loss of its resource benefit in interacting with a probable trusted agent before proceeding.

517    G.M. Huang, E. Chang, R. Ramaseshan, Ya Zhou, "A Differentiated QoS Approach for meeting Real Time Requirements by Web Servers within Industrial Ecosystems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2923 - 2927 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Distributed manufacturing facilities and distributed provision of services require a strong IT infrastructure that is Web based to be cost effective and flexible. However, it is important to provide the ability for such Web based distributed industrial informatics systems to meet hard real time deadlines in the presence of considerable uncertainty. To do this in a realistic manner, we propose a differentiated QoS approach which separates functions and services that are performed into different classes including mandatory services and optional services. The mandatory services have strong hard real time requirements, whist the optional services can be serviced with weak hard real time requirements. The framework, structure, and scheduling strategies are given in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate proof of concepts.

518    Shuxin Zhao, V. Potdar, E. Chang, "A Practical Image Retrieval Framework for Tourism Industry ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2928 - 2932 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Image retrieval (IR) is one of the most exciting and fastest growing research domains in the field of multimedia technology. And in the industrial ecosystems, images of products, activities, marketing materials etc are needed to be managed and fetched in an efficient way to support and facilitate business processes. Current techniques for IR including keyword based, content based and ontology based image retrieval have several unsolved issues. We promote the ontology based IR approach and focus on two issues: firstly, the difficulty in constructing ontologies of images for those industries without ontology professionals, and, secondly, none of the existing approaches consider image content ranking in search results. In this paper, we propose a practical framework to tackle these issues by introducing an abstract image ontology that serves as a blueprint of image ontologies and by incorporating a concept instance ranking scheme to allow ranking of each of the contents expressed in images, thus providing extra information for IR process. An application scenario in the tourism industry area is also presented.

519    Chen Wu, E. Chang, "Exploring a Digital Ecosystem Conceptual Model and Its Simulation Prototype ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2933 - 2938 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digital ecosystems (DES) transcend the traditional rigorously defined collaborative environments from centralised or distributed or hybrid models into an open, flexible, domain cluster, demand-driven interactive environment. A digital ecosystem is new-networked architecture and collaborative environment that addresses the weakness of client-server, peer-to- peer and Web services. In this paper, we firstly introduce a conceptual model of DES. The design and implementation of a DES simulation is then presented to illustrate some fundamental characteristics for further DES study. Finally, we propose a novel approach to realise the DES built on top of the social software (SS) and swarm intelligence.

520    J. Torres, J.M. Sierra, J. Tellez, A. Izquierdo, "Interoperability and Information Mobility Issues in Industrial Ecosystems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2939 - 2943 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Communication protocols used in industrial ecosystems provide the information with mobility and ubiquitous capabilities. As industrial ecosystems expand to embrace new devices, services or communication technologies, and also due to the increase of the information being exchanged, the interoperability and mobility issues are starting to show up. These issues prevent the interconnection among ecosystems, thus, limiting information mobility. We review these problems arisen from non-standard implementations of communication protocols, and will point out other common problems for these implementations. Finally, we will remark the aspects that should be taken into account when designing methodologies to validate the information exchange mechanisms.

521    Hai Dong, F.K. Hussain, "Digital Ecosystem Ontology ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2944 - 2947 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Digital ecosystems is a neoteric terminology and there are two major definitions about it respectively from Soluta.Net and from Digital Ecosystem and Business Intelligence Institute. In this paper, to solve the ambiguous problem in digital ecosystem's definitions and to help researchers better understand what it is, by means of ontology, we propose a conceptual model to completely illustrate the concepts in digital ecosystem. By introducing a new ontology notation system, we deliver the digital ecosystem ontology, to well define the components and explain the relationships between these components. Finally we realize the ontology in Protege-OWL and conclude our future works in the field.

522    A. Granja, J. Martins, C. Cardeira, J.S. da Costa, "Improving navigation of an Autonomous Mobile Robot using System Identification and Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2948 - 2953 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we present improvements in the track following of a differential drive autonomous robot system using system identification and control. The robot is made of industrial components and its main goal is to participate in mobile robotic competitions as well as to be used as a testbed for research and education experiments. The improvement of performance obtained by applying a controller, whose design is based on the system identification, is shown. The obtained model allows the design of a controller that improves the performance of the autonomous mobile robot, which is the main motivation in this paper. The results presented compare the performance before and after the controller design and implementation were performed. A practical approach in the identification of the robots system is presented, from the data acquisition to the controller's implementation on the mobile robot.

523    V. Pinto, S. Rafael, J.F. Martins, "PLC controlled industrial processes on-line simulator ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2954 - 2957 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The practical tryout of a PLC controlled automation process is a well known problem. This paper presents a process simulation tool, developed under the windows operating system, which can be used with any type of programmable logic controller. The process editor is comprehensive and is easy to use. An inexpensive hardware interface is established between the serial port of a personal computer and the digital and analog inputs/outputs of the PLC.

524    D. Lopez, R. Cedazo, F. Sanchez, J.M. Sebastian, "CICLOPE ROBOT: A Remote Laboratory for Teaching Embedded Real Time Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2958 - 2962 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Ciclope robot is part of Ciclope project and its goal is to provide a real remote laboratory for teaching embedded real time systems. The students have to develop a control program that is going to run in an embedded computer with the free real time operating system RTEMS. Any student can accesses to this lab via Web by using a normal Internet browser. The students count with two different live views of the robots, in order to realize where it is placed at each moment. With these tool students can work at home via the Internet as if they were in the lab. Furthermore the teacher have full control of what the students are doing, because all the events are storaged into a data base. This permits distance evaluation. All the software used and made in this project is free and it is distributed under the GPL license.

525    L.M. Jimenez, R. Puerto, O. Reinoso, R.P. Neco, C. Fernandez, "Remote Control Laboratory Using Matlab and Simulink ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2963 - 2967 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a teaching application for remote real-time execution of physical process controllers is presented. This application has been developed using the platform Matlab/Simulink. The motivation of this work is based on the little availability of real physical systems or laboratories to perform the experiments in control courses. In this way, control lab assignments with various physical processes present in the remote laboratories can be performed. Also, some examples that show the validity and applicability of the presented architecture are introduced.

526    C. Quintans, J.M. Acevedo, G. Castro, A.A. Nogueiras, "E-Learning Tool for dc Choppers ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2968 - 2971 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work presents a software tool in order to facilitate the learning of the dc choppers. This tool consists of an integrated web-access set of multimedia animation-clips which present, in an interactive way, how the different dc choppers topologies work. The different topologies are classified depending on their quadrant operation and then the user can realize the circuit's performance from the simplest class-A to the four quadrant operation class-E converter. To do this, all circuit parameters including load values, duty ratio, and frequency may be selected by the user. Moreover, the load includes an electromotive force (EMF) that allows understanding the energy flow between the source and the load and then, the quadrant operation. Other useful characteristic of the tool is the way in which the circuits are drawn because they can be shown as a bridge or in their simplest form in the case of only the essentials devices being shown. The information about the currents and voltages paths is dynamically presented with sliding rules over the graphs during simulations indicating the state of semiconductor switches by means of changing colours. The multimedia system includes documentation on all the subjects, showing basic concepts and equations, in pdf format and links to industrial manufacturers.

527    J. Farina, L. Costas, C. Quintans, J.J. Rodriguez-Andina, "Application of a Reconfigurable Platform for the Education of Electronic Control Loops ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2972 - 2977 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Data acquisition and signal generation systems are basic building blocks of electronic control loops. They usually have fixed structures, whose functionality cannot be modified. In an educational context, students can only modify some of their functional parameters and check the effect of such changes on the generation and acquisition processes. In a previous paper, a reconfigurable generation and acquisition system has been presented, which not only covers these basic educational tasks, but also allows students to test different structures and to choose the most suitable for a given application. In this paper, its practical application for the education of electronic control loops is presented.

528    S. Uran, D. Hercog, K. Jezernik, "Remote Control Laboratory with Moodle Booking System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2978 - 2983 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In order to enhance learning of control design, minimise the gap between theory and practice and especially to support learning by doing we built remote control laboratory. This paper describes a Moodle based booking system for our remote laboratory. The web-based remote laboratory is presented through a RC oscillator experiment for learning of control design. In RC oscillator experiment, interactivity between the controller design parameters in Bode plot and Root Locus with real experiment has been implemented in order to support full visualisation of the controller design. An experiment for control of a mechatronic device, it is a DC motor, was implemented. Special safety measures built into the experiment are represented in the paper.

529    S. Bogosyan, M. Gokasan, A. Turan, R.W. Wies, "Development of Remotely Accessible Matlab/Simulink Based Electrical Drive Experiments ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2984 - 2989 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the development of remotely accessible electrical drive sets for hands-on education in electrical machinery, electrical drive and control courses as well as certain aspects of motion control and power electronics. The remote access is provided via the developed client-server communication method using the TCP/IP protocol to run the Matlab/Simulink compatible electrical drive sets operating on the remote server side. The developed method allows access to the robotics and electrical drive test- beds, namely permanent magnet DC (PMDC), permanent magnet synchronous (PMSM), and induction motor (IM) motor-load sets, developed for both on-site and remote use at the Control Laboratory in the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). The client-server communication is developed in C/C++ using wxWidgets to communicate with the Matlab/Simulink downloadable DS1104, which is the control unit used in all the electrical drive systems in the lab. The UAF remote laboratory web site can be accessed at: http://www.uaf.edu/ece/remote-lab.This paper describes the development of remotely accessible electrical drive sets for hands-on education in electrical machinery, electrical drive and control courses as well as certain aspects of motion control and power electronics. The remote access is provided via the developed client-server communication method using the TCP/IP protocol to run the Matlab/Simulink compatible electrical drive sets operating on the remote server side. The developed method allows access to the robotics and electrical drive test- beds, namele permanent magnet DC (PMDC), permanent magnet synchronous (PMSM), and induction motor (IM) motor-load sets, developed for both on-site and remote use at the Control Laboratory in the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). The client-server communication is developed in C/C++ using wxWidgets to communicate with the Matlab/Simulink downloadable DS1104, which is the control unit used in all the electrical drive systems- in the lab. The UAF remote laboratory web site can be accessed at: http://www.uaf.edu/ece/remote-lab.

530    M. Rico-Secades, J. Garcia, A. Torres, J. Cardesin, A. Calleja, "Pitfalls in Low Voltage LED Drivers Design using Tapped-Inductor Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2990 - 2995 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The use of power LED is growing continuously, due to new advances and new devices with performances which increase day after day. Nowadays, a topic of interest in this context is the search for electronic converters in order to take advantage of LED performances. LEDs ballast design involves a multidisciplinary knowledge: photometric, thermal, power electronics and control techniques. This work focuses in to save potential pitfalls during ballast design for these new components. This paper evaluates the use of tapped-converters as LED drivers in low voltage applications. These topologies are derived from tapped- inductor DC-to-DC converters, in which the load is a connection of power LED. This load implies several restrictions in both power topology design and control method strategies. The work includes an extensive discussion about this topic, clarifies areas of application for each specific topology and includes a complete design example.

531    L.M.F. Morais, P.F. Donoso-Garcia, S.I. Seleme, P.C. Cortizo, F.N.A. Silva, "Acoustic Resonance Rejection via Voltage Modulation Method for HPS Lamps ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2996 - 3001 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A voltage modulation method in order to prevent acoustic resonance (AR) in HPS lamps is presented. Two voltage modulation techniques via PWM inverter are proposed. The first one injects harmonic components in the lamp voltage reference. The second one consist of high frequency voltage modulated by a low frequency waveform. These techniques allow the control of crest factor other than rejecting the AR.

532    M. Manana, A. Ortiz, C. Renedo, S. Perez, F. Delgado, F.J. Azcondo, F.J. Diaz, C. Branas, "Comparison of flicker sensitivity in HPS lamps ," ISIE 2007, pp. 2996 - 3001 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The European standard CENELEC EN 50160 establishes that the severity of flicker caused by voltage fluctuations, under normal operating conditions, will not exceed the long term severity Pu = 1 during 95% of the time in one week. This threshold was originally established considering that a lamp with tungsten coiled coil filament of 60 W and 230 V that is gas- filled produces a flicker perceivable by 50% of the population when it is supplied with a voltage that verifies Pu = 1. Other light sources like fluorescent lamps and discharge lamps with ballasts exhibit a different behavior under the same supply conditions. This means that the flickermeter should be different for each type of illumination technique. A test system and a methodology able to measure the optical fluctuation produced by different types of lamps is presented. This experimental platform allows to obtain a correlation between voltage flicker levels and optical flicker perception. It can be considered the first step in the definition of new lamp models and the specification for new electronic ballast design.

533    A.M. Lupenko, C. Braas, F.J. Azcondo, "Quadratic Approximation for High-frequency Behavioral Fluorescent Lamp Model ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3008 - 3012 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A new high-frequency behavioral PSpice-compatible model for fluorescent lamps is proposed. The model is based on the combination of a linear approximation of the envelope of the dynamic v-i characteristics and the quadratic approximation of the instantaneous v-i curve. The mathematical expression of the incremental impedance of the fluorescent lamp is obtained from this model. The model can be utilized for either time or frequency domain electronic ballast simulation. Simulation results demonstrate good agreement with experimental behavior of fluorescent lamps.

534    R. Orletti, D.S.L. Simonetti, J.L.F. Vieira, M.A. Co, "A Reduced-Part-Number HID Lamp Electronic Ballast ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3013 - 3018 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces a single power processing stage electronic ballast with reduced number of components to drive HID lamps. A DC-DC buck converter, which controls the current and the power of the lamp, a power factor pre-regulator based on discontinuous conduction mode boost converter and the inverter are combined in a BIBRED converter. It operates with a low frequency current driving the lamp. The signals of the power stages are provided by a dedicated microcontroller. Ballast for sodium vapor lamps of 70 W without acoustic resonance was implemented resulting in a pf = 0,97 with THD = 22% and eta = 84%.

535    F.J. Diaz, F.J. Azcondo, C. Branas, R. Casanueva, R. Zane, "Control of low-frequency square-wave electronic ballast with resonant ignition using a dsPIC30F2010 ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3019 - 3024 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper proposes the use of a dsPIC30F2010 for implementing the ignition sequence, a double loop control and selecting the operation modes of a low frequency square wave (LFSW) electronic ballast for two-stage HID lamps. The first stage is the power factor correction (PFC) stage, and the second is a single full-bridge (FB) inverter with LC filter. The latter stage performs function of a resonant circuit for lamp ignition and a current controlled low frequency square wave inverter for normal operation. Ignition is achieved at the resonant frequency of the LC filter when the FB converter is working as a resonant inverter. After ignition the converter operates as a LFSW inverter by controlling the FB to act alternately as a Buck converter supplying positive or negative current. While ignition occurs at the LC filter resonance (f0=25kHz), the Buck converter switching frequency (fsw=200kHz) is selected significantly higher to attenuate high frequency harmonics and avoid exciting acoustic resonance. Lamp stability is achieved by controlling the inductor current of the LC filter, and power mode control is achieved adjusting average current supplied by the PFC stage. The microcontroller selects the different operation modes of the FB converter according to the lamp requirements.

536    C. Lopez, J. Doval, M. Pereira, S. Perez, J. Dios, O. Lopez, "DMX512 Controller for High Brightness RGB LED Matrix ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3025 - 3029 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: DMX512 is the standard protocol used by lighting equipment in theatrical and entertainment data distribution systems. This paper describes a complete hardware and software solution for driving a high brightness 70 pixel RGB LED matrix from a computer and synchronized with environmental music, in addition to multiple running modes and possibilities achieved. Further possibilities of the developed device running as universal automation controller, are also mentioned.

537    E.M. Sa, F.L.M. Antunes, A.J. Perin, "Junction Temperature Estimation for High Power Light-Emitting Diodes ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3030 - 3035 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The understanding of the thermal properties of a high power LEDs is essential in order to achieve the highest optical performance of the device without sacrificing its reliability. In addition to that, the good thermal management is also a key factor to avoid thermal induced variation of the photometric / colorimetric properties of power LEDs, such as variation of relative light output or the spectrum. This paper proposes a methodology to estimate junction temperature of high power LEDs. This method allows discarding the influence of the intrinsic series resistance of the LED electric model in 1-V curve, avoiding, as a consequence measurement errors.

538    J. Garcia, J.M. Ramos, D.G. Lamar, M.A. Dalla-Costa, J. Cardesin, "Evaluation of a Synchronous Flyback Driving Parallelized High Efficiency LEDs ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3036 - 3040 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, parallel connection of high efficiency LEDs for lighting applications is studied. Unlike series connection, parallel connection of LEDs allows the operation of these devices at different current levels. Among other features, this allows the operation of the remaining LEDs if one of them fails. The main drawback of parallel connection is, as is very well known, current equalization and stable operation, due to the V vs. I characteristic of the LED. An active equalization and current limitation with MOSFETs is studied and implemented, thus obtaining a high current-low voltage power load. To supply this load, a 16 W synchronous flyback is used, in order to supply 4 high efficiency LEDs. The overall prototype design and construction is discussed, and electrical and light measurements are presented.

539    M.S. Perdigao, E.S. Saraiva, J.M. Alonso, M.A. Dalla Costa, "Comparative Analysis and Experiments of Resonant Tanks for Magnetically-Controlled Electronic Ballasts ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3041 - 3046 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a comparative analysis and experiments of resonant tanks for magnetically-controlled electronic ballasts, focusing on their behavior and performance when driving hot cathode fluorescent lamps. Four different resonant tanks are analyzed: LC, LCC, capacitive impedance inverter, and CLL. The analysis is performed using a 36 W fluorescent lamp, which has been previously tested and modeled experimentally. The lamp model is used to derive the dimming characteristics of the different resonant tanks when using the resonant inductance as control parameter. Analysis and experiments showed that instabilities appear when the lamp power is decreased below a minimum value, what effectively limits the dimming range of the ballast. Nevertheless, the proposed control method can be used to control lamp power in an adequate range provided that the resonant tank should be selected and designed properly.

540    M.A.D. Costa, J.M. Alonso, T.B. Marchesan, R.N. do Prado, "Analysis and Design of the Integrated Zeta - Flyback Converter as a High-Power-Factor Electronic Ballast for HID Lamps ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3047 - 3052 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a Metal Halide lamp electronic ballast based on the integration of Zeta and Flyback converters working in discontinuous conduction mode, in order to provide the ballast power factor correction and to stabilize the lamp current, respectively. The proposed integration besides to reduce the number of ballast components, presents no additional current stress in the shared switch. The lamp is supplied with a low frequency square waveform to avoid the acoustic resonance phenomenon. The proposed topology has been implemented and validated by experimental results.

541    A. Torres, J. Garcia, M.R. Secades, A.J. Calleja, J. Ribas, "Advancing Towards Digital Control for Low Cost High Power LED Drivers ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3053 - 3056 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes a complete design and implementation of a low cost digital controller for a high power LED driver. The main advantages of high efficiency LEDs are their good luminosity, efficiency and long life. Due to these improved behaviour, the number of LED-based applications is increasing. Nowadays, the cost of digital processors is continuously decreasing, and the trend is that still lower costs will be achieved in the future. In addition, digital processors offer extra features, e.g. communication protocols, software protections, and so on. Therefore, this study has an increasing practical interest. Design guidelines for a LED based light supply with digital control are proposed A prototype has been built and tested, and results are shown to validate the design approach.

542    J. Ribas, J. Cardesin, M. Dalla-Costa, J.M. Alonso, A.J. Calleja, "Arc Stabilization in Metal Halide Lamps using a Post-Regulator Working at the Zero-Duty-Cycle Boundary ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3057 - 3061 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The most commonly used power topology to drive metal halide lamps is based in three cascaded stages. The first stage is used for power factor correction, the second stage is used to stabilize the discharge and the last stage is used to turn the DC output of the previous stage to a low frequency AC square waveform suitable to supply the lamp. The dynamic impedance of the lamp does not allow using the power factor correction stage to stabilize the discharge. This is due to the fact that voltage in the bulk capacitor can not be changed fast enough to stabilize the lamp current. In this paper, a boost-type post-regulator working at the zero-duty-cycle limit is proposed to stabilize the discharge. This way, a non-linear post-regulator with very high efficiency is obtained. A simplified procedure to design the regulator is also presented in this paper. A laboratory prototype has been built to verify the proposed procedure.

543    A. del Rio Vazquez, J. Doval-Gandoy, S. Perez Perez, J. Dios Vidal, "Characterization of a Street Lighting Power Line when Used as a Communications Channel in the 115 kHz Band ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3062 - 3065 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Power line communications have been applied to the control of home appliances for the last decades, but it has been only recently when they have been used for the control of street lighting. As a consequence, the behaviour of the street lighting wiring as a channel for transmission of electrical signals has not been sufficiently studied. This paper shows the results of a set of tests carried out on a street lighting line, in the 115 kHz band, intended to measure some electrical parameters such as line impedance and signal attenuation. The results show a big dependency between the receiver impedance and attenuation, for a given line impedance. Using this information, a simulator has been developed to determine the attenuation curve and therefore the maximum range obtainable for a specific wiring. This simulator also helps to determine the optimal value for the impedance of the receivers.

544    F.S. Dos Reis, J.C.M. Lima, R. Tonkoski, R.R.N. Souza, J.V. Ale, F.P. Pellissari, F.A.L. Ferreira, A.B. Kruse, "A Low Voltage Electronic Ballast Designed For Hybrid Wind-Solar Power Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3062 - 3065 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes the development of an illumination system for open and/or isolated areas like gardens, sidewalks, outdoor lighting for residences and rural areas, demonstration plants on Universities, et cetera. The proposed system is based on a 70 W electronic ballast (EB) for high- pressure sodium (HPS) lamps designed to operate from a low voltage automotive lead-acid battery charged by a hybrid wind- solar power system. A new design criteria for a push-pull EB based on the rated current RMS of the lamp is presented. The paper also includes technical issues faced in building the prototype such as transformer losses generated by skin effect, transformer winding isolation and the effect of high MOSFET drain source current.

545    T. Shimono, S. Katsura, R. Kubo, K. Ohnishi, "Multilateral Motion Control with Transmission Ratio based on Haptic Database ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3072 - 3077 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: For realization of haptic skill education systems, it is necessary to transmit haptic information to several people. Thus, multilateral control based on bilateral control is suitable for skill education systems. However, it is important for application of multilateral control to skill education based on haptic information that the influences from the operators are variable according to the trainee's skill acquisition level. Thus, this paper proposes multilateral control with haptic transmission ratio. Then, five types of multilateral control are realized by designing the transmission ratio. Additionally, in this paper, multilateral control with transmission ratio based on haptic database is proposed as well. Finally, the experimental results show the viability of the proposed methods.

546    T. Miyazaki, K. Ohishi, I. Shibutani, D. Koide, H. Tokumaru, "High Precision Tracking Servo System for Next Generation Optical Disc System on condition of Rotational Speed 8000 rpm ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3078 - 3083 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In next generation optical disc system, the disc rotation speed becomes nearly equal to 10000[rpm]. Therefore, the tracking servo system for next generation optical disc system must have the high precision performance and the wide bandwidth. However, since the optical disc systems have a radial run-out, its phenomenon becomes the periodic disturbance whose bandwidth depends on the disc rotational speed. Hence, the tracking servo system of the next generation optical disc system should have the robust and high precision control against the high speed periodic disturbance whose rotational speed is nearly equal to 10000[rpm]. This paper proposes a new structure of robust tracking servo system, which suppresses the high speed periodic disturbance whose rotational speed is nearly equal to 10000[rpm]. The experiment results point out that the proposed system well regulates the high precision tracking servo control on condition of the disc rotation speed 8000[rpm], which is equal to CD system of 40 X speed.

547    H. Tanaka, K. Ohnishi, H. Nishi, T. Kawai, Y. Morikawa, M. Kitajima, S. Ozawa, T. Furukawa, "Bilateral Control in Multi DOF Haptic Surgical Robotic System Utilizing FPGA ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3078 - 3083 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Minimally invasive surgery is an important issue from the point of view of patients' quality of life (QoL). An endoscopic surgery is one of the minimally invasive surgeries. With the endoscopic surgery, pain could be less. This operation, however, has difficulty, and surgeons have to be well trained. To solve this problem, an endoscopic surgery system based on haptic teleoperation was proposed. The characteristic of the system is position and force information is transmitted bilaterally between master and slave robots. This means that a teleoperation with haptic information can be achieved, and surgeons can perform a telesurgery safely and smoothly. The system, however, does not have enough degrees of freedom for an actual operation. In this paper, a multi degrees of freedom endoscopic robotic system is proposed. This system has 6 degrees of freedom on each master and slave robot. A haptic control system implemented in the proposed system is based on acceleration control. Due to control in acceleration dimension, robust and ideal position and force control are able to be attained simultaneously. The control system requires a short sampling period for attainment of wide bandwidth to transmit keen force sensation. To ensure the short sampling period in a multi degrees of freedom system, this paper proposes the multi degrees of freedom tele-robotic system utilizing FPGA as a controller. Finally the validity of the proposed system is shown by experimental results.

548    K. Seki, M. Iwasaki, M. Kawafuku, H. Hirai, K. Kishida, "Controller Design of Hybrid Experimental System for Seismic Tests ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3090 - 3095 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Hybrid experimental system is one of powerful tools to perform various seismic tests for unknown and/or huge structures, where an actuator-excited experimental vibratory system and a computational response analysis are online combined and are simultaneously conducted. This paper presents a control methodology for high performance hybrid experimental systems. A 2-degrees-of-freedom compensator is applied from the view point of control techniques, where a FB compensator is designed according to the system stabilization analysis and a FF compensator is designed to achieve the desired servo characteristics. In the FF compensator design, an iterative learning control system is especially adopted to eliminate the time delay in actuator responses. The proposed compensation algorithm has been verified using an actual hybrid experimental set up with 2-mass structure.

549    N. Hirose, M. Iwasaki, M. Kawafuku, H. Hirai, "Improvement of Computational Load in Initial Value Compensation with Additional Input ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3096 - 3101 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a practical implementation for an initial value compensation (IVC) approach using additional input. The authors have already proposed the IVC approach to suppress residual vibrations at iterative positioning operations. The approach, however, has an essential subject that more state variables to be compensated require more complicated computation. In the paper, the improvement of computational complexity in the IVC approach is proposed, where the compensation calculation can be simplified by giving alternative inputs for initial values. The effectiveness of the proposed compensation has been verified by numerical simulations and experiments using prototype.

550    R. Antonello, R. Oboe, R.A. de Callafon, "An Identification Experiment for Simultaneous Estimation of Low-Order Actuator and Windage Models in a Hard Disk Drive ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3102 - 3107 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper describes an identification experiment designed in order to simultaneous estimate low-order parametric models for the servo actuator and windage disturbance dynamics of hard disk drives. The challenging identification issues imposed by the experiment, namely the closed loop operating conditions and the low-complexity requirements about the estimated models, are overcome by using an identification method that has been recently developed by one of the authors and called "extended two-stage method". The experiment is carried out on a commercial 3.5 in, 7200 rpm hard disk drive operating in standard track following mode and with his own cover, so that realistic working conditions for both the servo actuator and the internal airflow pattern inducing windage are reproduced. Low order, control relevant actuator and windage models are estimated using the proposed identification method. The effectiveness of the method is assessed by comparing its results with those obtained using standard parametric and non-parametric identification methods.

551    T. Tsuji, H. Kobayashi, "Robust Acceleration Control Based on Acceleration Measurement Using Optical Encoder ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3108 - 3113 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to realize robust acceleration control using optical encoders. A quantization error of an optical encoder limits performance of the acceleration control. Hence, the study extends the premise of the S method, a high performance velocity measurement method, to acceleration measurement. The proposed method was shown to considerably improve the accuracy of acceleration measurements. High performance of acceleration control is realized due to the accurate measurement. Experimental results verify the validity of the proposed method.

552    Sehoon Oh, Y. Hori, "Parameter Optimization for NC Machine Tool Based on Golden Section Search Driven PSO ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3114 - 3119 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: We have proposed a modified PSO; GPSO (golden-section-search driven particle swarm optimization) which updates only one particle in a generation based on a strategy: golden section search and steepest descent method. It was proved to be effect in various optimization problem. In this paper, first, this GPSO is revised to make clear its effectiveness. Then, the GPSO is utilized to optimize control parameters in NC machine tools. Parameters which are said to be difficult to optimize in a NC machine tool, is chosen and the roles of those parameters arWe have proposed a modified PSO[1]; GPSO (golden-section-search driven particle swarm optimization) which updates only one particle in a generation based on a strategy: golden section search and steepest descent method. It was proved to be effect in various optimization problem. In this paper, first, this GPSO is revised to make clear its effectiveness. Then, the GPSO is utilized to optimize control parameters in NC machine tools. Parameters which are said to be difficult to optimize in a NC machine tool, is chosen and the roles of those parameters are scrutinized. Based on those scrutiny, fitness are defined for parameters. In order to verify optimization performance of the algorithms (GA, PSO, GPSO), a hardware-in-the-loop system with a NC machine tool is set up and on-line optimization experiments are conducted using the system. In experiments, the GPSO shows better optimization performance.e scrutinized. Based on those scrutiny, fitness are defined for parameters. In order to verify optimization performance of the algorithms (GA, PSO, GPSO), a hardware-in-the-loop system with a NC machine tool is set up and on-line optimization experiments are conducted using the system. In experiments, the GPSO shows better optimization performance.

553    S. Katsura, T. Suzuyama, K. Ohishi, "Bilateral Teleoperation with Different Configurations using Interaction Mode Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3120 - 3125 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper realizes a bilateral teleoperation system considering different configurations. The haptic devices used in this paper are based on three master systems and one slave system. Each master system has one degree of freedom (DOF); and the slave system has three DOF. The conventional coordinate transformation with respect to the Cartesian coordinate system is not always suitable for dexterous tasks including grasping motion. The paper introduces a bilateral teleoperation with spatial mode transformation, which is corresponding to human's task motions. The spatial modes are abstracted by using an interaction mode control. The interaction mode control decomposes the bilateral teleoperation system into three decoupled modes; "translational", "rotating", and "grasping" motions. Thus the problems for motion integration of bilateral teleoperation system with different configurations are solved to design each bilateral controller with respect to the spatial mode coordinate system. Furthermore, the proposed system is designed based on acceleration control to realize both the force servoing and the position regulator for the "law of action and reaction" in remote environment simultaneously. As a result, a complicated task for the slave system is easily realized by three master systems with vivid force feedback. The experimental results show viability of the proposed method.

554    O. Penaloza-Mejia, J. Alvarez-Gallegos, L.A. Marquez-Martinez, "Bilateral telecontrol of underactuated mechanical systems over constant time-delay channels ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3126 - 3131 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of time-delay telecontrol of a class of underactuated mechanical systems (UMS) in a master-slave configuration. This problem has been solved by designing some discontinuous causal compensators which have proved by formal stability analysis to guarantee position coordination of the mechanisms and to allow good force reflection to the master side, satisfying in this way classical control objectives in the telecontrol of systems. Moreover, the whole closed-loop system behaves stable and results robust to parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. The performance of the proposed control scheme is visualized through simulations.

555    K. Natori, R. Oboe, K. Ohnishi, "Analysis and Design of Time Delayed Control Systems with Communication Disturbance Observer ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3132 - 3137 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents stability analysis and a novel design method of time delayed control systems. The time delayed control systems are constructed based on a time delay compensation method using the concept of network disturbance and communication disturbance observer. At first, the effect of time delay in control systems is described briefly and the effectiveness of the time delay compensation method is presented. Then analysis about the effects of parameters in control systems on stability of the time delayed control systems is analyzed. The main part of this paper is proposal of a novel design method of time delayed control systems according to the analytical results. Simulation results verify the validity of analytical results and proposed design method. The results also demonstrate the effectiveness of the time delay compensation method using the concept of network disturbance and communication disturbance observer.

556    G. Rosati, A. Rossi, G. Boschetti, A. Trevisani, "First experimental results of an integrated robotic system for haptic teleoperation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3138 - 3143 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a haptic teletobotic system designed to assist an operator during the execution of a multi- degrees of freedom teleoperation task. The system comprises a haptic master, a 3D visual feedback device, a slave robot, and a haptic server through which all the modules communicate. The use of the haptic server allows decoupling direct communication among all the devices involved in teleoperation and gives the possibility of introducing virtual forces at the master side ensuring a considerable enhancement of operators' performances. Experimental results from some first teleoperation tests are presented and discussed to validate the proposed telerobotic system architecture.

557    A. Capri, T. Slama, G. Charron, A. Fonte, N. Vincent, P. Vieyres, "A mechatronic tele-operated system for echography using visual navigation assistance and a model based bilateral predictive control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3144 - 3149 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a tele-operated medical robotic system to perform tele-echography at a distance for the benefit of sites with reduced medical facilities. When performing the tele-echography act, medical experts require feedback information from the remote slave side. In this case, both image and force information is needed to render the distant environment of the robot. To efficiently control the remote system, the medical specialist analyses in almost real time ultrasound image extracted characteristics using fuzzy and fractal approaches; with the benefit of force feedback and appropriate predictive control proposed here to negotiate intrinsic communication time delays, the expert is able to accurately position the distant end-effector holding a real ultrasound probe to the desired searched organ for a quality ultrasound slice.

558    T. Slama, N. De Rossi, A. Trevisani, D. Aubry, R. Oboe, "Stability experiments of a scaled bilateral teleoperation system over Internet using a model predictive controller ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3150 - 3156 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a control strategy based on a extension of the generalized predictive controller (GPC), called bilateral GPC, for scaled teleoperation systems in the presence of communication delays, packet losses and slave force feedback. The basic idea behind this approach is to take into account the case where the reference trajectory is not a priori known in a generalized predictive controller (GPC). This difficulty is due to the slave force feedback which alters the master reference trajectory. Experimental results show the overall system stability with the proposed BGPC approach using a frequency-domain technique. Several configurations of scaling factors have been used; it is shown that the stability conditions strongly depends of the external environment. Another experimental result verify the robust performances of the approach in terms of tracking behavior with both strongly variations of time-delays and packet losses in the communication network. For the experimentations, the communication network is Internet using UDP protocol while the slave robot is a 6-DOF anthropomorphic robot with a force sensor. The presented performance results have been obtained between two remote sites of a distance ap 1000 km.

559    S. Karimi, P. Poure, S. Saadate, E. Gholipour, "Current sensors and power switches fault detection and compensation for shunt active power filters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3157 - 3161 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents current sensors and power switches fault detection and compensation for shunt active power filters. Active filter topology is based on a redundant fault tolerant four-leg structure. Power switches fault detection is based on a new fast and reliable detection method. Current sensors fault is achieved by a direct current estimator associated with a logical decision. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of detection, isolation and reconfiguration performances in fault cases of current sensors or switches.

560    P. Correa, J. Rodriguez, "Control Strategy Reconfiguration for a Multilevel Inverter Operating with Bypassed Cells ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3162 - 3167 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper analyzes the fault-tolerant operation of a Series Connected H-Bridge inverter topology (SCHB) supplying an induction machine. The standard approach considers a bypass of the faulty cells by means of a contactor and it carries out a reconfiguration of the modulator in order to generate balanced phase output voltages. The price that must be paid for this emergency operating mode is a reduction of the maximum voltage that the inverter can supply to the machine., therefore the limits for the torque and flux controllers must be also changed. In this work a standard stator flux oriented control strategy is modified to permit the operation the machine according to the new voltage limit. Experimental results are discussed, which validate the ideas presented in this work.

561    Xiaoyan Huang, K. Bradley, A. Goodman, C. Gerada, P. Wheeler, J. Clare, C. Whitley, "Fault- Tolerance Analysis of Multi-Phase Single Sided Matrix Converter for Brushless DC Drives ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3168 - 3173 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper introduces the single sided matrix converter (SSMC) as a reliable power electronic drive for brushless dc motors used in aerospace applications. The multi-phase SSMC provides high reliability and fault tolerance with the penalty of more power devices. Dynamic Matlab simulations using a full model of the converter, machine and switching control algorithm are performed to investigate the fault tolerance of the multi-phase topologies.

562    P. Poure, P. Weber, D. Theilliol, S. Saadate, "Fault-tolerant Power Electronic Converters: Reliability Analysis of Active Power Filter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3174 - 3179 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The aim of fault tolerant control (FTC) is to preserve the ability of the system to reach performances as close as possible to those which were initially assigned to it. The main goal of this paper is to develop a FTC system, based on reliability analysis dedicated to an active power filter. Once a fault has been detected and isolated, all possible structures of the system that preserve pre-specified performance are analyzed and the highest reliability indicate the optimal structure.

563    S. Ceballos, J. Pou, E. Robles, J. Zaragoza, J.L. Martin, "Three-Leg Fault-Tolerant Neutral-Point-Clamped Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3180 - 3185 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a study of the fault tolerance capacity of a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) converter. Furthermore, two possible solutions are presented. In these solutions, adding a reduced number of additional components, the behavior of the converter when a switch fails improves considerably. Simulations results that prove the correct operation of the proposed topologies are shown.

564    S. Ceballos, J. Pou, J. Zaragoza, E. Robles, J.L. Villate, J.L. Martin, "Soft-Switching Topology for a Fault-Tolerant Neutral-Point-Clamped Converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3186 - 3191 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents a new three-level topology based on the neutral-point-clamped converter. The new topology includes a fourth leg that provides fault tolerance to the converter. Furthermore, during normal operation mode, this leg is able to provide a stiff neutral voltage. Consequently, the low- frequency voltage oscillations that appear in the neutral point of the standard three-level topology for some operation conditions no longer exist. As a result, the modulation strategy of the three main legs of the converter does not have to take care of voltage balance, and it can be design to improve the efficiency of the converter. On the other hand, the addition of a fourth leg to the converter produces additional losses. However, in order to eliminate switching losses of this leg, all the power devices commutate under zero-current or zero-voltage transitions. Some simulation results are presented to show viability of this approach under both, normal operation mode and fault event.

565    Tao Zhou, B. Francois, M. el hadi Lebbal, S. Lecoeuche, "Modeling and Control Design of Hydrogen Production Process by Using a Causal Ordering Graph for Wind Energy Conversion System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3192 - 3197 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper gives a control oriented modeling of an electrolyzer, as well as the ancillary system for the hydrogen production process, by using causal ordering graph. The control system has also been proposed to manage the power flow and hydrogen flow. The simulation results have highlighted the variation domains and dynamics of physical quantities.

566    E. Travaini, A. Valdata, M. Sacco, A. Avai, P. Pedrazzoli, "A Simulation Tool for Evolvable Assembly System ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3198 - 3202 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Product innovation and worldwide market competition are pushing research to face with new production paradigms. One of the most interesting is the approach suggested by the evolvable system concept. This approach is focused on modularization, standardization, fast configuration and programming of the systems. An important distinction between past flexible system and evolvable system is in tailoring functionality and characteristics onto the exact product and process requirements, but to be considered evolvable such a system should be self-reacting and self-adapting to all significant changes. A very important role is played by the design and configuration tools that support development and definition of an evolvable system. To assess performances and correctness immediately after the design phase the simulation tools are a fundamental key to verify the respect and satisfaction of requirements. In this work we try to trace an overview of the simulation tool role and an example helps to present approach and potentiality.

567    G. Putnik, C. Cardeira, P. Leitao, F. Restivo, J.P. Santos, A. Sluga, P. Butala, "Towards Ubiquitous Production Systems and Enterprises ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3203 - 3208 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In the evolvable manufacturing world we are moving towards systems made of small intelligent interacting units which make their own decisions independently from a centralized decision maker. System intelligence will be the collective intelligence resulting from a large number of individual decision, each one based on its local knowledge. in our paper we present the ubiquitous production systems and enterprises (UPSE) whose foundations can be found in two main scientific areas/disciplines, (1) ubiquitous computing systems and (2) virtual and networked enterprises and organizations. We present the concept and the underlying formal model as well as our positioning in the state of the art of similar concepts. Finally we present some ongoing experiments that will work as a testbed for the UPSE concept.

568    C. Christo, C. Cardeira, "Trends in Intelligent Manufacturing Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3209 - 3214 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A lot of changes in the manufacturing sector will occur in the future and it is important to transform the actual production systems to evolvable production systems. Fractal, bionic and holonic manufacturing systems are three concepts that have been proposed due their characteristics of flexibility and intelligence. This generation of manufacturing systems is known as intelligent manufacturing systems (IMS). Agent-based software is a technology that can make actions of control or supervision, endowing mechatronics devices with some intelligence. The use of multi-agent based software in operation and control of distributed systems is offering new distributed intelligent control functions (cooperation, planning, scheduling) over wired or wireless networked systems. In this paper, underlying principles of the construction of an IMS are concisely presented.

569    C. Christo, C. Cardeira, "Plug-and-Play Autonomous Mobile Robot (P&PAMR) ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3215 - 3220 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In a few years, Autonomous Mobile Robots (AMR) will proliferate and become an important part of our daily lives. In this paper, we proposed a Plug-and-Play Autonomous Mobile Robot (P&PAMR) platform for the integration, discovery and invocation of mobile robots services. With the P&PAMR architecture, all AMR functionalities are exposed as Web Services that can be discovered in a service repository. A mediator service called Transport Broker can be used to act among the service requesters and the service providers guaranteeing the quality of the services.

570    J. Barata, L. Ribeiro, M. Onori, "Diagnosis on Evolvable Production Systems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3221 - 3226 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Evolvable production systems (EPS) lies at the leading edge of the new paradigms currently emerging as a response to the continuously changing socio-economic challenges that modern enterprises have to deal with. Maximizing the profit under adverse market conditions is also a matter of cost cut and EPS targets this through an efficient diagnosis mechanism embedded in future production systems. Evolvable production systems goes beyond other manufacturing paradigms, and offers intelligent devices with biologically inspired behaviours, heavily dependent on self-diagnosis, self healing and other autonomous actions to ensure the systems' proper functioning and a timely response and recover from unpredictable situations.

571    R. Frei, J. Barata, M. Onori, "Evolvable Production Systems Context and Implications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3233 - 3238 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Agility, reactivity and sustainability are key to cope with today's dynamic markets, as has been broadly recognized. Depending on the source, manufacturing systems are required to be modular, hierarchical or heterarchical, distributed, flexible or reconfigurable; companies can be represented using the bionic, fractal and holonic concepts. Evolvable production systems fulfill the majority of the requirements elaborated by the agile and reconfigurable approaches and take nature as a metaphor. Modularity of fine granularity and local intelligence allow truly process-specific system design. EPS provide mechanisms for fast reconfiguration at mechanical as well as control level. They apply the multi-agent paradigm, which is intrinsically suited for distributed systems. Inspired by biology, artificial intelligence and complexity theory, EPS open the doors for the production systems of the future: the aim is to implement advanced concepts such as self- organization, self-diagnose and self-healing. Coping with emergent behavior will be fundamental, and taking profit of emergent capabilities will open considerable potential for new solutions.

572    S. Gassmann, L. Pagel, "Flow injection analysis realized using PCBs ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3239 - 3243 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a flow-Injection-analysis (FIA) is described which is fully realized using printed circuit boards (PCB). The possibilities and advantages of the fluidic PCB technology are demonstrated. The developed FIA is optimized for the detection of Fe3+. A reproducibility of 5% is achieved.

573    F.A. Perdigones, A. Luque, A.M. Ganan-Calvo, J.M. Quero, "Stability Analysis and Fabrication Process of a Multiple Flow Focusing Microdevice Built in SU-8 ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3244 - 3249 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, the design and fabrication process of a three-dimensional and multiple flow focusing device, intended for low-cost mass production of liquid-liquid emulsions, are reported. The material used to build the device is the SU-8 epoxy photoresist because of its adequate properties for flow focusing technology. At first, the behavior of the device is unstable because of interaction between neighboring devices, which produces a undesirable operation. This behavior is simulated and analyzed, and a solution to solve this instability is chosen from these simulations. From the simulations, a graphical representation of stable and unstable behaviors as a function of flow rates of both fluids is obtained. Finally, the new design that solves the instabilities is simulated and its fabrication process is reported. A stable, multiple three-dimensional flow focusing device is achieved with the chosen solution.

574    J.E. Rogers, R. Ramadoss, P.M. Ozmun, R.N. Dean, "MEMS Accelerometer Fabricated Using Printed Circuit Processing Techniques ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3250 - 3254 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper reports a MEMS capacitive-type accelerometer fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques. A Kapton polymide film is used as the structural layer for fabricating the MEMS accelerometer. The accelerometer proof mass along with four suspension beams are defined in the Kapton polyimide film. The proof mass is suspended above a Teflon substrate using a spacer. The deflection of the proof mass is detected using a pair of capacitive sensing electrodes. The top electrode of the accelerometer is defined on the top surface of the Kapton film. The bottom electrode is defined in the metallization on the Teflon substrate. The initial gap height between the bottom electrode and the Kapton film is approximately 40 mum. For an applied external acceleration/deceleration (normal to the proof mass), the proof mass deflects towards or away from the fixed bottom electrode due to inertial force. This deflection causes either a decrease or increase in the air gap height thereby either increasing or decreasing the capacitance between the top and the bottom electrodes. An example PCB MEMS accelerometer with a square proof mass of membrane area 6.4 mm times 6.4 mm is reported. The measured resonant frequency of 375 Hz and the Q-factor in air is 1.5.

575    M. Maddela, R. Ramadoss, R. Lempkowski, "PCB MEMS-Based Tunable Coplanar Patch Antenna ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3255 - 3260 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a tunable coplanar rectangular patch antenna (CPA) designed using a MEMS varactor is reported. The MEMS varactor is monolithically integrated with the antenna on duroid substrate using printed circuit processing techniques. Specifically, the MEMS varactor located at one of the radiating edges capacitively loads the CPA. The resonant frequency of the antenna is tuned electrostatically by applying a DC bias voltage between the MEMS varactor and the actuation pad on the antenna. The movable MEMS varactor membrane deflects downward towards the actuation pad due to electrostatic force of attraction caused by the applied DC bias voltage. The deflection of the varactor membrane decreases the air gap thereby increasing the loading capacitance. The increase in the loading capacitance results in a downward shift in the resonant frequency of the CPA. The CPA is center fed at the second radiating edge using a 50 Omega CPW feed line. The CPA operates in the frequency range from 5.185 to 5.545 GHz corresponding to the down and up states of the varactor. The tunable frequency range is about 360 MHz and the return loss is better than 40 dB in the entire tuning range. In this tuning range, the required DC voltage is in the range of 0-116 V.

576    C. Aracil, J. Garcia, J.M. Quero, "Discrete Fluid Samples Microextractor ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3261 - 3266 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A discrete fluid samples microextractor is presented in this paper. The main advantage of this device is that the extraction is controlled, not only in time but also in fluid volume. A one shot valve is in charge of extracting a certain quantity of fluid in the fixed moment. It is designed to be integrated in array, so the final design is composed by several modules which are activated sequentially to extract fluid samples throughout the time. It is manufactured in polymer to reduce its cost Experimental results that prove feasibility of design are commented.

577    R.G. Bolea, A. Luque, J.M. Quero, "Capacitive Pressure Sensor and Characterization as RF MEMS Device ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3267 - 3272 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a MEMS capacitive pressure sensor, fabricated using a novel manufacturing process without the need of wafer bonding, is presented. The sensor is composed of a polysilicon membrane that deflects due to pressure difference applied over it. Two operation regions are observed: a non-linear sensitivity region at low pressure (0-30 kPa) and a linear one (30-200 kPa) in touch mode. A capacitance-to-frequency conversion circuitry is designed and validated to provide a sensitive sensing module. Experimental results show a sensitivity of 28.7 fF/kPa and of 13.93 Hz/kPa in the non-linear region. Finally, the microsensor is characterized as a RF MEMS tunable capacitor, in order to be used in radiofrequency applications, and parameters such as tuning ratio and quality factor are obtained. Among the most significant features of this device are versatility, high reliability, integrability, and high sensitivity.

578    M. Nowottnick, R. Diehm, "Soldering Technology for 3D PCB Assemblies with Microwave Heating ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3273 - 3277 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper is showing results from a joint research project "MICROFLOW", funded by the German Department for Education and Research (BMBF). Usual simultaneous reflow soldering processes like convection soldering or vapor phase soldering were optimized in the past for a minimum of temperature difference between small and large or heavy components on electronic assemblies. Especially the increasing demands for 3D PCB-modules, polymer electronics or electrical- optical assemblies require are further development of soldering processes. Such a process should allow a direct heating of the solder joints up to soldering temperature also for hidden structures and have to save sensitive components at the same time. Today this is possible only by application of sequential working selective soldering processes like hot bar soldering or laser soldering. But for a cost effective industrial application it is necessary to realize a selective and as well simultaneous soldering process, which is indeed not available at present.

579    D. Fries, S. Ivanov, H. Broadbent, R. Willoughby, E. Sheehan, "Micro Ion-Optical Systems Technology [MIST] for Mass Spectrometry Using PCBMEMS ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3278 - 3281 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Within the traditional mass spec instrumentation field there is ongoing interest in new atmospheric ion source designs for more effective and versatile ion generation. The objective of the present study is to apply organic MEMS microfabrication technologies to generation of atmospheric pressure ion optical devices. We have devised novel materials, processes, and designs for micro ion optical systems for control of ions within sources, and across apertures and conductance arrays. PCBMEMS using LCP have been used in the construction of the devices. Vacuum compatibility of the polymeric material has been found to be similar to glass in performance characteristics. Processes for shaping the polymer dielectric for fluid flow control and the metallization for electrical field control have been devised. Different geometries, both tubular and planar, combined with electrical field shaping circuitry and fluidic flow control networks are part of the effort.

580    H.A. Broadbent, S.Z. Ivanov, D.P. Fries, "PCB-MEMS Environmental Sensors in the Field ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3282 - 3286 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Sensor networks for in-water measurements using Organic MEMS are progressing in our research effort. PCBMEMS enabled systems, primarily in Liquid Crystal Polymer material (LCP) have emerged from the laboratory and are operational in the field. The latest progress in sensor development has yielded PCBMEMS sensors operating in the field for extended periods. In addition, we have developed the multisensor system that measures conductivity, temperature, and pressure, and combined it with a 3D system-in-package wireless module based on the 802.11b protocol to create a salinity network node and an environmental network system. The power consumption, reliability and fouling of the fieldable sensors have been evaluated. Our results indicate that biofouling has become the limiting factor for sustained performance of the multisensor system within the environment.

581    F. Carreira, T. Canas, Joao Sousa, C. Cardeira, "A Fuzzy Controller for a Health Services Mobile Robot ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3287 - 3292 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present the devolvement of a fuzzy control applied for a hospitals and health care centres mobile concept robot, the i-MERC. The robot and fuzzy controller models are presented as well as simulation results. The simulation application that was developed included the possibility to change de bending radius of the curves. To analyze the performance of the robot in following curves posing different dynamic demands simulations were performed considering curves with an abrupt change of direction and with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 cm of radius. A virtual reality resource allows demonstrating the service concept with the purpose of searching stakeholders interested in the project.

582    Yang Shu, Hui Li, Limei Xu, Qian Wu, "A Rapid Development Method on Brushless DC motor Controller ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3293 - 3297 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A rapid development method on brushless DC motor (BLDCM) controller is proposed in this paper. It is founded upon a platform based on common actuated circuit and software MATLAB, which is called PACM for short Its hardware is a common actuated circuit founded on dSPACE. And its software is a type of model architecture which built by introducing modularized modeling tool MATLAB/Simulink, and is compatible with various controlling algorithms. According to the rapid development method, the necessary hardware design and controlling software codes can be gotten rapidly. Experiments validate the convenience and the efficiency when using this rapid development method to develop the algorithm for a certain treadmill controller. Compared with traditional ways, it shortens the development cycle remarkably and reduces the development cost.

583    B.M. Wilamowski, N.J. Cotton, O. Kaynak, G. Dundar, "Method of computing gradient vector and Jacobean matrix in arbitrarily connected neural networks ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3298 - 3303 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper shows that it fully connected neural networks are used then the same problem can be solved with less number of neurons and weights. Interestingly such networks are trained faster. The problem is that most of the neural networks terming algorithms are not suitable for such network. Presented algorithm and software allow training feedforwad neural networks with arbitrarily connected neurons in similar way as the SPICE program can analyze any circuit topology. When the second order algorithm is used (for which Jacobean must be calculated) solution is obtained about 100 times faster.

584    J. Hewlett, B. Wilamowski, G. Dundar, "Merge of Evolutionary Computation with Gradient Based Method for Optimization Problems ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3304 - 3309 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The paper describes an optimization method which combines advantages of both evolutionary computation and gradient based methods. The proposed method follows the general concept of evolutionary computation, but uses an approximated gradient for generating subsequent populations. The gradient is not explicitly computed, but is instead estimated using minimum solutions from neighboring populations. Experimental data shows that the proposed method is not only robust, but is also comparable to gradient methods with respect to speed of convergence.

585    E. Petri, S. Saponara, M. Tonarelli, I. Del Corona, L. Fanucci, P. Terreni, "Mitigating Radiation Effects on ICs at Device and Architectural Levels: the SpaceWire Router Case Study ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3310 - 3315 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The mitigation of radiation effects on integrated circuits is discussed in this paper with reference to the design of hardware macrocells for reliable high-speed networking based on the SpaceWire standard target applications include on-board distributed control systems for aerospace, military, avionics or automotive scenarios. Due to CMOS technology scaling, digital ICs are becoming more susceptible to radiation effects, both total ionization dose and single event effects. This traditional issue of space and military systems is becoming a concern also for terrestrial electronic systems such as commercial avionics, high-radiation industrial environments and safety-critical automotive control systems. To optimize the trade-off between increased radiation- robustness and extra IC costs in terms of area, power consumption and weight, we present several ad-hoc design solutions both at device and architectural levels. As a result a single-device SpaceWire Router with 8 links and data-rates up to 100 Mbits/s is achieved featuring a TID of 300 krad and immunity to upset up to a linear energy transfer threshold greater than 60 MeV mg/cm2.

586    O. Ruano, J.A. Maestro, P. Reyes, P. Reviriego, "A Simulation Platform for the Study of Soft Errors on Signal Processing Circuits through Software Fault Injection ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3316 - 3321 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, we present a simulation platform tailored for signal processing circuits that injects bit flips in order to model soft errors. The platform is based on the ESA Data Systems Division's SEE simulation tool upgraded with new functionalities. In order to show the effectiveness of the platform, a digital filter has been tested.

587    R. Velazco, F.J. Franco, "Single Event Effects on Digital Integrated Circuits: Origins and Mitigation Techniques ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3322 - 3327 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: New generation electronic devices have become more and more sensitive to the effects of the natural radiation coming from the surrounding environment. These radiation sources are cosmic rays and radioactive impurities, able to corrupt the content of memory cells or to induce transient pulses in combinational logic. The growing sensitivity seems to be related to two main factors: the lower and lower charge needed to define the logic levels in advanced devices and the increasing number of basic components inside the modern integrated circuits. In this paper, are described state-of-art techniques to mitigate these effects as well as typical tests to verify the radiation-tolerance of the devices and/or systems.

588    P. Reyes, P. Reviriego, J.A. Maestro, O. Ruano, "A New Protection Technique for Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters in the Presence of Soft Errors ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3328 - 3333 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Traditional techniques to protect digital circuits against soft errors normally result in a significant area and power overhead. Some of those techniques may also reduce the maximum frequency of operation of the circuit as they introduce additional delays in the critical paths. In this paper we propose a circuit specific technique to protect digital finite impulse response (FIR) filters from soft errors. The idea behind our approach is to use the knowledge of the structure of those filters to provide effective protection against soft errors with lower area and power overhead than that of traditional techniques, like triple modular redundancy (TMR) and error detection and correction (EDAC). The whole study will be focused on Space applications, since the problem of radiation is a key issue, using a soft error simulation platform implemented by the European Space Agency.

589    J. Napoles, H. Guzman, M. Aguirre, J.N. Tombs, F. Munoz, V. Baena, A. Torralba, L.G. Franquelo, "Radiation Environment Emulation for VLSI Designs: A Low Cost Platform based on Xilinx FPGA's ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3328 - 3333 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: As technology shrinks, critical industrial applications have to be designed with special care. VLSI circuits become more sensitive to ambient radiation: it affects to the internal structures, combinational or sequential elements. The effects, known as single event effects (SEEs), are modeled as spontaneous logical changes in a running netlist. They can be mitigated at netlist design level by means of inserting massive redundancy logic in the IC memory elements, as well as designing robust deadlock-free state machines. Current techniques for the analysis and verification of the protection logic for VLSI are inefficient and expensive, lacking either speed or analysis. This paper presents the FT- As technology shrinks, critical industrial applications have to be designed with special care. VLSI circuits become more sensitive to ambient radiation: it affects to the internal structures, combinational or sequential elements. The effects, known as single event effects (SEEs), are modeled as spontaneous logical changes in a running netlist. They can be mitigated at netlist design level by means of inserting massive redundancy logic in the IC memory elements, as well as designing robust deadlock-free state machines. Current techniques for the analysis and verification of the protection logic for VLSI are inefficient and expensive, lacking either speed or analysis. This paper presents the FT-UNSHADES system. This system is a low cost emulator focused on bit-flip insertion and SEE analysis at hardware speed, based on a Xilinx Virtex-II. Radiation tests are emulated in a highly controlled process, using a non-intrusive method. As a result the system can insert and analyse at least 80 K faults per hour in a system with 2 million test vectors.UNSHADES system. This system is a low cost emulator focused on bit-flip insertion and SEE analysis at hardware speed, based on a Xilinx Virtex-II. Radiation tests are emulated in a highly controlled process, using a non-intrusive method. As - a result the system can insert and analyse at least 80 K faults per hour in a system with 2 million test vectors.

590    M.G. Valderas, M.P. Garcia, R.F. Cardenal, C. Lopez Ongil, L. Entrena, "Advanced Simulation and Emulation Techniques for Fault Injection ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3339 - 3344 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The environment can produce transient faults in digital circuits, especially nowadays with the new technology development. Fault injection has been widely used to evaluate the hardness degree of circuits in which fault tolerance is a requirement, like aerospace or automotive applications. The magnitude of the fault effects evaluation problem is computationally unaffordable, if an exhaustive test must be performed on a circuit. Several solutions have been proposed to improve the performance of the process. Simulation based fault injection offers slower execution speed, but a great flexibility in the fault injection campaign. Emulation based solution are much faster, but not so flexible. In this paper, the fault injection problem is analysed from a performance point of view, and some optimized solutions are proposed.

591    L. Sterpone, M. Violante, "An Analysis of SEU Effects in Embedded Operating Systems for Real-Time Applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3345 - 3349 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Embedded operating systems are becoming widely used in electronic systems for fields ranging from the mobile phone to the industrial control mechanisms. The major advantages in using embedded operating systems include the capability of adapting the electronic functionalities to several kind of applications while respecting the real-time constraints. These characteristics make them attractive also for specific fields where the dependability is a major concern, such as automotive, avionic or space missions. When the dependability is considered embedded operating systems must guarantee their functionality under the presence of Single Event Upsets (SEUs) that may alter their modules. In this paper we proposed a novel methodology for the analysis and the classification of SEU's induced effects that may corrupt the functionality of an embedded operating system while executing a real-time application. The developed method is based on a fault injection engine that is able to inject and classify SEU within the internal registers and memory cells of an embedded operating systems running on a FPGA device. As case study we evaluated the muC-Linux operating system running on a Xilinx-based microprocessor core supported by a Virtex-II Pro SRAM-based FPGA. Experimental results are presented and commented.

592    R. Costa-Castello, R. Grino, R. Cardoner, E. Fossas, "High Performance Control of a Single-Phase Shunt Active Filter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3350 - 3355 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Shunt active power filters are devices connected in parallel with nonlinear and reactive loads which are in charge of compensating these characteristics in order to assure the quality of the distribution network. This work analyzes the dynamics of boost-converter used as an active filter and proposes a control system which guarantees closed-loop performance (power factor close to 1 and current harmonics compensation). Proposed controller is hierarchically decomposed in two control loops, one in charge of shaping the current and the other in charge of assuring the power balance. Differently from other works both control loops are analytically tuned. The work describes both the analytical development and the experimental results showing the good performance of the closed- loop system.

593    Xuefang Lin-Shi, F. Morel, B. Allard, D. Tournier, J.-M. Retif, Shuibao Guo, "A Digital-Controller Parameter-Tuning Approach, Application to a Switch-Mode Power Supply ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3356 - 3361 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Analogue control of monolithic DC/DC converters is technologically coming to a limit due to high switching frequency and a request for large regulation bandwidth. Digital control is now experimented for low-power low-voltage switch-mode power supply. Digital implementation of analogue solutions does not prove real performances. This paper compares a classical digital controller to a candidate alternative strategy. Sensitivity functions are used to compare controller performances. An off-line approach using fuzzy logic to quantify controller performances and a genetic algorithm to obtain an optimal controller is presented. A so-called RST algorithm optimized with this approach shows better performances.

594    F. Tahami, H.M. Molla Ahmadian, "Piecewise Affine Large Signal Modeling of PFC Rectifiers ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3362 - 3366 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: A problem associated with modeling and control of the power factor correction rectifiers is that the ac variations in duty cycle, as well as in the ac input voltage and current are not small, and hence the traditional small signal analysis is not justified. Nonetheless, the low-frequency components of the converter can be modeled via the circuit averaging technique, but the resulting equivalent circuits are, in general, time varying and highly nonlinear. Nonlinear stability analysis methods are not appropriate for analysis and control design of such complicated circuits. In this paper a piecewise affine approximation is introduced for modeling of switching circuits. This approach makes the new model very useful in large signal analysis of PFC rectifiers and design of controller.

595    C.-G. Constantinescu, C. Strimbu, M. Pearsica, L. Miron, "Power Consumption Determination With Implications in Designing the Single-Phase Transformers Working in ac-Switching Mode ," ISIE 2007, pp. 550 - 554 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The goal of this paper is to fix a formula for the transformer duty factor (the ratio between the input volt amps and the load active power), as a function of load parameters (phase-shift angle) and firing angles. Basically, it is a statistic study, its input data being a collection of interest quantities waveforms, which are a representative range of the transformer working conditions. Least squares method is funding the mathematical algorithms developed to find approximating functions of the issues discussed in the paper. The input data (waveforms) were collected for a single-phase transformer, respecting the hysteresis loop of its magnetization curve. It was switching both leading and capacitive loads, considering several load phase-shift and firing angles. The mathematical support was MathCAD PLUS 6.0.

596    H. Sira-Ramirez, M. Spinetti-Rivera, E. Fossas-Colet, "An algebraic parameter estimation approach to the adaptive observer-controller based regulation of the boost converter ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3367 - 3372 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this article, a new approach is proposed for the problem of output voltage reference trajectory tracking in a boost converter with unknown, piecewise constant, load resistance values, under the restriction of noisy output voltage measurements alone. We use a nonlinear algebraic parameter estimation approach for the fast computation of the actual value of the stepwise changing load. With this information, a reduced order nonlinear observer for the inductor current is updated as well as a static passive output feedback control law derived on the basis of the exact tracking error dynamics and Lyapunov stability considerations. The average nonlinear adaptive observer-controller scheme is implemented on the switch regulated converter using the averaging features of a Sigma - Delta modulator.

597    J. Quintero, A. Barrado, M. Sanz, C. Raga, A. Lazaro, "Bandwidth and Dynamic Response Decoupling in a Multi-phase VRM by applying Linear-Non-Linear Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3373 - 3378 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: The new generation of microprocessors has imposed more exigent requirements for the power supplies, usually known as Voltage Regulator Modules (VRM), since they have to operate at lower voltage and higher current with faster transient slew rates. At present, the solutions based on an appropriate controller design become more attractive to meet the new specifications. The linear-non-linear (LnL) control strategy allows reducing the switching frequency and the number of phases compared with using a classical linear control. In addition, a digital implementation of the control provides advantages compared to analog controllers, mainly, easy design of complex control and reconfigurability. In this paper, a digital implementation of the LnL control in a four phases VRM is developed. Due to digital implementation, a system control with a bandwidth of 20 kHz and a system control with a bandwidth of 40 Hz have been easily implemented. Experimental results show that the dynamic response of a four phases VRM with LnL control strategy and a bandwidth of 40 Hz is even faster than a four phases VRM with linear control strategy and a bandwidth of 20 kHz. That means, LnL control strategy decouples the transient response and the bandwidth of the converter.

598    D.U. Campos-Delgado, "Passivity Based Control of Nonlinear DC Motors Configurations and Sensorless Applications ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3379 - 3384 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, an unified framework for the control of all different DC motor configurations is presented. The control structure is based on the passivity property of electrical machines. Thus, separately- excited, parallel and series configurations can be studied following the same control philosophy, and without any simplification. These configurations present different nonlinear dynamics in each armature-field connection, and different number of control voltages. Moreover, each control law can be naturally adapted to work under a sensorless configuration, but assuming that the load torque is measurable. Nevertheless, an observer can be designed using the state information, or just electrical measurements to estimate on-line this variable. simulation and experimental evaluations are presented to corroborate the control derivations.

599    M.M.J. de Vries, M.J. Kransse, M. Liserre, V.G. Monopoli, J.M.A. Scherpen, "Passivity-Based Harmonic Control through Series/Parallel Damping of an H-Bridge Rectifier ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3385 - 3390 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Nowadays the H-bridge is one of the preferred solutions to connect DC loads or distributed sources to the single-phase grid. The control aims are: sinusoidal grid current with unity power factor and optimal DC voltage regulation capability. These objectives should be satisfied, regardless the conditions of the grid, the DC load/source and the converter nonlinearities. In this paper a passivity-based approach is thoroughly investigated proposing a damping-based solution for the error dynamics. Practical experiments with a real converter validate the analysis.

600    A.E. Leon, J.A. Solsona, C. Busada, H. Chiacchiarini, M.I. Valla, "A Novel Feedback/Feedforward Control Strategy for Three-Phase Voltage-Source Converters ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3391 - 3396 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper a novel control strategy for voltage source converters (VSCs) is introduced. The proposed strategy consists of a nonlinear feedback controller based on feedback linearization plus a feedforward compensation of the load current. In our proposal an energy function and a quadrature current are considered as outputs, such that zero dynamics is avoided. In this way, a full linearization is obtained via nonlinear transformation and feedback. In order to improve the performance of the whole system and to diminish the output capacitor size an estimate of the load current is feed forwarded. The estimate is calculated by using a nonlinear reduced order observer. Simulation results are presented in order to validate the proposal. These results include performance in presence of parameters uncertainties and noisy measurements. In addition, a comparison with other controllers introduced by other researchers is carried on.

601    G. Escobar, P.G. Hernandez-Briones, R.E. Torres-Olguin, A.A. Valdez, "A repetitive-based controller for the compensation of 6l ± 1 harmonic components ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3397 - 3402 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a repetitive based controller for the compensation of the 6l plusmn 1 harmonic components is proposed. This control scheme is more appropriate for processes which involve the use of six pulse converters or other converters that produce mainly harmonic components at those frequencies. The control scheme is based on the feedback array of two delay lines plus a feedforward path which compensate for the 6l plusmn1 multiples of the fundamental frequency only, and thereby reducing the possibility of reinjecting unnecessary distortion into the system. A simple digital implementation is provided to illustrate the merits of our solution.

602    D. Noriega-Pineda, G. Espinosa-Perez, "Passivity- based Control of Multilevel Cascade Inverters: High Performance with Reduced Switching Frequency ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3403 - 3408 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper approaches the control problem of (buck-type) multilevel cascade inverters. The main pursued objective is the generation of an output voltage waveform with very low harmonic distortion under reduced switching frequency operation. For developing the proposed controller a pulsewidth modulation (PWM) based design is first considered, in order to obtain a continuous time control law, to later on, using quantization arguments, modify it to achieve the reduced switching frequency. Due to its proved capacity for generating high performance circuit responses, in the high frequency step design a Passivity-based approach is followed while for the low frequency one a hysteresis type scheme is introduced. The usefulness of the scheme is validated via numerical simulations comparing the proposed scheme with a classical PWM based design.

603    X.X. Yin, B.W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S.P. Mickan, D. Abbott, "Terahertz Computed Tomographic Reconstruction and its Wavelet-based Segmentation by Fusion ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3409 - 3414 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, terahertz (T-ray) computed tomographic (CT) imaging [1] and segmentation techniques are investigated. The traditional filtered back projection is applied for the reconstruction of terahertz coherent tomography. A set of linear image fusion and novel wavelet scale correlation segmentation techniques is adopted to achieve material discrimination within a three dimensional (3D) object. The methods are applied to a T-ray CT image dataset taken from a plastic vial containing a plastic tube. This setup simulates the imaging of a simple nested organic structure, which provides an indication of the potential for using T-ray CT imaging to achieve T-ray pulsed signal classification of heterogeneous layers. The wavelet based fusion scheme enjoys the additional benefit that it does not require the calculation of a single threshold and there is only a segmenter parameter to adjust.

604    J. Rosero, J. Cusido, A. Garcia Espinosa, J.A. Ortega, L. Romeral, "Broken Bearings Fault Detection for a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor under non-constant working conditions by means of a Joint Time Frequency Analysis ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3415 - 3419 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This work is an approach to develop new and reliable tools in order to diagnose mechanical faults in PMSM motors under non constant working conditions. These kinds of faults (especially damaged bearings) are more present in the industry. The paper presents a theoretical overview of the different techniques for a joint time frequency analysis and an experimental study of detection and diagnosis of damaged bearings on a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The experiments were performed with variable rotor speed in such a way that the conventional methods such as MCSA do not work well. The stator current is analysed by means of STFT and Gabor spectrogram. Both results are presented and discussed.

605    J. Torres, A. Marcano, D. Andina, "Radar Detection Through Wavelet Transform ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3420 - 3423 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper we intend to unite the wavelet theory with radar detection. To join both theories, we will use the connection between the wideband signal model and the wavelet transform. Once the wavelet transform is applied the echo signal received, we compare the wavelet coefficients of a scale j with a fixed threshold for a defined false alarm probability in that scale. From that comparison, the existence of target will be decided.

606    D. Andina, A. Jevtic, "Improved Multilayer Perceptron Design by Weighted Learning ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3424 - 3429 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper presents new relevant results on the application of the optimization of backpropagation algorithm by a weighting operation on an artificial neural network weights actualization during the learning phase. This modified backpropagation technique has been recently proposed by the author, and it is applied to a multilayer perceptron artificial neural network training in order to drastically improve the efficiency of the given training patterns. The purpose is to modify the mean square error (MSE) objective function in order to improve the training efficiency. We show how the application of the weighting function drastically accelerates training convergence whereas it maintains neural network's (NN) performance.

607    M.J. Alarcon, J.B. Grau, J. Torres, "Application of ELECTRE I Method to Restoration Actions in Telecommunication Network Maintenance ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3430 - 3434 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: Maintenance of a telecommunication network is a complex problem. Equipments and links suffer incidences everyday that have to be solved to assure the customers quality of service. But the resources that a company have to solve its network problems, are limited. It is necessary to take correct decisions about maintenance actions. The success of incidences resolution depends on this. In this work, we study the application of discrete multicriteria decision-making methods [1] to this problem. Specifically, we explain how ELECTRE I method [2] can be used in an effective manner, obtaining practical results.

608    P. Salgado, G. Igrejas, "Learning Strategy for Optimal Fuzzy Control ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3435 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: In this paper, a new scheme of fuzzy optimal control for discrete-time nonlinear systems based on the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle is proposed. Using back propagation from the final co-state error and gradient descent, a method which allows training an adaptive fuzzy inference system to estimate values for the co-state variables converging to the optimal ones is devised. The approach allows finding a solution to the optimal control problem on-line by training the system, rather than by pre computing it. Finally, this optimal approach is applied to nonlinear control benchmark problems. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach towards achievingthe optimal control objective

609    D.T. Pham, M.S. Packianather, E.Y.A. Charles, "A self-organising spiking neural network trained using delay adaptation ," ISIE 2007, pp. 3441 - 3446 , 4-7 June 2007.   Abstract Link    Full Text

Abstract: This paper proposes a self-organising delay adaptation spiking neural network model for clustering control chart patterns. This temporal coding spiking neural network model employs a Hebbian-based rule to shift the connection delays instead of the previous approaches of delay selection. Here the tuned delays compensate the differences in the input firing times of temporal patterns and enables them to coincide. The coincidence detection capability of the spiking neuron has been utilised for pattern detection. The structure of the network is similar to that of a Kohonen's self-organising map (SOM) except that the output layer neurons are coincidence detecting spiking neurons. An input pattern is represented by the neuron that is the first to fire among all the competing spiking neurons. Clusters within the input data are identified with the location of the winning neurons and their firing times. The proposed spiking neural network has been utilised to cluster SPC control chart patterns. The trained network obtained an average clustering accuracy of 96.1% on previously unseen test data. This was achieved with a network of 8times8 spiking neurons trained for 20 epochs containing 1000 training examples. The clustering accuracy of the proposed model was found to be better than that of Kohonen's SOM.